Craig, 2000



Citation


Craig, J.F. (2000) Percid fishes Systematics, Ecology and Exploitation., pp.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Mating system One female and two up to five males, during about 30 mn [described in more details] No category
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Mating system One female and two up to five males, during about 30 mn [described in more details] No category
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Mating system Female and male are monogamous as the female lays all eggs simultaneously No category
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Day and night Ambiguous
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Dawn Dawn
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Parental care There is little if any protection of the eggs No care
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Parental care Little if any protections No care
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Parental care Male stays to protect the eggs and young fry Male parental care
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care No category
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Stones and vegetation Ambiguous
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over a wide variety of substrates including boulders and gravel, aquatic macrophytes, roots of trees, dead branches and other materials Lithophils
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Wide variety of substrates including boulders and gravel, aquatic macrophytes, roots of trees, dead branches and other materials Lithophils
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand or stones Ambiguous
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Males build nests, exposes plants roots on which the eggs are later deposited and where they stick Susbtrate chooser
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 11.6-18.0 is the normal range but could start at 6-8 14.8 °C
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 7-20°C [But optimal temperature at 10-13°C] 13.5 °C
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Possible at 8°C but normally 12°C 8.0 °C
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 2-8 [Male arrive on spawnning grounds earlier than female] 5.0 weeks
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 2-8 [Male arrive on spawnning grounds earlier than female] 5.0 weeks
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 3-4 [i.e. 20-27 days] 3.5 weeks
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Where the current is fairly rapid Flowing or turbulent water
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water velocities of 0.1-0.2 m.s-1 Flowing or turbulent water
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow water with aquatic macrophytes No data
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.5-8 4.25 m
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow waters: normally 0.5-8 m 4.25 m
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.5-1.0 but in lakes 0.5-17 0.75 m
Sander vitreus Female Maximum GSI value 16.3 [May, prior to spawning] 16.3 percent
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, sticking to stones or submerged vegetation Adhesive
Perca fluviatilis Egg Egg adhesiveness Lose adhesive properties within 3 minutes in water Adhesive
Sander lucioperca Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Sander vitreus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Incubation time 8-10 [at 10-15°C] 9.0 days
Sander vitreus Egg Incubation time 11-13 [11-15°C] 12.0 days
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Degree-days for incubation 100-120 [8-10 at 10-15°C] 110.0 °C * day
Sander vitreus Female Resting period 0.7 [July to August] 0.7 months
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Spawning migrations are usually short-ranged [On lalke system this involves movment from deep water, where the fish over-wintered, to shallow water spawning areas] No data
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Movement from the deep water, where the fish have over-wintered, to shallow water spawning areas No data
Perca fluviatilis Egg Egg size after water-hardening 1.9-2.8 [within about 3 min after fertilization, the membrane swells] 2.35 mm
Sander lucioperca Egg Egg size after water-hardening The eggs swell after fertilization due to uptake of water No data
Sander vitreus Egg Egg size after water-hardening The eggs swell after fertilization due to uptake of water No data
Perca fluviatilis Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal [The egg strand is slightly heavier than water] Demersal
Sander lucioperca Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal
Sander vitreus Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Undergoes spawning migrations from winter habitats which are deep areas in river or lakes to shallow areas which are stony and covered with aquatic macrophytes ['February', 'March', 'January']
Perca flavescens Female Oocyte development Group-synchronous development Group-synchronous
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Oocyte diameter Average is 1 1.0 mm
Perca fluviatilis Egg Oocyte diameter 1.0-2.0 [Fertlized egg before water hardening] 1.5 mm
Sander lucioperca Egg Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.5 [Not specfied] 1.25 mm
Gymnocephalus cernuus Female Absolute fecundity 17.8 is the average [13-82] 47.5 thousand eggs
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June']
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning season Depending on latitudes, the spawning period extends from March to late June ['March', 'June']
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning season February until July, usually in April and May ['February', 'April', 'May', 'July']
Gymnocephalus cernuus Larvae Temperature during larval development 25-30 optimal temperature for larval growth 27.5 °C
Perca fluviatilis Larvae Temperature during larval development 16-18 and increasing temperature [Tolerate 3-28] 17.0 °C
Sander lucioperca Larvae Temperature during larval development 14-23 optimum T 18.5 °C
Sander vitreus Larvae Temperature during larval development 14-23 optimum T 18.5 °C
Perca fluviatilis Larvae Reaction to light Positively phototactic Photopositive
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Homing Return to their local location to spawn Present
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Homing Return to their local location to spawn Present
Perca flavescens Larvae Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larvae are cannibalistic on their siblings [Cannibalism by adults also takes place weh nlarvae are > 18 mm] Present
Perca fluviatilis Larvae Sibling intracohort cannibalism One month after hatching, cannibalism occured in the mornings, before food was given Present
Sander lucioperca Larvae Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larvae are cannibalistic on their siblings [Cannibalism by adults also takes place when larvae are > 18 mm] Present
Sander vitreus Larvae Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larvae are cannibalistic on their siblings [Cannibalism by adults also takes place weh nlarvae are > 18 mm] Present
Gymnocephalus cernuus Female Length at sexual maturity 11-12 [Sex not specified] but sometimes 6.5-7.0 11.5 cm
Gymnocephalus cernuus Male Length at sexual maturity 11-12 [Sex not specified] but sometimes 65-70 11.5 cm
Gymnocephalus cernuus Larvae Initial larval size 2.5-3.2 2.85 mm
Perca fluviatilis Larvae Initial larval size 4.07-6.6 5.335 mm
Sander lucioperca Larvae Initial larval size 4.0-5.0 4.5 mm
Sander vitreus Larvae Initial larval size 6.0-8.6 7.3 mm
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning release Intermittent spawners: eggs are laid in two or more batches Ambiguous
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning release Once a year Total
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning release Once a year. All together in a ribbon Total
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning release Once a year Total
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning release Once a year Total
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous