Larvae - Larvae behaviour



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Pelagic Pelagic Spilmann, 1961
Anguilla anguilla Pelagic Pelagic Deelder, 1970
Anguilla anguilla The prolarvae on hatching settled at the bottom of the incubation containers and remained lying with the back down, periodically making spiral movements and rising into the water column. The large fat droplet, broad fin border and head sinus ensured buoyancy of the prolarvae Demersal Prokhorchik, 1987
Anguilla anguilla Pelagic Pelagic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Remains in the gravel Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa After hatching, the young remain in the slow-flowing reaches of the lower parts of rivers, then move into the estuary and eventually into coastal waters and the open sea Demersal Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Remain close to the bottom Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa alosa It has been observed that larvae would grow under the gravel, which could suggest that their photoresponse evolves from a strong positive photoresponse at hatching to negative photoresponse in the course of larval stage. […] larvae were caught near the surface Demersal Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Alosa alosa After hatching, yolk sac larvae swam directly from the jars into the small containers equipped with a net at their outflow to prevent any larval escapement Demersal Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008
Alosa fallax The young fish then drop quickly dowstream in the current to the quieter waters of the upper estuary where they start to feed and grow [Both eggs and larvae are transparent] Demersal Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa sapidissima Newly larvae are pelagic, and most abundant at the surface Pelagic Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Both feeding and yolksac larvae are planktonic [Dispersal therefore occurs by passive transport] Demersal Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Larvae are planktonic for about 4 weeks Demersal Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima Larvae are planktonic and do not metamorphose into juveniles for 4-5 weeks Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Larvae drift downstream until they are capable of swimming freely Demersal Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Cobitis taenia Live on the bottom, at the age of 3-4 days their activity increases Demersal Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia After the onset of negative phototaxis, the free-embryos will accumulate at the darkest point in the surrounding, i.e. the bottom beneath the centre part of the vegetation Demersal Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis taenia Benthic Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Abramis brama Remain fixed to plants until the full resorption of yolk sac Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Abramis brama Remain fixed to plants until the full resorption of yolk sac [TL of 7.6-8.4] Demersal Olivier, 2001
Abramis brama Larvae motionless, attached to vegetation or resting on bottom. Feed only on yolk Demersal Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama The hatched embryos mostly rested in a passive way on the bottom and only some of them hung themselves by their sticky glands onto walls or onto submerged silon threads, under natural conditions, the embryos stuck themselves onto submerged plants Demersal Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama Eleutheroembryos hangs attached to plants or lies on the bottom. Demersal Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis Motile under natural conditions, however, it is carried out by the water current Demersal Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis One day after fertilization, larval bighead haTch and enter the ichthyoplankton drift. Seven days after hatching, bighead carp larvae migrate to shore Demersal Schrank, 1999
Barbus barbus The hatched embryos lie on one side motionless, showing quite isolated, feeble movements. However, they respond to external stimuli (by light or touch) by very rapid movements along the bottom of the tank. They show no tendency towards hiding in shelters or dark places Demersal Penaz, 1973
Barbus barbus After hatching the embryos rested on the bottom of the hatching apparatus, performing only occassional short movements, most frequently when disturbed by handling the apparatus Demersal Krupta, 1988
Carassius auratus Benthic, remain near the spawning area, then near the surface after yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus At hatching, the larva is restricted in the movement by the weight of the yolk sac. The larva shows a positive thigmotropism, adhering to the aquarium walls or any fragments of plants. Demersal Battle, 1940
Carassius auratus During 3 days after hatching yolk-feeding larva is fixed to submerged plants Demersal Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius In nature, the free embryo are passive and often attach themselves to plants, where they stay hiding for the first 1-2 days of the endogenous feeding period Demersal Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius Eggs are deposited on plants to which they remain fixed during endogeneous feeding Demersal Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius The newly hatched larvae are passive: they lie on the bottom of the aquarium, for example. In the second day after hatching they try to swimupwards, towards the light (positive phototaxis) and attach to plants Demersal Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus Benthic, remains in the grounds Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus The starvating larvae show limited mobility already during the terminal phase of resorption of their yolk sac and mostly keep at the bottom of the aquarium, whereras the feeding larvae move throughout the water column and near water surface. During the last two or three days of their life, the fishes were in agony, showing but quite feeble signs of life. Demersal Penaz, 1971
Chondrostoma nasus Although the hatched embryos still spend most of their times lying passively on one side of the bottom of the through, they sometimes rise to the surface and then sink pasively to the bottom again Demersal Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus Benthic larvae Demersal Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma Benthic larvae [The free embryos laid more or less on the bottom of the tank, but from time to time darted horizontally. Then, they fell back to the bottom and rest passively for some time.] Demersal Gozlan, 1999
Ctenopharyngodon idella Pelagic and could derive Pelagic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Ctenopharyngodon idella The pelagic larvae then have a behavior of alternately sinkink and swimming giving them the potential for extensive downstream migration Pelagic Cudmore and Mandrake, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Currents carry the eggs and larvae to the quiet water at the tributary mouth Demersal Brown and Coon, 1991
Ctenopharyngodon idella Eggs and prolarvae drift more than 500 km dowstream in the Amur Demersal Gorbach and Krykhtin, 1988
Ctenopharyngodon idella The pelagic larvae then have a behavior of alternately sinkink and swimming, which allows them to migrate farther downstream. Also: it lies on the bottom and occasionally swim vertically to the surface and drifts back to the bottom Demersal Shireman and Smith, 1983
Cyprinus carpio First fixed on aquatic plants then free Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio At bottom or attached to aquatic vegetation immediatly after hatching, then gradually in shallow water at bottom amon vegetation, occassionally in water column [Newly hatched larvae lay on their sides at the bottom of the aquarium] Demersal Internet, 2005
Cyprinus carpio Remain fixed the first 2-3 days Demersal Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Immedialty after hatching the embryos remain passively on the bottom of the tank, with occasional jerly movements, and someindividuals begin to attach themselves by means of their special adhesive glands Demersal Penaz, 1983
Cyprinus carpio After hatching, carp larvae a cement attach themselves to surface vegetation via cement glands on their head. They remain attached for 4-5 days while yolk is absorbed from a large yolk-sac and undergo organogenesis and other development Demersal Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Prolarvae settle to bottom immediatly after hatching and attach to plants or other objects, fry tend to leave spawning areas about 2 weeks after hatching but remain along shore among vegetation through summer Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Gobio gobio Tend to keep to the bottom. where they rest upright with the spread out of their pectoral fins Demersal Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio Benthic larvae Demersal Mann, 1996
Gobio gobio The hatched embryos mostly lie still on the bottom Demersal Penaz and Prokes, 1978
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Pelagic eggs and larvae are carried more than 500 km from the spawning grounds Pelagic Gorbach and Kryhtin, 1988
Leucaspius delineatus Pelagic, highly active near the surface Pelagic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus Newly-emerged larvae swim actively Demersal Mann, 1996
Leucaspius delineatus The earliest embryos to hatch were onyl able to perform sudden bursts of activity and appeared to be able to swim a few centimetres from the bottom before sinking again. Those embryos that hatched lated, however, were able to perform more sustained swimming that were soon able to swim to the surface Demersal Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leucaspius delineatus A specific prolongation of embryonic development within the membane seems to be a fairly unusual development phenomenon, as a result the hatching larvae is capable of an independent life in water [Others described as: hatched larvae had no cement glands and were so advanced in develoment that were able to commence active life and form soals under the water surface as soon as they left the egg membranes while also described as that sun bleak larvae, as of other cyprinids, first attached themselves to the substraum, and sawm upward, to the surface, to fill the air bladder, only after having resorbed the yolk sac] Demersal Bonislawska, 1999
Leuciscus cephalus Newly hatched larvae stayed mainly motionless at the bottom of the tank, however time to time performed short and sudden jerky anguilliform movements [Schooling behavior for the entire period of larvae and juvenile development] Demersal Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus The embryos are positioned sideways on the bottom of the contained in the immobile condition, and only at times they give violent jerks ahead Demersal Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus idus Larvae have well developped cement glands with which they fix themselves to plants where their development occurs. Active swiimming in horizontal position begins 4 days after hatching. At that time their swim bladder is being filled with air Demersal Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus 24 hours after hatching, fry swim strongly in all directions Demersal Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Leuciscus leuciscus The water current may play an important role at the time of hatching as newly-hatched fry are feeble swimmers and will be swept dowstream off the site until either chance or perhaps a response to some environmental gradient such as temperature, depth or current itself enables them to aggregate in slack marginal areas Demersal Mills, 1981
Phoxinus phoxinus After hatching, the prolarvae disperse on the bottom of the aquarium. They lie on the side completely still, not reacting to light, water fluctuations or sounds. [The hatched embryos are under stones, described in other studies] Demersal Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus From birth they were most active Demersal Frost, 1943
Pimephales promelas Newly hatched fry are translucent Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pseudorasbora parva After hatching the prolarvae swim actively in jerks Demersal Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Rhodeus sericeus Remain in the mussel Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Positively rheotaxic, remains in the mussel Demersal Smith, 2004
Rutilus rutilus Fixed to the aquatic plants or stones by their adhesive gland Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Roach spawned in the middle of May, and on 24 May the yolk sac larvae were observed hanging on plants. Two days later almost all the roach larvae caught had gas in the swim bladder, although the majority still had some yolk left. Most of the orach larvae caught the next day had started feeding. By the last day of May, the mean length of roach larvae was 8.5 mm and the flecxion stage was just beginning with temperature between 12-14°C Demersal Urho, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Stick to aquatic plants with a cement cephalic gland Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Remain fixed on plants until full resorption of the yolk sac Demersal Lafaille, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus The newly larva glues its head to the substrate and remains restive until the yolk sac is completely resorbed Demersal Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
Tinca tinca Larvae remains fixed on plants by a ceplalic cemant, then becoming free Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca Larvae remains fixed on plants until full resorption of the yolk sac [4-6 days] Demersal Feunteun, 2001
Tinca tinca In the first stage - from 12 h to 3 days - larave that attained 4 mm were photophilous, non motile lying at the bottom or hanged on the aquarium wall Demersal San Juan, 1995
Tinca tinca "By means of their adhesive glands, they ""hang"" themselves on the walls of the jars as well on submerged objects, remaining 'hung' in a vertical position psssively througout this step" Demersal Penaz, 1981
Tinca tinca Larvae attach themselves with cement glands to submerged plants on which they spend all the yolk-feeding period. However, in larvae hatched prematurely cement glands are under-developed and larvae fail to attach Demersal Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba Hathing proceeds initially in hiding between stones. Then, after a few days, the hatched fish either swim actively down the river or are swept down by the current to the reservoir Demersal Wajdowicz, 1974
Esox masquinongy Newly hatched young lack the swim-up and vegetation-attachment behavior characteristic of other esocid larvae. Instead they remain quiescent at the bottom, becoming active only after yolk-sac cosumption Demersal Dombeck, 1984
Esox masquinongy May remain dormant in the vegetation for about 10 days or until the yolk is consumed, at which they become active and begin feeding Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy Prolarvae remain among vegetation for about 10 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Esox masquinongy The fry attach themselves to sunken debris as they absorb their egg sacs Demersal Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox masquinongy Five days after the larvae swam up from the bottom Demersal Anonymous, 1982
Esox niger The fry have an adhesive gland on the tip of the nose by witch they attch themselves to the substrate of surface scum Demersal Coffie, 1998
Esox niger Possess a cephalic cement gland, used for attachment to macrophytes during yolk sac absorption Demersal Dombeck, 1984
Esox niger They sink to the bottom where they attch themsleves to vegetation by an adhesive gland on the tip og the snout Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox niger Just-hatched chain pickerel fry attach themselves to plant stems during the absorption of yolk sac Demersal Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox niger Hatchlings sink to bottom and attach to vegetation by adhesive spot on snout and remain until able to begin active feeding (app. 1 week) Demersal Anonymous, 2006
Esox niger Pickerel fry attach to the vegetationby an adhesive gland located on the snout Demersal Wynne, 2006
Esox lucius Prolarvae remain motionless during all the priod of resorption of yolk Demersal Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Remain fixed on aquatic plants until the resorption of the yolk sac Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius Remain fixed on aquatic plants during 8-10 days Demersal NO REFERENCE
Esox lucius Remain fixed for about 10-12 days at 11.5°C Demersal Dorier, 1938
Esox lucius Many were attached to any available surface, usually vertical for 4-6 days, then are free Demersal Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius The fry did not swim about freely, but remained hidden, apparently attached to vegetation for the first week after hatching Demersal Bryan, 1967
Esox lucius Remain motionless, fixed, during about one week Demersal Balvay, 1983
Esox lucius Remain fixed by cemant gland Demersal Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
Esox lucius Remain fixed vertically for about 130 DD, then swin near the surface Demersal Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
Esox lucius They remain inactive, often attached to vegetation by means of adhesive glans on the head, for 6-10 days, and feed on the stored yolk Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius Attached to vegetation, the sac fry remain inactive for 6-10 days until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius Larvae remain atatched to vegetation for 6 to 10 days Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Esox lucius Just after hatching, the young fry remain on the bottom. Then, about few hours, they stich, using their cemand gland, to various objects in the water: plants, … Remain there, motionless Demersal Wurtz, 1944
Esox lucius The fry attached to this substrate using the adhesive organ on the head Demersal Giles, 1986
Esox lucius Pike perch hatched in the middle of May. After using their yolk whille still hanging on plants, pike larvae with some gas in the swim bladder were caught among the vegetation at the same time as the first roach and perch larvae hatched (24 May) Demersal Urho, 1996
Esox lucius Prolarvae remain in attached to vegetation at spawning site for 5-10 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Esox lucius Newly hatched larvae attached to plants remain nonmotile for the first few days of life Demersal Vehniäinen, 2007
Esox lucius Remain attached to vegetation during the first 4-6 days. Thereafter, the larvae are 11-12 mm long, almost all of the yolk sac has been used, and they start to seek food Demersal Lappalainen, 2008
Lota lota Pelagic until 6-7 mm then become benthic Pelagic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lota lota Small pelagic larvae Pelagic Van Houdt, 2003
Lota lota Pelagic, gregarious, steadily remain under the surface of water Pelagic Persat, 2001
Lota lota At hatching, the offspring are at first pelagic, threafter they are found in shallow littoral waters Pelagic Hudd and Kjellman, 2002
Lota lota Buoyant larvae are carried downstream in water currents Demersal Mann, 1996
Lota lota Immediate dispersion after hatching Demersal Urho, 2002
Lota lota Upon hatching larvae are pelagic Pelagic Bradbury, 1999
Lota lota Dispersed earlier at the yolk-stage and ended up in the littoral Demersal Urho, 1996
Lota lota Newly hatched larvae repeatedly swim up and sink, later they sink to the bottom where they remain until final resoprtion of yolk sac. When a major part of the yolk sac is resorbed fish start swimming searching for food. They aggregate in the surface layers of shallow waters, where they fed on phytoplankton and rotifers. Demersal Kujawa, 2002
Gasterosteus aculeatus Newly hatched larvae stay near the bottom Demersal Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Newly hatched larvae stay within the nest, around the nest in schools and then leave Demersal Crivelli, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Upon hatching, young leave the the spawning area but remain close to shore in shallow water Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Gasterosteus aculeatus Because of the heavy yolk the larva lies on its side, occasionally swimming swiftly to settle down again at another spot. Demersal Swarup, 1958
Pungitius pungitius Newly hatched larvae move to the top of the nest and settle to it Demersal Fishbase, 2006
Pungitius pungitius Newly hatched larve move to the top of the nest where they remain relativelt inactive Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Ambloplites rupestris Nine days before leaving the nest Demersal Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris Prolarvae remain in nest 2-3 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris Wrigglers, initially translucent and immobilie with large golden yolk sacs, gradually darkened as they grew and absorbed yolk allowing their developing eyes to become conspicuous. Wrriggler movement gradually increased, the young formaing a churning cloud of free-swimming fry above the substrate just before their synchronous liberation from each nest Demersal Noltie and Keenleyside, 1987
Lepomis gibbosus Remain at the bottom of the nest for as short period and then inhabit dense vegetation and also venture out into open waters Demersal Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus Gregarious Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Newly hatched inhabit nearshore open water areas Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lepomis gibbosus From preliminary field observations, I found that larvae were usually scattered throughout the nest despite some clumping Demersal Shao, 1997
Lepomis gibbosus Fry leave nest soon after hatching Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui Remain in the nest for several days and them swim in dense schools, protected by male for 2-3 weeks Demersal Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Remain in the nest until the resorption of the yolk and then rise off the bottom Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui The larvae became free-swimming 6 days after hatching at a length of approximatively 8.7 millimeters Demersal Meyer, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui After rising from the nest, the young free-swimming bass remained in a dense mass close to the bottom and directly over the nest. Demersal Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Fry gradually disperse from nest when 1-2 weeks old and are then found along edges of vegetation beds Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides Remain in the nest, postlarvae venture to the surface in small schools and eventualy disperse Demersal Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Remain in the nest during 2-3 month, and than leave the nest but stay together during 2-3 months Demersal Spillmann, 1961
Micropterus salmoides Newly hatched larvae remain in the nest, postlarvae venture to the surface in small schools and eventually disperse into shallow weedt waters Demersal Internet, 2005
Micropterus salmoides They remain in the bottom of the nest until the yolk is absorbed, usually 6-7 days, then they rise, begin feeding and schooling Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus salmoides Three of four days after hatching, larvae became free-swimming at approximatively 6.1 millimetres Demersal Meyer, 1970
Micropterus salmoides Larvae remain in nest for 5-10 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Dicentrarchus labrax Planktonic Demersal Fishbase, 2006
Dicentrarchus labrax Larvae are transported into embayments and estuarine nursery habitats Demersal Secor, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax Pelagic Pelagic Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax Eggs and pre-larvae drift passively towards coastal zones Demersal Giffard-Mena,2006
Morone americana White perch larvae are one of the major species in ichthyoplankton in upper Chesapeake Bay during spring months [Larvae are trasnported down-stream after hatching] Demersal Shoji, 2005
Morone americana Newly hatched prolarvae remain in the general spawning area during the first 4 to 13 days [Prolarvae have limited mobility] Demersal Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Both stripped bass and white perch yolksac larvae may have the ability to swim actively toward surface waters during the day Demersal North and Houde, 2001
Morone americana Eggs and larvae were discovered in plankton collections Demersal Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Pelagic Pelagic Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Morone chrysops Sac larvae of the white bass exibited a unique swimming behavior. They swam vertically to near the surface, where they became inactive and dropped, head down, to the bottom of chamber. Upon touching, they sawm actively to the surface again Demersal Siefert, 1974
Morone chrysops Many of its semibuoyant eggs and early-life stage larvae were carried downstream of the actual spawning sites by current Demersal June, 1977
Morone saxatilis Planktonic Demersal Will, 2002
Morone saxatilis Both stripped bass and white perch yolksac larvae may have the ability to swim actively toward surface waters during the day Demersal North and Houde, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus Embryo remains sedentary on the bottom for 3 to 7 days until reaching a size of 4.5-5.0 Demersal Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Remain sedentary for 3-7 days Demersal Crosier, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus Most to the time they stay at the bottom Demersal Kovac, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Immediate dispersion after hatching Demersal Urho, 2002
Gymnocephalus cernuus The larvae easily stayed in the water column and were fully prepapred for independent living in external environment Demersal Bonislawska, 2004
Gymnocephalus cernuus Larval ruffe hatch and become pelagic within 1 to 2 weeks after egg deposition and could possibly be netrained in ballast water duting the pelagic period Pelagic Brown, 1998
Perca flavescens Immediatly active swimmer Demersal Mansueti, 1964
Perca flavescens Inactive for about 5 days Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens The swim-up stage occurs within two to five days after hatching [The fry are slow swimmers and gather in dense schools which makes them vary vulnerable) Pelagic Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens Pelagic [are inactive for about 5 days until the yolk is absorbed] Demersal Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Perca flavescens Soon after hatching the larvae moved into the limnetic zone where they began feeding [This movement is probably a mechanism to escape intense predation in the littoral zone] Demersal Whiteside, 1983
Perca fluviatilis Gregarious Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Larvae are known to move out into the pelagic area and after some time return to shallow-water areas Pelagic Urho, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Pelagic larval stock Pelagic Treasurer, 1983
Sander lucioperca Active Demersal Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
Sander lucioperca Larvae leave the nest immediatly after hatching Demersal Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca Immediate dispersion after hatching Demersal Urho, 2002
Sander lucioperca The larvae live during the first two weeks post hatching near the bottom and then change their habitat from the benthic to the pelagic Demersal Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca Larvae alternate between pelagic and benthic phases Pelagic Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander lucioperca Show alternate phases of upward swimming to the water surface and passive falling to the tank bottom Demersal Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander vitreus Fry are pelagic Pelagic Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Embryos characteistically suspend themselves at the water surface, vertically, with head up and ventral abdominal surface of the yolk and oil near the surface Demersal Krise and Meade, 1986
Sander vitreus The fry are able to swim and feed within one week after hatching Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus As the young walleye began to hatch, they usually swam to the surface of the side-arm tube Demersal Hurley, 1972
Sander vitreus Walleye larvae typically leave the spawning bed immediatly after hatching Demersal Johnston, 1997
Sander vitreus The prolarvae are weak swimmers, so water currents in culture banks should be low, because larvae are quickly exhausted Demersal Summerfelt, 1996
Coregonus albula Immediatly after hatching vendace larvae accumulate in patches near the water surface, but true schools are not formed until somme weeks later Demersal Karjalainen, 1991
Coregonus clupeaformis Tend to remain in the spawning gravel Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Rise to surface soon after hatching Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis Young typically hatch from mid-May to mid-June and remain within the general vicinity of the spawning area Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis After the third week, the larvae swam incessantly in tight formation in a circular motion from feeding station to feeding station. There, they congregated and swarmed around the point of entry of nauplii. Displaced larvae swam rapidly to the opposing feeding station where they strived aggressively to regain and advantageous feeding position. Between feedings the larvae continued swimming in tight schools near the surface. Demersal Drouin, 1986
Coregonus clupeaformis Throughout the trial, larvae in all tanks formed a school only when startled but then soon disassociated Demersal Zitzow and Millard, 1988
Hucho hucho Fry remain on the spawning ground until they reach 40 mm Demersal Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Once the vesicle is reabsorbed, young stays near spawning area feeding on bottom fauna Demersal Fishbase, 2006
Hucho hucho The larvae keep close to the ground, near the spawning place Demersal Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho After hatching they mostly remain motionless at the bottom of the trough, lying sideways on the yolk sac Demersal Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The fry emerge from the gravel at night, mainly in April and May, and immediatly migrate to sea Demersal Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The alevins remain in the gravel until the yolk is absorbed in April or early May (rarely late February) when they struggle up out of the nest and become free swimming)] Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Remain in the gravel until yolk is absorbed, emerge in April-May, mainly mid-April Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Swim-up from fertilization: 805 degree-days [From hatching 805 less 500] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Upon hatching the alevins migrated through the spawces in the base of each basket into the gravel where they remained until 80-90% of their yolk had been absorbed Demersal Macquarrie, 1979
Oncorhynchus keta Remain in the gravel until conditions. During the waiting period they live on the yolk Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta After hatching, the prolarvae stay in the ground for 1-1.5 month Demersal Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Swim-up from fertilization: 960 degree-days [From hatching 960 less 560] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus keta Alevins remain in the gravel until their yolk sacs are completety or almost completely absorbed. Demersal Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus kisutch After hatching, tha alevins move down into the gravel and then hold for several weeks [emergence primarily occur at night] Demersal Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch The alevin remain 2-3 weeks in the gravel, at least until yolk is absorbed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch The young fish, called alevins, remain under the gravel until they are anywhere from two weeks to four months old Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch Remain in the gravel until yolk is absorbed Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus kisutch Swim-up from fertilization: 970 degree-days [From hatching 970 less 420] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus mykiss Fry remain in the gravel for about 2 to 3 weeks after hatching before emerging from the gravel at night Demersal Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Immediate move downward into the gravel [prior to dispersal the alevins exhibt both horizaontal and vertical movements within the gravel] Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss Swim-up from fertilization: 500 degree-days [From hatching 500 less 310] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus nerka Alevins stay in the gravel for varying amounts of time after hatching and then ermge as fry from the gravel at night. Fry migration generally peas before midnight with sometimes a small peak before dawn Demersal Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka Remain in the gravel until some weeks or months after the yolk is absorbed, and emerge in April to June Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka Remain in the gravel Demersal Hendry, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka Emerge from redd in early January-May Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus nerka Swim-up from fertilization: 1000 degree-days [From hatching 1000 less 670] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Newly hatch larvae stay in the gravel 2-3 weeks until the yolk is absorbed, then become free swimming, and remain in the sapwning area or more dowstream Demersal Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Inittially fry hide in the gravel and undr banks during daylight hours, then appear along open shorelines and finally move into higher velocity waters along the shore or farther in the sream Demersal Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The alevins spend 2-3 weeks in the nest while the yolk is absorbed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Following hatching the young fry, called alevin, remain in thegravel for several weeks Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Emerge from gravel a few weeks after hatching Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Swim-up from fertilization: 890 degree-days [From hatching 890 less 420] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Salmo salar Benthic, the alevins hatch in March and April and the fry emergence from the gravel in May or June Demersal Groot, 1996
Salmo salar Remain in the gravel until the resoprtion of the yolk-sac Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo salar Remain in the gravel until the resoprtion of the yolk-sac Demersal Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
Salmo salar The young remain buried in the gravel, absorbing the yolk sac and finally emerging from the gravel in May or June Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar The newly hatched fish, remain buried in the gravel until the yolk sac is fully absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Swim-up from fertilization: 800 degree-days, also from 387-765 [From hatching 800 less 430] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Salmo salar Alevins remain in the gravel for a few weeks until their yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Salmo salar Remain in the gravel for about 1.5 month Demersal Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar Following hatch,alevins remain buried in the river gravel and growth is at the expense of endogenous yolk Demersal Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar Remain in gravel fro 4-6 weeks, emerge in May and June Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario The alevins stay in the gravel until the yolk sac has almost been absorbed Demersal Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Remains in the substrate until the yolk sac completion Demersal Ombredane, 2001
Salmo trutta fario delayed, gradual dispersion after a passive phase Demersal Urho, 2002
Salmo trutta fario Pre-emergent fry remain in the gravel until the yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario From hatch until two-thirds of the yolk sac was resorbed, this time intervalwas deliberately selected because from hatch until two-thirds of the yolk sac has been resorbed, the trout larvae, or -strickly speaking-, eleutherembryo, excessevely weighted by the yolk sac, stays immobile and close to the bottom and performs only slight movement in the water column Demersal Formicki, 2004
Salvelinus alpinus Rest near the bottom Demersal Guillard, 1992
Salvelinus alpinus The newly hatched embryos remain in the gravel of the redd, emerging as young fry (alevins) in about to three months Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Upon hatching remain in the gravel until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Alevins emerge from the redd after absorbing most of their yolk sac and then rest on the substrate outside the redd reabsorbing of the yolk sac before dispersing in the stream or the lake Demersal Mirza, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis When hatched, the larvae or sac fry remain in the gravel within the redd until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Remain in the substrate after hatching before emerging Demersal Snucins, 1992
Salvelinus fontinalis After hatcing, alevins remain in the gravel, deriving nourishment from their yolk sacas until March, when they emerge as new fry Demersal Fraser, 1985
Salvelinus fontinalis Alevins remain in the nest until the yolk sac is absorbed Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Newly hatched sac fry remain in the gravel within the redd for between 30 and 80 days until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Swim-up from fertilization: 675 degree-days, also from 387-618 [From hatching 675 less 415] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Salvelinus fontinalis Emerge from gravel in January-March Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Salvelinus namaycush Fry remain on the spawing shoals about a month or so after hatching while the yolk sac is being absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Upon hatching alevins remain near the bottom in spawning areas for several weeks to three months before moving to deeper water Demersal Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Remain in crevices in susbrate for about 1 month Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Thymallus thymallus Stay in the gravel the first week, then become pelagic Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Prolarvae concentrated in groups at the bottom in the corners on the trough, rarely mouving around Demersal Zaytsev, 1986
Thymallus thymallus Stay in the gravel the first week, until the full absorption of yolk sac Demersal Persat, 2001
Thymallus thymallus At 12-18°C, larvae spend 5-10 days in the gravel Demersal Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus The yolk_sac larvae remain buried until the yolk is exhausted Demersal Haugen and Vollestad, 2000
Thymallus thymallus After emergence from the gravel Demersal Sempeski and Gaudin, 1995b
Thymallus thymallus The larvae spend a further 4-5 days in the gravel susbtrate before emerging and beginning to feed near the water surface Demersal Scott, 1985
Thymallus thymallus The hatched embryos are little mobile and mostly lie on one side of the body. From time to time, the embryo swims up to the water column or even to the water surface, then slowly sinks back to the bottom Demersal Penaz, 1975
Thymallus thymallus Hatching occurs within the gravel, and yolk sac larvae remain within the gravel until the yolk is resorbed. The larvae then emerge from the gravel, fill their swim bladders with air and, for a period, stay in mid-water shoals. After a few days, the take the position closer to the bottom, and the shoals reduce to small groups or single individuals Demersal Gregersen, 2008
Thymallus arcticus First 3-4 day period of sub-gravel residence for hatched larvae Demersal Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus Remain in the gravel during 3-4 days Demersal Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus A post-hatching sub-gravel stage of 3 to 4 days'duration appears to be a normal feature of the life cycle of Arctic grayling in the Fond Lac River Demersal Kratt and Smith, 1977
Cottus gobio When scuba diving I have observed that the larvae remain under a stone in the care of their parent at least until their fins have differentiated Demersal Urho, 2002
Cottus gobio On hatching, larvae become planktonic in the stream eastuary or in lakes and do not take up a bottom-dwelling or benthic life until about 32-35 days after hatching Demersal Wanzenböck, 2000
Cottus gobio The young absorb their yolk sac after which, as fry (9 mm in length) they are ready to disperse Demersal Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
Ameiurus nebulosus Remain in the nest for about one week, stay as a tight mass at the bottom [Possess a very large yolk sac] Demersal Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus The yolk sac is too large to enable them to swim and they lie on their sides in the the nest until about the seventh day Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus Young stay in the nest for about 7 days Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ameiurus nebulosus Larvae remain in the nest up to 12 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Stay at or near the nest for several days then disperse into shallow water Demersal Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus All prelarvae are in contact with one another Demersal Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Ictalurus punctatus Newly hatched fish have large yolks and remain on the bottom for 2-5 days and then swim to the surface adn begin to feed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus Newly hatched larvae fish remain on bottom for 2-5 days then swim to surface and begin to feed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ictalurus punctatus Remain in the nest up to 8 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Remain near the nest for a few days than disperse to shallow water Demersal Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Silurus glanis To start with the yellow and helpless larvae lay at the bottom of the boxes. On the 2nd and 3rd day, as they became greyish, they gathered in the darker corner Demersal Horvath, 1977
Silurus glanis Remains fixed to roots of the nest by a ceplalic cement glands Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis Remain motionless on the bottom, 5-6 days after they swim well Demersal Linhart, 2002
Osmerus eperlanus After hatching, the larvae drift dowstream, where they are concentrated near the surface Demersal Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus Pelagic Pelagic Urho, 2002
Osmerus eperlanus After hatching, the larvae passively drift downstream into the estuary, where they begin to feed on zooplankton Demersal Quigley, 2004