Egg - Temperature for incubation



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Incubated at 21-23°C 22.0 °C Boetius and Boetius, 1980
Anguilla anguilla 20 20.0 °C Pedersen, 2003
Anguilla anguilla 20 20.0 °C Palstra, 2005
Anguilla anguilla 20-21 20.5 °C Pedersen, 2004
Anguilla anguilla Incubated at 23°C 23.0 °C Amin, 1998
Alosa alosa >17 17.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa alosa 18-20 [The hatching is only possible above 18°C] 19.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa >17 17.0 °C Taverny, 2000
Alosa alosa The eggs are sensitive to water temperatures below 16-18°C, so temperatures above 18°C in June and July should be most favourable for incubation 17.0 °C Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Just after fertilization, eggs were collected and incubated in Zoug bottles at 20°C, ± 1°C 20.0 °C Leguen, 2007
Alosa alosa Eggs were collected by means of an egg trap and placed into 8 l McDonal jars for incubation. After a 5 day incubation at 19°C, larvae hatched 8.0 °C Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Alosa alosa Water was thermo-regulated (20 ± 1°C) 20.0 °C Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008
Alosa fallax >17-18 17.5 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax 15-25 [16.5-18 for Mediterranean populations] 20.0 °C Taverny, 2000
Alosa fallax Successfully develop between 15 and 25°C 15.0 °C Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa sapidissima 11-15 13.0 °C Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima 11-15 13.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima 15.5-26.5 [Optimum temperature] 21.0 °C Carscadden and Leggett, 1975
Alosa sapidissima 17 17.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Alosa sapidissima 12 12.0 °C Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima 17 is considered optimal [The survival rate decreases at 24°C] 17.0 °C Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima 13-26 are required for the development and survival of eggs 19.5 °C Rue, 2001
Alosa sapidissima 11-15°C 13.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Filtered Connecticut river water (16.6-19°C during incubation) was supplied to an upwelling jar 17.8 °C Zydlewski and McCormick, 1997
Alosa sapidissima Eggs required temperatures > 13°C. Incubation temperatures was 17°C 13.0 °C Leach and Houde, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Glass aquaria contaning fresh water held at room temperature 20.6°C 20.6 °C Limburg and Ross, 1995
Alosa sapidissima The temperature of water during the egg incubation and larval development was 17-18°C 17.5 °C Laiz-Carrion, 2003
Valencia hispanica 20-24°C 22.0 °C Keith, 2001
Barbatula barbatula 12-16 14.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbatula barbatula Took 14-16 days at 12-16°C 15.0 °C Smyly, 1955
Barbatula barbatula 14-20°C 17.0 °C Sauvonsaari, 1971
Cobitis taenia Eggs were incubated at temperatures between 20 and 25°C 20.0 °C Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia 17-21 19.0 °C Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia 22-25 23.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cobitis taenia Eggs hatch in nature in few weeks, depending upon temperature, while at laboratory temperature (22-25°C) they hatch 42-48 hours after spawning. 23.5 °C Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
Cobitis taenia 15 15.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Cobitis taenia Temeprature was 20-24°C during the experiments 22.0 °C Bohlen, 1999b
Blicca bjoerkna Embryos from female bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) were kept at 10-15°C, and embryos from female wite bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) at 15-17°C, which corresponded to the water temperature at their natural spawning grounds 12.5 °C Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama 16-20 are the optimum temperature [Most eggs perish at a temperature below 6°C, and a temperature up to 25.6°C results in early hatching of undevelopped prelarvae] 18.0 °C Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama 18-20 19.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Abramis brama 20 20.0 °C Kucharczyk, 1998
Abramis brama Optimum: 14-15, varie from 11-23 [At 6: considerable losses, and 28 is lethal] 14.5 °C Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama 12.6-18 for embryonic develoment, 6-26 range in which normal development occurs and < 4 lower lethal T°C and > 32 for upper lethal temperature 15.3 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Abramis brama Incubated at 19-20°C 19.5 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
Abramis brama Reared at a constant temperature of 20°C 20.0 °C Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama Embryos from female bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) were kept at 10-15°C, and embryos from female wite bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) at 15-17°C, which corresponded to the water temperature at their natural spawning grounds 12.5 °C Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama Water temperature corresponding to its value at the natural spawning grounds (13-15°C) 14.0 °C Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
Abramis brama The upper lethal temperature of embryonic development is approximately >32°C in the common bream 32.0 °C Nzau Matondo, 2007
Abramis brama At 20-21°C, which was found as an optimal temperature for bream embryonic development 20.5 °C Kucharczyk, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus Incubated at a mean temperature of 16.43 (range 14.0-19.8) and 19.67°C (range 19.6-21.2) 16.9 °C Penaz, 1976
Alburnus alburnus Incubation at 22.9°C 22.9 °C Baros, 1979
Alburnus alburnus 20-23°C 21.5 °C Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
Alburnus alburnus Viable range 14-31 22.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Aristichthys nobilis 23-25 [But also at lower Temperature: 18-20] 24.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
Aristichthys nobilis At 19-23°C, the fertilization capacity of a considerable number of eggs was preserved slightly longer-up to 30 seconds] 21.0 °C Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Aristichthys nobilis 27-28 27.5 °C Santiago, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis 24.5 [Reared conditions] 24.5 °C Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
Aristichthys nobilis 22-26 24.0 °C Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Aspius aspius 12-16 14.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius In experimental conditions, best results were obtained between 7-17.2°C, and the best at 12.8°C 12.1 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Aspius aspius Viable range 7-17, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 6.8 12.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Aspius aspius Fertilized eggs were incubated at constant temperature of 14°C 14.0 °C Kujawa, 2007
Barbus barbus 17-24 20.5 °C Philippart, 1989
Barbus barbus A temperature below 13.3 is considered lethal 13.3 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus 17 ±2 17.0 °C Calta, 1998
Barbus barbus 23 23.0 °C Vandewalle, 1993
Barbus barbus Incubated at 17.5, considered as optimal for the barbel 17.5 °C Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
Barbus barbus Incubated ar 21°C 21.0 °C Castelli and Philippart, 1993
Barbus barbus Incubated at 16, 18, 19.67, and 20.52°C 16.0 °C Penaz, 1973
Barbus barbus Viable range 16-20.5, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 12.1 18.25 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Barbus barbus The eggs were incubated in PVC incubators 250 ml in volume, based on the principle of the Zuh flask, at constant water temperature of 20.2°C. When the first embryos had hatched the water temperature was decreased to 19.2°C. 20.2 °C Krupta, 1988
Barbus barbus Incubated for six days at a mean temperature of 18.2 ± 0.1°C (108 degree-days), with 85.7% hatching sucess 144 hours after fertilization 18.2 °C Policar, 2007
Carassius auratus 20-27.5 23.75 °C Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus 20°C 20.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius auratus 24-28 [But could be incubated at 15.5-29.5] 26.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Carassius auratus 25 [18.5-29.5°C] 24.0 °C Battle, 1940
Carassius auratus The optimum temperature for rearing eggs and larvae was 22°C [At 27°C and 17°C, there was a higher indidence of abnormal larvae at hatching and reduced viability compared to 22°C in some, but not all, experiments. Eggs incubated at 12°C produced inviable larvae. High proportions of 12°C larvae were abnormal at hatching and fish raised at 12°C failed to feed] 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1988
Carassius auratus Compared with incubation at a constant 22°C, exposure of goldfish embryos and larvae to 13°C, under a variety of thermal protocols, caused increased frequencis of abnormal development and, in some cases, reduced survival to hatching. 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1989
Carassius auratus Similarly, goldfish (Carassius auratus) eggs incubated at 12°C yielded significantly higher frequencies of abnormal larvae than those incubated at highest temperatures 12.0 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
Carassius carassius Develop normaly at 15-28 [Die at 5, 10 and 30°] 21.5 °C Holopainen, 1997
Carassius carassius 24-28, temperature for the shortest embryonic development [Eggs hatched normally at 15-28°C, but died at 5-10, and above 30°C] 26.0 °C Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius 18.5°C 18.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
Carassius carassius Placed in jars kept at room temperature (20-25°C) 22.5 °C Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus 15.9 ± 0.4°C [13-16] 15.9 °C Heckeis, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus 10-17.28°C, temperature tested 13.64 °C Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus 7.2-16.4, mean of 9.2 [Natural conditions] 11.8 °C Prokes and Penaz, 1978
Chondrostoma nasus 13-16 seem to be optimal for egg incubation [Survival was high between 10-19, but slightly depressed at 19°C] 14.5 °C Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus Optimal temperature at 16 16.0 °C Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Low experimental variability occur between 10 and 19°C, below and above these values mortalities increase rapidly 10.0 °C Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus 13-16°C is the optimal temperature for the incubation of eggs 14.5 °C Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus The eggs were incubated until hatching at four temperatures (mean ±SD): 10.07 ±0.28, 13.12 ± 0.3, 15.92 ± 0.58, and 19.26 ±0.51°C 10.07 °C Kamler, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Incubated at 12 and 14.7°C. Water temperature dropping below 8°C resulted in a marked increase in looses 12.0 °C Halacka and Lusk, 1995
Chondrostoma nasus Viable range 8-20, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 8.8 14.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Chondrostoma toxostoma 15-18.5 16.75 °C Gozlan, 1999
Ctenopharyngodon idella 23-25 [But also at lower T: 18-20] 24.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella At 19-23°C, the fertilization capacity of a considerable number of eggs was perserved slightly longer-up to 30 seconds] 21.0 °C Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Ctenopharyngodon idella Between 17 and 26°C in natural conditions 17.0 °C Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Ctenopharyngodon idella Optimal temperature is 21-26°C, with mortality increasing below 20°C 23.5 °C Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella 24.5 [Reared conditions] 24.5 °C Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
Ctenopharyngodon idella Above 20°C, developp normaly [Optimum 21-25°C] 23.0 °C Scott and Cross, 1973
Ctenopharyngodon idella The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Ctenopharyngodon idella The embryonic grass carp appears to be even more sensitive to cool conditions than the goldfish. High rates of deformity and poor survival at temperatures of 18.4°C or less using egg fertilized at 20°C. When fertilization was performed at 24.4°C, 5% survival of normal fry to 72 h occurred with incubation at 23.9°C but the few surviving fry at 20.9°C or less were all deformed. 18.4 °C Wiegand, 1988
Cyprinus carpio 15-22°C give the best results [At 10°C: a high mortality of embryos was observed, and above 25°C. the number of defective hatched individuals indreases] 18.5 °C Linhart, 1995
Cyprinus carpio Optimal 21, range 16-26 21.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Cyprinus carpio 20-22 21.0 °C Witeska, 1995
Cyprinus carpio 20-24 T for embryonic development, 12-30 range in which normal development occurs and 10 and > 33 lower and upper lethal T°C for embryonic development 22.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Cyprinus carpio The optimal temperature is from 20-24°C. In water of 17°C the eggs develop slowly and there is the danger of mould development 22.0 °C Woynarovich, 1962
Cyprinus carpio Incubated at 19°C 19.0 °C Carvalho, 1997
Cyprinus carpio Incubated at 21°C 21.0 °C Linhart, 2000
Cyprinus carpio Eggs of each female were individually incubated in a Weiss glass at 19-20°C 19.5 °C Kamler and Malczewski, 1982
Cyprinus carpio The best hatching rsults were obtained at water temperatures in the range 15-22.5°C. At higher temperatures (from 25°C)the number of defective individuals hatched increases. At a temperature of 10°C all embryos died 18.75 °C Penaz, 1983
Cyprinus carpio Long periods of temperatures of <16°C are detrimental for embryonic development. Carp embryos are more sensitive to low temperatures than larvae. Carp larvae hatched from eggs that had been exposed to 14-17°C had shortened body trunk, curvature of tail and large unresorbed yolk sac 15.5 °C Matlak, 1970
Cyprinus carpio 19°C 19.0 °C Osswald, 2009
Cyprinus carpio The fertilized eggs from each female separately were incubated in Weiss glass in waters at 21-22°C 21.5 °C Brzuska and Bialowas, 2002
Gobio gobio 17-18 17.5 °C Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio 20°C 20.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio Artificially inseminated eggs were incubated on Petri dishes at water temperatures varying between 18.1 and 20.5°C 18.1 °C Penaz and Prokes, 1978
Gobio gobio Fish eggs were incubated at 21 ± 0.3°C 21.0 °C Palikova and Krejci, 2006
Gobio gobio 19-20°C 19.5 °C Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 28-30 29.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 23-25 [But also at lower T: 18-20] 24.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix At 27°C, eggs keep their capacity for fertilization for 20 seconds [At 19-23°C, the fertilization capacity of a considerable number of eggs was preserved slightly longer-up to 30 seconds] 21.0 °C Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Between 17 and 26.5°C in natural conditions 17.0 °C Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The eggs were incubated in Weiss's apparatus under 27-28°C 27.5 °C Burlakov,2006
Leucaspius delineatus 22-24 23.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus From activation to hatching, water temperature ranged between 22.8 and 26.5°C 22.8 °C Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leucaspius delineatus Mean water temperature in the laboratory was 20°C (daily variations ±1°C) 20.0 °C Bonislawska, 1999
Leuciscus cephalus 15 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus 17 ± 1°C 17.0 °C Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus 18 18.0 °C Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Reared at 18°C 18.0 °C Harzevili, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus The whole process of incubation was effected at the constant temperature of water 18°C 18.0 °C Penaz and Sterba, 1969
Leuciscus cephalus At constant temperature of 18°C 18.0 °C Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus cephalus Viable range 16-30 23.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus cephalus The temperature of incubation was 15.8°C 15.8 °C Krejszeff, 2008
Leuciscus idus 18±1°C 18.0 °C Harzevili, 2004
Leuciscus idus 3 rearing conditions [11-13], [15-16, a temperature range considered as optimal for controlled reproduction] and 18-20°C] 12.0 °C Rechulicz, 2001
Leuciscus idus Eggs were incubated at 14-15°C 14.5 °C Kucharczyk, 1999
Leuciscus idus Viable range 6-25, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 5.9 15.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus idus Temperatures < 6 and > 22°C are lethal for developping embryos, optimum temperatures are 13.5-17°C at which survival ranges from 79-84% 15.25 °C Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus 13 13.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Leuciscus leuciscus 11-13 12.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus Mean of 9.7, range 5.6-11.3°C in natural conditions 8.45 °C Mills, 1986
Leuciscus leuciscus 11-14, mean of 12 [Laboratory water temperatures] 12.5 °C Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus 6.75-15 range in which normal development occurs 10.875 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Leuciscus leuciscus 12-13 12.5 °C Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Leuciscus leuciscus Typical spring water temperature is 10°C 10.0 °C Mills, 1981
Leuciscus leuciscus Incubated at a constant 10°C in chalk spring water 10.0 °C Mann and Mills, 1985
Leuciscus leuciscus Viable range 4-17.5, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 5.1 10.75 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Mylopharyngodon piceus The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Phoxinus phoxinus 13-14 13.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus NO INFORMATION No data Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus 18-21°C 19.5 °C Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus 7-18 12.5 °C Soin, 1982
Pimephales promelas 23 23.0 °C Cloud, 1988
Pimephales promelas 25°C 25.0 °C Duffy, 1998
Pimephales promelas 25 25.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pimephales promelas 77°F, i.e. 25°C 25.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Pimephales promelas About 5 days at 61-77°F, i.e. 16-25°C 20.5 °C Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva 15-22 18.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva 23-28 25.5 °C Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Incubated at 20°C 20.0 °C Pinder, 2005
Rhodeus sericeus 20 20.0 °C Aldridge, 1999
Rutilus rutilus 15-20 17.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus 14-15 14.5 °C Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus 10-20 for embryonic development, 7.5-24 range in which normal development occurs, <7 for lower lehtal temperature and >26 for upper lethal temperature 15.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Rutilus rutilus 18°C 18.0 °C Kort, 2004
Rutilus rutilus Optimum temperatures for embryonic development of roach eggs is between 12 and 24°C, while <8 and > 26°C all eggs will die 12.0 °C Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
Rutilus rutilus Spawn incubated above 20°C rendered greater incidence of development abnormalities of larvae, as well as higher mortalities 20.0 °C Horoszewicz, 1971
Rutilus rutilus Most numerous and healthy hatchings were obtained at temperatures ranging within 12 and 24°C 12.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
Rutilus rutilus With lake water to maintain a natural temperature, which was 12-17°C (increasing during the experiment) 14.5 °C Keinänen, 2004
Rutilus rutilus With recirculating water at 17.5°C 17.5 °C Jobling, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Experimental studies have shown that a constant 9°C forms a critical temperature minimum for the development of roach embryos 9.0 °C Härmä, 2008
Rutilus rutilus The water temperature was recorded hourly and controlled at 18°C and 20°C during embryogenesis and breeding, respectively […] The upper lethal temperature of embryonic development is approximately >26°C in the roach 18.0 °C Nzau Matondo, 2007
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 14-15 14.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 19.5-22.5 21.0 °C Breteler, 1979
Scardinius erythrophthalmus < 10 for lower lethal temperature and >30 for upper lethal temperature 10.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Incubated at 19-21 20.0 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
Tinca tinca 25-28 26.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca 18-23 20.5 °C Linhart, 2000
Tinca tinca 19-24 21.5 °C Laurila, 1987
Tinca tinca Normal conditions are 24.1 [All embryos died at 13.8, whereas thet developped at 15.8 till the hatching, but died without delay afterwars. The temperature 29.7°C did not damage the embryos or had no other negative influence. But 31.0 and 31.5°C caused a remarkable increase in mortality of embryos] 24.1 °C Geldhauser, 1995
Tinca tinca 22 22.0 °C Kamler, 1995
Tinca tinca Highest development rate was at 22.9, range 18.3-28.6°C tested 23.45 °C Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca 19-24 for embryonic development, 16.7-30 range in which normal development occurs, 14-15 lower and 33-35 upper lethal T°C for embryonic development 21.5 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Tinca tinca Mean temperature of incubation 19.6°C, best conditions at 20-22°C 21.0 °C Penaz, 1981
Tinca tinca "Normal cleavage of blastodisc occurs at temperatures rangin 16.5-31.2°C. The mean duration of one mitotic cycle was stated within this temperature and graphically analyzed the optimal temperatures were 20-25°C, the ""zero-development' was 14°C" 23.85 °C Penaz, 1989
Tinca tinca Several authors have used Weiss jars or Zug bottles of 2-10 L in volume at different temperatures ranging from 19 to 25°C. Eggs were incubated at 24.5°C 6.0 °C Carral, 2006
Tinca tinca Of 2 cultures incubated at 14.5°C (containing about 300 eggs each) only a few larvas were hatched. In one culture incubated at 15°C only 5 teratogenic larvas were hatched. The highest temperature at which incubation was conducted amounted to 30.2°C. At this temperature the per cent of hatched out larva amounted to 40%. Cultures incubated at temperatures ranging within 21°C-24°C gave a highest per cent of hatched out larvas with a lowest per cent of abnormalities, the asynchronicity of their development was also minimal 2.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
Tinca tinca 21.77 ± 1.6 21.77 °C Gela, 2003
Tinca tinca 20°C 20.0 °C Linhart, 2003b
Vimba vimba 17-22 19.5 °C Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba 12-20 for embryonic development, 10-23 in which normal development occurs and 10-11 lower lethal temperature and >24 upper lethal temperature 16.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Vimba vimba About 16-18°C [When during the incubation time the water temperature fell below 11-12°C, the development of the embryos was distinctly inhibited and those born were not vital] 17.0 °C Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba Eggs incubated at 25 ± 0.5°C 25.0 °C Hliwa, 2003
Vimba vimba Viable range 10-24, threshold temperature at which ontogeny is theoretically arrested: 10.1 17.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Vimba vimba Water flowing through the apparatus had a temperature of 15-16°C, rising at the end of incubation to 17°C 15.5 °C Lusk, 2005
Vimba vimba 20-24°C 22.0 °C Luszczek, 2008
Gambusia affinis 25°C 25.0 °C Koya, 2000
Esox masquinongy 11.7-17.2 14.45 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy 9-13 [Optimum temperature for incubation ranges between 48 and 55°F] 11.0 °C Wynne, 2006
Esox masquinongy Eggs were incubated in 5l McDonald jars at 13-15°C in semi-recirculated system 14.0 °C Rinchard, 2002
Esox masquinongy Water temperature was 12-14°C during incubation 13.0 °C Dabrowski, 2000
Esox niger 10-17.2 13.6 °C Fishbase, 2006
Esox lucius 4-22 but in natural condition it is normally 4-16°C [5°C has negative effects] 13.0 °C Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius 7-15 is the optimum 11.0 °C Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
Esox lucius 6.6-12.5 [Natural conditions] 9.55 °C Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius 3 [Lethal temperature] 3.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius 10 10.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Esox lucius Lethal temperature are 3 and 24°C, optimum hatching are 6.2 to 20.5°C and best results at 9-12°C 10.5 °C Hassler, 1982
Esox lucius Optimal 9, range 4-14 9.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Esox lucius Incubated at 12.9 12.9 °C Bonislawska, 2000
Esox lucius Incubated at 12°C 12.0 °C Wurtz, 1944
Esox lucius Incubated at 15°C [but the lake water temperature was ca. 12°C] 15.0 °C Giles, 1986
Esox lucius With lake water to maintain a natural temperature, which was 6-14°C (increasing during the experiment) 10.0 °C Keinänen, 2004
Esox lucius The fertilized and activated eggs were incubated at 7°C 7.0 °C Winnicki, 2004
Esox lucius At 10°C 10.0 °C Vehniäinen, 2007
Lota lota 5.5 5.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota 0-6.1 3.05 °C Fishbase, 2006
Lota lota 0-2 1.0 °C Hudd and Kjellman, 2002
Lota lota At a mean temperature of incubation of 3.5°C, burbot hatched after 30 days 3 hours. Eggs of burbot can be incubated in Weiss jars at 0.5 to 3.5°C. During the first week of incubation water temperature can not exceed 4-5°C 4.5 °C Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota Embryonic development occurs within a narrow temperature range of 2-6°C 4.0 °C Harzevili, 2004
Gasterosteus aculeatus 8-17 12.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus 18-20 19.0 °C Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus 17 17.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus 19 19.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Gasterosteus aculeatus 14.8-20.0 17.4 °C Poulin and Fitzgerald, 1989
Gasterosteus aculeatus 20°C 20.0 °C Belanger, 1987
Gasterosteus aculeatus Incubated at 19°C 19.0 °C Bohlen, 1999b
Gasterosteus aculeatus Here the embryos were kept until the yolk was completely used up. During the whole of this time the temperature remained between 18° and 19°C. Under this conditions the embryos take 6-8 days to hatch, and about 4 more days to complete absorption of yolk. 7.0 °C Swarup, 1958
Pungitius pungitius 10 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pungitius pungitius 18 18.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Pungitius pungitius 15-20 can be considered the optimum [5° is beyond the lower limit of tolerant zone, 28-30 the upper limit] 17.5 °C Shadrin, 1996
Pungitius pungitius 15 15.0 °C Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
Ambloplites rupestris 20.5-21 20.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ambloplites rupestris 16-22 [Natural conditions] 19.0 °C Gross and Nowell, 1980
Lepomis gibbosus 28 28.0 °C Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus 28 28.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus 19.0-25.0°C 22.0 °C Rue, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Water temperature in the laboratory varied from 21 to 24°C 21.0 °C Shao, 1997
Micropterus dolomieui 12.8-25.6 [Not specified the optimum] 19.2 °C Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Hatching success occurs when temperatures range from 15.5-23.8°C 19.65 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui 20-25°C 22.5 °C Siefert, 1974
Micropterus dolomieui Reared at a constant temperature of 70°F or 21.1 21.1 °C Meyer, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Water temperatures observed in different lakes during incubation: 15.2-18.2, 16.7-20.0, 18.1-21.1 16.7 °C Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui 55-70°F 17.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides A temperature of 12°C is lethal, and lesser hatch occured between 12-15°C, 17-20 in natural conditions 13.5 °C Newburg, 1975
Micropterus salmoides 18-22 (possible between 10-28) 20.0 °C Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides 20-28 [Eggs exposed soon after fertilization rarely produce viable larvae at temperature above 30, best results were obtained at temperature between 26-28] 24.0 °C McCormick and Wegner, 1981
Micropterus salmoides 18.4-19.6°C 19.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Incubated at 70°F, or 21°C 21.0 °C Meyer, 1970
Micropterus salmoides Nest temperature at time of collection was 70°F, or 21°C [Incubated then between 50 and 85°F, In all four nests hatching sucess of nonacclimated eggs was consistently high at constant temperatures between 55° and 75°F, generally lower at 50° and 80°, and lowest at 85°F] 21.0 °C Kelley, 1968
Micropterus salmoides The water in the pond registered a temperature of 58°F, or 14.5°C 14.5 °C Jurgens and Brown, 1954
Micropterus salmoides Test temperatures were 20 and 23°C within the optimum range and near the higher limit for incubation 20.0 °C Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Micropterus salmoides Water temperature in the test media was checked periodically and varied between 70° and 72°F, i.e. 21-22°C 21.5 °C Tebo and McCoy, 1964
Dicentrarchus labrax 13-17 15.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Dicentrarchus labrax 13.3 ± 1.7 13.3 °C Saillant, 2001
Dicentrarchus labrax At 15 or 17°C 15.0 °C Saka, 2001
Dicentrarchus labrax 16°C 16.0 °C Katavic, 1989
Dicentrarchus labrax 15 ± 0.5°C 15.0 °C Cerda, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax 15°C and 19°C [High temperature during early stages favours the devleopment of anomalies due to its acceleration in development rate] 15.0 °C Abdel, 2004
Dicentrarchus labrax Eggs collected at 9.5-16.5°C, mostly 13-15°C 13.0 °C Dechauvelle and Coves, 1988
Dicentrarchus labrax Eggs were incubated at 16 ± 0.3°C 16.0 °C Johnson and Katavic, 1986
Dicentrarchus labrax Rearing temperature 15°C 15.0 °C Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax Incubated at 15°C 15.0 °C Fornies, 2001
Dicentrarchus labrax Nowadays,the application of a low temperature (15°C vs 20°C) during the embryonic, yolk-sac larval and/or larval phase in Mediterranean hatcheries has been proven to be efficient not only in decreasing the ratio of female sea bass and the growth potential of reared populations,but also in decreasing the occurrence of hemal lordosis that develops during the subsequent juvenile phase. 15.0 °C Georgakopoulou, 2007
Dicentrarchus labrax Hatching occurs in fullsea water (34°/oo) at a temperature of 15°C 15.0 °C Giffard-Mena,2006
Morone americana 15 15.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone americana 15-20 [Lethal temperature below 7°C, and extensive mortality at 10°C] 17.5 °C Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Optimal temperature for hatch was 14.1°C and for larva length 17.6°C [Eggs incubated at 8°C did not hatch within 8 days, early embryo development appeared to be normal although slower than at 10 and 12°C. Eggs icubated at higher temperatures (20-26°c) developed rapidly ar first, but most died at the early gastrula to early-embryo stage] 23.0 °C Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
Morone americana Optimal temperatures: 14.1°C for survival at hatch and 17.6°C for larval body length at hatch 14.1 °C Kamler and Kato, 1983
Morone chrysops 14-26 20.0 °C Internet, 2005
Morone chrysops 15.6 15.6 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone chrysops 15.6 15.6 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Morone chrysops Incubated at 16°C and 19°C 16.0 °C Siefert, 1974
Morone chrysops Incubated at 19°C 19.0 °C Smith, 1996
Morone saxatilis 14-15.6 or 17.8-19.4 14.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone saxatilis 17-18 17.5 °C Internet, 2005
Morone saxatilis Temperatures <12°C are considered lethal to eggs 12.0 °C Rue, 2001
Morone saxatilis 16.7-17.9°C 17.3 °C Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Morone saxatilis Incubated at 14-16°C 15.0 °C Rogers and Westin, 1981
Morone saxatilis Rapid drops in temperature to below 12°C are lethal to striped bass eggs and larvae 12.0 °C Rutherford and Houde, 1994
Morone saxatilis 21-22 21.5 °C Woods III, 1992
Morone saxatilis Optimal calculated temperatures were 18.2°C 18.2 °C Kamler and Kato, 1983
Morone saxatilis Water temperature was adjusted to 19 +/- 0.5°C 19.0 °C Monteleone and Houde, 1990
Morone saxatilis Water temperature for all tests were set at 19°C 19.0 °C Harrell, 2002
Gymnocephalus cernuus "15 is the optima temperature for ""early development"" [Lower TL50 = 10, Upper TL50 = 21.5]" 15.0 °C Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 12-13 12.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus 10-15 12.5 °C Crosier, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus Optimal 15, range 9-21 15.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Gymnocephalus cernuus Optimal range is 16-18°C [Temperature tested in other studies from 6 to 22°C] 17.0 °C Bonislawska, 2004
Gymnocephalus cernuus 16°C 16.0 °C Brown, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Two incubation temperature at 12 ±0.2°C and 14 ± 2°C 12.0 °C Vetemaa and Saat, 1996
Gymnocephalus cernuus The dishes were kept under the same conditions under natural photoperiod at 16°C 16.0 °C Albert, 2006
Perca flavescens 10-20 [Considered to be the optimal temperature] 15.0 °C Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens 7.8-16.1 is the optimum [Can tolerate 7.7-22.8] 11.95 °C Goubier, 1990
Perca flavescens 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Perca flavescens 12 is the optimal temperature 12.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens The incubation temperature was 11°C, until 4 day at which time the temeprature was slowly increased to 15°C 11.0 °C Jentoft, 2002
Perca flavescens Beakers were arranged in a water bath at 10 ± 1°C and individually aerated 10.0 °C Peters, 2007
Perca fluviatilis 13 13.0 °C Dalimier and Voss, 1982
Perca fluviatilis 12-20 lead to highest survival 16.0 °C Wang and Eckmann, 1994
Perca fluviatilis 7.8-16.1 11.95 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Below 6°C and above 25°C no hatching ! 6.0 °C Dalimier, 1982
Perca fluviatilis 9-18 in natural conditions but optimal is 10-16°C 13.5 °C Guma'a, 1978
Perca fluviatilis 9-10 in natural conditions in Scotland 9.5 °C Treasurer, 1983
Perca fluviatilis The range of temperature for successful perch embryo developpment is 8-18°C with an optimum of 13°C 13.0 °C Sandström, 1997
Perca fluviatilis 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Perca fluviatilis 10-18 14.0 °C Dubois, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Optimal 13, range 8-18 [The lower lethal is 6, and the upper 22-24°C] 13.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Incubated at 14 [The best and longest larvae originate from eggs incubated in 12-16°C] 14.0 °C Korzelecka, 1998
Perca fluviatilis The incubation temperature was 11.1°C until the time of 50% hatching (day 19) 11.1 °C Jentoft, 2006
Perca fluviatilis The egg ribbons were incubated over 6 to 7 days at 15°C till the eye-pigmentation stage of embryonic development. The eggs were then transferred into the larval rearing facilities at 20°C to 23°C after a two-hours period of thermal acclimation 6.0 °C Mélard, 1996
Sander lucioperca 12-16 is the optimum [At 20, the number of normal hatched larvae decreased, Incubation temperature must stay below 20°C to avoid deformities] 14.0 °C Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca 12-16 [Optimum temperature] 14.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Sander lucioperca Possible between 6.3-21.0 13.65 °C Kokurewicz, 1969
Sander lucioperca 12-15 13.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
Sander lucioperca 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander lucioperca 12-24 18.0 °C Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
Sander lucioperca 12-18 is optimal [10°C result in serious losses, and above 26°C develop abnormally] 15.0 °C Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca 14-16 15.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander lucioperca 14 14.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
Sander lucioperca Incubation temperature must stay below 20°C to avoid deformities 20.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander lucioperca The eggs were incubated in Weiss jars at 17 +/- 1.0°C until hatching 17.0 °C Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
Sander lucioperca At 18.5 ± 1°C 18.5 °C Wang, 2009
Sander lucioperca The mean, daily water temperature during incubation ranged from 16.0 to 16.6°C 16.0 °C Demsla-Zakes, 2005
Sander vitreus From less than 6°C to 19.2°C, optimum is 9-15°C [Walleye has the lowest temperature tolerance for embryos of all percids] 12.0 °C Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus In our laboratory we normally incubate walleye eggs under a gradually increasing water temperature regime of approximatively 0.5°C per day from 10 to 15°C 0.5 °C Malison and Held, 1996a
Sander vitreus 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander vitreus Incubated at 18.5 18.5 °C Johnston and Mathias, 1994
Sander vitreus 5.5-13.9 [Mean temperature range from 42 to 57°F during the whole incubation] 9.7 °C Hurley, 1972
Sander vitreus 12-13°C 12.5 °C Oseid and Smith, 1971
Sander vitreus Water temperature was maintained at 12°C (±0.5°C) throughout the incubation period. This temperature is in the middle of the optimum range for walleye egg incubation 12.0 °C Johnston, 1997
Sander vitreus The greatest overall mean percentage hatch was at incubation temperature of 9-15°C and the lowest at 21°C. There was no significant difference found in the percentage hatch between the incubation temperatures of 9-15°C 12.0 °C Koenst and Smith, 1976
Sander vitreus Incubated in seperate chambers at 12°C 12.0 °C Johnston, 2007
Sander vitreus The incubation room was held at 9°C during the fertilization trials and early incubation period (up to 10 hours after the final fertilization) then gradually increased to 12°C over the next 7 days 9.0 °C Johnston, 2008
Coregonus lavaretus "Optimum range is 3-7 [Can be incubated successfully at 1°C (""cold breeding""), but such eggs have to be trasnfered to 5-10°C before hatching, Upper lethal incubation is 10°C]" 5.0 °C Rösch, 1995
Coregonus lavaretus 7 7.0 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1991
Coregonus lavaretus Starts at 7-8°C then 2-3°C 7.5 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus 0.4-5.2 2.8 °C Piironen, 1987
Coregonus lavaretus 9.5-10 [Precocious hatching] and 1.5 [Delayed hatching] 9.75 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
Coregonus lavaretus 1.2-3.3 [Temperature of incubation in natural conditions] 2.25 °C Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus lavaretus Optimal 6, range 4-8 6.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Coregonus lavaretus Optimum temperature of 6°C or less 6.0 °C Coad, 2006
Coregonus lavaretus 4-6 [Total mortality occured at 10°C, and a very high mortality prior to, and during hatching in those at about 8°C] 5.0 °C Bagenal, 1970
Coregonus lavaretus Incubated at 5°C 5.0 °C Keinänen, 2003
Coregonus lavaretus Incubated at a constant temperature of 9°C 9.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
Coregonus lavaretus "Incubated at 5-7°C until the ""eyed stage"", then they were gradually transferred to 10°C" 6.0 °C Champigneulle, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus Hatching occured at about 8°C 8.0 °C Segner, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus Eggs were incuabted in Zoug bottles with untreated lake water at 5-8°C which is a temperature close to natural conditions for incubation 6.5 °C Champigneulle and Rojas-Beltran, 1990
Coregonus lavaretus Best temperatures: 1.5-4, range 0.1-8 2.75 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
Coregonus lavaretus Incubated at 6-8°C 7.0 °C Rojas Beltran, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Hatching was accelerated by increasing the water temperature to 2.0°C on 25 February and 5-6°C on 28 March 5.5 °C Koskela and Eskelinen, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Water temperature was 4°C in November-December, and then it increased gradually up to 6°C in late March-April. These temepratures are in the range of optimal temperatures for C. lavaretus embryos. 4.0 °C Albert, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus The eggs of coregonids are adpated to development under extremely low values of water temperature (0.1-0.5°C) and even when embebded in the ice 0.3 °C Chernyaev, 2007
Coregonus lavaretus The aquaria were supplied with filtered lake water. Water temperature increased gradually from 7°C in February to 19.5°C in June 1986 7.0 °C Dlugosz and Demska-Zakes, 1989
Coregonus albula "3-8 [Upper lethal incubation is 10°C, can be incubated successfully at 1°C (""cold breeding""), but such eggs have to be trasnfered to 5-10°C before hatching]" 5.5 °C Rösch, 1995
Coregonus albula 4-7.2 5.6 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Coregonus albula 4.9°C, with a range of 2.9-8.4°C [Highest survival was observed at 4.9°C, gradually decreasing at lower and higher temperature] 5.65 °C Luczynski and Kirklewska, 1984
Coregonus albula 7 7.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Coregonus albula 9.5-10 [Precocious hatching] and 1.5 [Delayed hatching] 9.75 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
Coregonus albula 1.2-3.3 [Temperature of incubation in natural conditions] 2.25 °C Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus albula 4-8 6.0 °C Czerkies, 2002
Coregonus albula 2-4 in natural conditions 3.0 °C Karjalainen, 1991
Coregonus albula Incubated at a constant temperature of 9°C 9.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
Coregonus albula Incubated at a constant temperature of 12°C 12.0 °C Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula The optimum temperatures for successful incubation range between 4.0 to 7.2°C 4.0 °C Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula Placed into incubation jars supplied with water of different constant temperatures from 0.7-4.1°C. When hatcing in the laboratory reached 10%, the incubation temperature in all jars was raised to 6°C 2.4 °C Viljanen and Koho, 1991
Coregonus albula Eggs were incubated in Petri dishes at 2-6°C 4.0 °C Kamler, 1982
Coregonus albula Eggs were incubated at 4°C until day 50, then temperature was gradually increased to 10°C (5°C until day 59, 6°C until day 79, 7°C until day 80, 8°C until day 99, 9°C until day 107) 4.0 °C Duis and Oberam, 2000
Coregonus clupeaformis "3-8 [Upper lethal incubation is 10°C, can be incubated successfully at 1°C (""cold breeding""), but such eggs have to be trasnfered to 5-10°C before hatching]" 5.5 °C Rösch, 1995
Coregonus clupeaformis 3.2-8.1 5.65 °C Luczynski and Kirklewska, 1984
Coregonus clupeaformis 2.0-2.2 2.1 °C Harris and Huslman, 2001
Coregonus clupeaformis 3.2-8 is the optimum range [The increased abnormalities at incubation temperatures of 0.5, 2.0 and 10.0] 5.6 °C Brooke, 1975
Coregonus clupeaformis 6.5-9 7.75 °C Rinchard, 2001
Coregonus clupeaformis Normal development occurs over a temperature range of 0.5-6.1, with the optimum close to 0.5 [Eggs incubated at 10°C, suffer 99% mortality] 3.3 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Coregonus clupeaformis Optimal temperature is 0.5-1.0°C [Variation tolerate 0.5-6.0] 0.75 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis 4-8 6.0 °C Czerkies, 2002
Coregonus clupeaformis 3.4 ± 0.05 3.4 °C Davis and Todd, 1998
Coregonus clupeaformis About 43°F, 6.1°C 6.1 °C Goodyear, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis 5-12.5°C 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Coregonus clupeaformis 0.6-6.1 is the optimal temperature 3.35 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Coregonus clupeaformis 1-8°C 4.5 °C Bradbury, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Mass hatching survival averaged 97.6% for average incubation temperatures ranging from 1.7°C to 6.4°C 4.0 °C Drouin, 1986
Coregonus clupeaformis Incubated at an average temperature of 3.4°C (± 0.3°C) 3.4 °C Brown and Taylor, 1992
Coregonus clupeaformis The best temperature seem to be 4°C 4.0 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
Hucho hucho 5-12 8.5 °C Barton, 1996
Hucho hucho 6-12 best results, mortality is total above 16°C 9.0 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
Hucho hucho 4.8-15.5 [Natural conditions], optimal temperaure 10-12°C 10.15 °C Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho 8-10 9.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Hucho hucho 5.0-13 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<1.5 and >15.5°C, lethal lower and upper limit] 9.0 °C Crisp, 1996
Hucho hucho Optimum temperature was about 8°C [The lower limit for hatching ca 3°C and the upper limit was between ca. 16 and 20°C] 8.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
Hucho hucho 7°C 7.0 °C Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho 12°C 12.0 °C Jungwirth, 1978
Hucho hucho The temperature during the 32-day incubation period fluctuated in the range 4.8-15.5°C 10.15 °C Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 7-10°C [Deformities occur when eggs are incubated at low temperatures : 3-4.5°C 8.5 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 8-10.5 9.25 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 8°C is the optimum with n = 6543 [Poorest egg survival in all stocks occured at 4°C and 12°C] 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Could tolerate a temperature of 0.5 if previously incubated at 5.5°C [Both chinook and pink salmon eggs could tolerate temperatures as low as 33°F for long periods if the intial incubating temperature had been above 42°F]] 0.5 °C Combs, 1965
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The embryos were incubated at 15°C for 10 days until epiloby was complete, then the temperature was lowered 0.5°C every 2 days until a 9°C incubation temperature was obtained, and the embryos were maintained at 9°C until hatching 15.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Incubated at different temperature from 2.9 to 9.6 2.9 °C Murray and Beacham, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Incubated at 12 ± 0.5 12.0 °C Macquarrie, 1979
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Incubated at 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15, yet 15°C is considered to be the upper limit for Great Lakes pink salmon egg incubation [embryos of sea-run pink salmon can tolerate near-zero temperatures provided early development has occured within the preferred temperature range from 7 to 10°C] 7.0 °C Kwain, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 82% [At 3.0°C], 11.5% [At 6.5°C], 2.3% [At 11°C], 70.5% [At 16°C] 11.0 °C Velsen,1987
Oncorhynchus keta >4.5 4.5 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Mortality increases significantly when temperatures are lower than 1.5°C during early development 1.5 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Groundwater has a temperature of 4-5°C and varies little over the course of the year, whereas the subsurface river water is warmer in the summer (9-10°C) and colder in the winter (0.2-0.3C) than the groundwater 4.5 °C Leman, 1993
Oncorhynchus keta 1-4 2.5 °C Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1980
Oncorhynchus keta Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
Oncorhynchus keta Tested from 0-15°C 7.5 °C Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Highest embryo survival rates for most stocks were recorded at an incubation temperature of 8°C, while the lowest were at 2°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus keta Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 10.5% [At 3.0°C], 3.2% [At 6°C], 1.8% [At 10°C], 14.5% [At 16°C] 10.0 °C Velsen,1987
Oncorhynchus kisutch 4.4-13.3 8.85 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch 4-11 [Optimal temperature] 7.5 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch 4.0-6.6 [in natural conditions, rarely below 4°] 5.3 °C Zorbidi, 1988
Oncorhynchus kisutch 8.9-10.7 9.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch The highest survival were recorded at 4 or 5°C, and were usually over 58% at 2, 4, 5 and 8°C [Complete mortality was recorded at 14 and 15°C] 4.0 °C Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus kisutch 32-36°F, i.e. 0-2.2 °C 1.1 °C Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus kisutch 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1980
Oncorhynchus kisutch Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 4°C 4.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
Oncorhynchus kisutch Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 13.8% [At 3.0°C], 17.5% [At 6°C], 7.5% [At 10°C], 100% [At 17°C] 10.0 °C Velsen,1987
Oncorhynchus kisutch Embryo survival at hatching following incubation at 1.3-1.4°C usually does not differ significantly from the optimum at 4-8°C 1.35 °C Babiak and Dabrowski, 2003
Oncorhynchus mykiss 7-12 [3.9-9.4] 9.5 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss 7-12 = optimal temperature [Regimes of rising temperatures] 9.5 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Low water temperature (<13°C) is considered for good quality 13.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss Optimal 6, range 3-9 6.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Optimum is about 10°C [21.0°C is the upper lethal temperature for embryo development] 10.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss 7°C 7.0 °C Wojtczak, 2004
Oncorhynchus mykiss 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Oncorhynchus mykiss Water temperature tested were 14 ± 0.5 and 10 ± 0.5°C 14.0 °C Nagler, 2000
Oncorhynchus mykiss Optimum temperature was between >7 and 11°C [The lower limit for hatching ca 3°C and the upper limit was between ca. 16 and 20°C] 7.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
Oncorhynchus mykiss There were no significant differences in eyeing or to swim-up among the four strains at an incubation temperature of 7 or 4°C. However, at 2°C there was significantly lower survival among all four strains 7.0 °C Stonecypher, 1994
Oncorhynchus mykiss Incubate at 10°C 10.0 °C Springate nad Bromage, 1985
Oncorhynchus mykiss Water temperature was not controlled and rose gradually between 5 and 10°C 5.0 °C Craik and Harvey, 1984
Oncorhynchus mykiss Incubation temperature set at 10°C 10.0 °C Billard and Gillet, 1975
Oncorhynchus mykiss 9 ±0.1°C 9.0 °C Kato and Kamler, 1983
Oncorhynchus mykiss Cultured in cages in flowing water at four temperatures: 9±0.1°C (natural temperature of spring water feeding this hatchery), 10, 12 and 14°C 9.0 °C Kamler and Kato, 1983
Oncorhynchus mykiss Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 18% [At 3.0°C], 4.0% [At 6°C], 22% [At 10°C], 93.0% [At 16°C] 6.0 °C Velsen,1987
Oncorhynchus mykiss Eggs of each female were incubated at a constant water temperature of 10°C in compartmentalized verticalflow incubation traysand kept seperated from other batches of eggs 10.0 °C Contreras-Snachez, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss Water tem perature was maintained at 12.2 +/- 0.1°C over the duration of the study 12.2 °C Brauner and Wood, 2002
Oncorhynchus mykiss All variants were incubated in duplicate in small baskets placed in a vertical incubator with flow-through water at 9-14°C 11.5 °C Babiak and Dabrowski, 2003
Oncorhynchus mykiss Water temperature in incubators was maintained at 11.5°C, range ± 1.5°C 11.5 °C Lizardo-Daudt and Kennedy, 2008
Oncorhynchus mykiss Recirculated fresh water at 12 ± 1°C 12.0 °C Gibb, 2007
Oncorhynchus mykiss The constant water temperature of 10 ± 1°C was maintained 10.0 °C Perkowski and Formicki, 1997
Oncorhynchus mykiss 10°C 10.0 °C Ninness, 2006
Oncorhynchus nerka 7-12 9.5 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka 6-10 [Range with egg mortality minimal, high mortality if water above 14°C or near 0°C] 8.0 °C Markevich and Bilenskaya, 1992
Oncorhynchus nerka 4-13 8.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka 6.0-6.8 in the wild, and 5-12.5 in reared conditions, even if survival was higher at 5-9 than at 12°C 6.4 °C Hendry, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka 2.5-3.5°C in the ground at the level of the lower horizon of a redd and 5-7°C in the upper layer of a redd 3.0 °C Parensky, 2002
Oncorhynchus nerka 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Oncorhynchus nerka Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
Oncorhynchus nerka Lower limit: 4.4-5.8°C and upper limit 12.7-14.1°C [The lower temperature for the normal devlopment was established between 40 and 42.5°F. The upper threshold temperature occured between 55 and 57.5°F] 5.1 °C Combs, 1965
Oncorhynchus nerka Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 37.3% [At 3.0°C], 28.0% [At 6°C], 18.6% [At 10°C], 83.0% [At 16.9°C] 10.0 °C Velsen,1987
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 4.4-9.4 and 5.8-14.2 6.9 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 5.8-14.2 [lower temprature is 0.6°C and lower] 10.0 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Survive best at temperature less than 14 14.0 °C Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 8-9 [Natural conditions] 8.5 °C Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 2-9 [Survival begins to decline when the temperatures go above 10°C, the upper tolearance limit for egg and larvae is somewhere between 412 and 15°C] 5.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 4°C 4.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Incubated at ambient temperature at 12.4°C and chilled water at 5.9°C 12.4 °C Kinnison, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Mean of 11.1°C, vary between 5.8-14.2 [A daily mean of 52°F was suitable for incubation, and that excessive mortality occured if the daily mean exceeded 60°F. Also found the range of incubating temperatures was between 42.5 and 57.5°F] 10.0 °C Allbaugh and Manz, 1964
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Could tolerate a temperature of 0.5 if previously incubated at 5.5°C [Both chinook and pink salmon eggs could tolerate temperatures as low as 33°F for long periods if the intial incubating temperature had been above 42°F]] 0.5 °C Combs, 1965
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Mean water temperature during the incubation period were 6, 8, 10 and 12 6.0 °C Heming, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Lower and upper lethal temperatures for chinook salmon eggs, those associated with 50% mortality from fertilization to 50% hatch, are about 2.5-3.0°C and 16.0°C 2.75 °C Alderdice and Velsen, 1978
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha [High constant incubating temperatures established tha range between 57.5 and 60°F as the upper temperature threshold. Incubation at 35°F, resulted in complete mortality, thereby establishing this temperature as a lower limit for future trials. Other experiments, established the range 10 and 42.5°C as the lower threshold] 15.0 °C Combs and Burrows, 1957
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 52.6% [At 3.0°C], 7.1% [At 6°C], 9.3% [At 10°C], 99.0% [At 18.1°C] 10.0 °C Velsen,1987
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Mean artificial egg pocket temperatures in the upper reach ranged from 6.1-6.7°C 6.4 °C Hanrahan, 2007
Salmo salar Eggs incubate in the gravel during the winter No data Groot, 1996
Salmo salar 5-8 [10 is the highest incubation temperature, mortality was significantly greater at 12°C] 6.5 °C Gunnes, 1979
Salmo salar 9-11°C Natural conditions 10.0 °C Dumas and Darolles, 1999
Salmo salar Optimal 5 5.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Salmo salar 3.9 3.9 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar In natural conditions, mean of 0.65 and a range of 4.0 to 0.1°C 0.65 °C Heggberget and Wallace, 1984
Salmo salar 0-12.0 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<0 and >12, lethal lower and upper limit] 6.0 °C Crisp, 1996
Salmo salar Survive best at 10°C 10.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Incubation temperatures tested from 4 to 22°C and the upper thermal limit at about 16°C for advanced eggs 4.0 °C Ojanguren, 1999
Salmo salar 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Salmo salar 5.2-11.7°C in natural conditions 8.45 °C Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
Salmo salar The peak of hatching was estimated to take place between April and 10 June in the ten rivers studied, at a water temperature of 4.56.8°C 10.0 °C Jensen, 1991
Salmo salar The eggs were kept at or below 6°C which is the optimal temperature 6.0 °C Brännäs, 1988
Salmo salar At about 7°C 7.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar For the heated-water groups, temperatures during egg incubation and yolk-sac resoprtion averaged 7.9 and 8.3°C, respectively, compared with 4.3 and 5.3°C in the ambient-temperature reared groups over the equivalent periods 7.9 °C Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar The eggs of each female were fertilized by a different male (i.e. six full-sib families), and were then reared in hatchery supplied with well-water (3.0-5.0°C) 4.0 °C Berg, 2001
Salmo salar Au cours de la période de développement embryonnaire, du 19 décembre au 6 mars, les moyennes des températures sont de 9.9°C (écrat-type = 1.4°C) dans la Nivelle et de 10.5°C (écart-type = 1.1°C) dans le Lapitxuri. Les moyennes journalières flcutuent de 5.6°C le 28 février à 12.9°C le 6 mars 19.0 °C Dumas, 2007
Salmo trutta fario 2-13 7.5 °C Barton, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Total losses occur at temperature as low as 12-13°C 12.5 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
Salmo trutta fario Optimal 6.5, range 3-10 6.5 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Decrease from 7 to 4°C 7.0 °C Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
Salmo trutta fario 1.4-11.0 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<1.4 and >15.5, lethal lower and upper limit] 6.2 °C Crisp, 1996
Salmo trutta fario 10.6, also up to 13.9 10.6 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Survival was maximal at 8 and 10°C and decreased at higher and lower temperatures [No embryo hatched at 16 and 18°C, which suggests an upper thermal limit for development between 14 and 16°C] 8.0 °C Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
Salmo trutta fario 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Salmo trutta fario 9.8 ±1.1°C [Range 7-13, in reared conditions], maintained in darkness 9.8 °C Ojanguren, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Incubation temperature was 8.3 ± 1.1°C 8.3 °C Olsen and Vollestad, 2001
Salmo trutta fario The water temperature was maintained constant at 4°C during the experiment 4.0 °C Landergren and Vallin, 1998
Salmo trutta fario The lower temperature limit at which brown trout hatched in laboratory studies was less than 1°C and the upper limit was in the range 10 to 16°C. Hatching success was optimal at about 5°C. In this study, although intra-gravel water temperatures rarely rose above 10°C during the egg incubation period, mean intra-gravel temperatures were above that considered optimal for successful hatching. 1.0 °C Acornley, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Incubated at 10.3 10.3 °C Bonislawska, 2000
Salmo trutta fario Optimum temperature was about 5°C [The lower limit for hatching was < 1°C and the upper limit was between ca. 10 and 16°C] 5.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
Salmo trutta fario Temperature fluctuated between 7.0 and 8.5°C with a mean of 7.9°C 7.0 °C Hansen, 1985
Salmo trutta fario There were no significant differences in eyeing or to swim-up among the four strains at an incubation temperature of 7 or 4°C. However, at 2°C there was significantly lower survival among all four strains 7.0 °C Stonecypher, 1994
Salmo trutta fario Incubation temperature was 8°C [The range of 4 and 8°C, which is optimal for early development of brown trout] 8.0 °C Luckenbach, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Normal trout larvae can be raised from eggs incubated at any temperature between 2.8°C and 13°C without high mortality. Above 15°C the mortalityishigh 2.8 °C Gray, 1928
Salmo trutta fario The water temperature during the experiments amounted to 10 ± 1°C 10.0 °C Sobocinski and Winnicki, 1974
Salmo trutta fario All the spawn was incubated in stagnant water in vessels placed in a water bath at a temperature of 11-12°C 11.5 °C Cykowska and Winnicki, 1972
Salvelinus alpinus 3-8 [Optimal temperature, above 8 : important mortality and above 12 complete mortality] 5.5 °C Guillard, 1992
Salvelinus alpinus 3.5-8, <7 5.75 °C Barton, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus 0-4 [In natural conditions], Temperatures above 7.8°C are lethal 2.0 °C Groot, 1986
Salvelinus alpinus Total losses occur at temperature as low as 12-13°C 12.5 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus 4.4 4.4 °C Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus alpinus 3.1-8.9 [Temperature leading to normal development] 6.0 °C Pavlov, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus Natural conditions: 0.0-2.2 [The eggs are killed by temperature above 7.8°C] 1.1 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus alpinus 6°C [Constant temperature] 6.0 °C Wedekind and Müller, 2004
Salvelinus alpinus 1.4-7.5 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<1.4 and >12.5, lethal lower and upper limit] 4.45 °C Crisp, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus 0.0-2.2°C in natural condition, 5-8 [In hatchery], 7.8-8°C can kill the eggs 1.1 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus Egg incubation takes place under the ice where temperatures are well below 5°C in Lake Saimma [Survive well at 4 and 8°C] 5.0 °C Huuskonen, 2003
Salvelinus alpinus Optimum temperature was about 5°C [The lower limit for hatching was < 1°C and the upper limit was between ca. 10 and 16°C] 5.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
Salvelinus alpinus 0-2 in natural conditions 1.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Prior to eyed stage, eggs ware incubated at a constant temperature of 8°C and then between 8-13°C 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus The eggs were incubated at 4°C 4.0 °C Johsson and Svavarsson, 2000
Salvelinus alpinus When incubation temperature is held constant from fertilization through hatch, mortality is lowest at 3-6°C and increases abruptly at temperatures above 8°C 4.5 °C Bebak, 2000
Salvelinus alpinus Excessive mortality occured at temperatures above 8°C, total mortality above 12°C. 8.0 °C Swift, 1965
Salvelinus alpinus Hatching sucess was significantly greater at 3°C than at 6°C 3.0 °C De March, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus Egg were incubated at about 3°C 3.0 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus Incubation temperature was 6.4 ± 0.1°C 6.4 °C Papst and Hopky, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus Incubated at 6 ± 1°C 6.0 °C Gillet, 1991
Salvelinus alpinus The mean rearing temperature over the course of the study was 4.9 (range 4.4-5.1°C) 4.75 °C Valdimarsson, 2002
Salvelinus alpinus Incubated at two temperature: 4 and 8°C 4.0 °C Gruber and Wieser, 1983
Salvelinus alpinus Eggs were incubated in darkness and at 4.5°C until 100% hatching. The water temperature was then gradually raised to 8°C (0.5°C per day) until first feeding 4.5 °C Atse, 2002
Salvelinus alpinus Mean (SD) hatching success was 47 (30)%for eggs incubated at 6°C, and increased to 65 (30)% for egg batches incubated at 3°C 3.0 °C Jobling,1998
Salvelinus alpinus Eggs were incubated at 6°C 6.0 °C Lemieux, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis 6 [No hatch occured at 18°C, The incidence of abnormalities was highest at 15°C] 6.0 °C Hokanson, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis 9.4 ± 0.19 9.4 °C Mirza, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis 1.7-5 3.35 °C Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis 5-10 [Upper lethal temperature limit is about 11.7] 7.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis 1.0-2.5 [Ambient natural temperature], 4.3-4.5 [Interstitial natural temperature] 1.75 °C Curry, 1991
Salvelinus fontinalis 0.8 ± 0.3 [Natural conditions] 0.8 °C Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
Salvelinus fontinalis Optimal temperature range from 4.5-11.5 8.0 °C Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis 2.8-10 [Temperatures above 11°C will kill the eggs] 6.4 °C Coad, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis 4-10 [The upper lethal temperature limit for developping eggs is 11.7°C] 7.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis 5-12.5°C 8.75 °C Jensen, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis 7.98 ± 1.20, range 4.0-9.5 7.98 °C Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Salvelinus fontinalis 9.2 ± 1.92 [range 4.5-13°C] 9.2 °C Bascinar, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis Optimum temperature was about 5°C [The lower limit for hatching was < 1°C and the upper limit was between ca. 10 and 16°C] 5.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
Salvelinus fontinalis Prior to eyed stage, eggs were incubated at a constant temperature of 8°C and then between 8-13°C 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
Salvelinus fontinalis The freshwater temperature was 9°C at the beginning of November and rapidly decreased to 1-0°C by the end of December, although heating systems kept the water temperature in the incubation trays above 3°C 0.5 °C Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
Salvelinus namaycush 0.3-1 in normal conditions 0.65 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus namaycush 5-9 during incubation period 7.0 °C Beauchamp, 1992
Salvelinus namaycush < 10°C for optimal egg incubation 10.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Separate lots of eggs were reared at different temperatures: 0.5-6°C 3.25 °C Gunn and Noakes, 1987
Salvelinus namaycush Test temperatures were 7 and 10°C within the optimum range and near the higher limit for incubation 7.0 °C Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Salvelinus namaycush Could be incubated at 1.8°C 1.8 °C Babiak and Dabrowski, 2003
Stenodus leucichthys 0.1-1.2 0.65 °C Belyaeva, 2005
Stenodus leucichthys 4 4.0 °C Sturn, 1994
Stenodus leucichthys Range limits: 0.1-8 4.05 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
Thymallus thymallus 6-13.5 [best results, mortalily reach 100% above 16°C] 9.75 °C Jungwirth and Winkler, 1984
Thymallus thymallus Mean temperature of incubation is 9.0-10.5°C 9.75 °C Zaytsev, 1987
Thymallus thymallus 10 10.0 °C Persat, 2001
Thymallus thymallus 8.5-9.0 8.75 °C Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus 4.1-7.5 is the temperature range for >50% survival to hatch [<3.0 and >18.5, lethal lower and upper limit] 5.8 °C Crisp, 1996
Thymallus thymallus 7.9-11.2 Reared conditions tested] 9.55 °C Haugen and Vollestad, 2000
Thymallus thymallus 10°C 10.0 °C Maitland, 1977
Thymallus thymallus Optimum temperature was between >7 and 11°C [The lower limit for hatching ca 3°C and the upper limit was between ca. 16 and 20°C] 7.0 °C Humpesch, 1985
Thymallus thymallus Grayling hatch in June No data Kristiansen and Doving, 1996
Thymallus thymallus At mean water temperature of 10.2°C and 13.0°C 10.2 °C Penaz, 1975
Thymallus thymallus The most favourable temperatures to embryonic development range from 7 to 13°C in conditions of constant temperatures. The embryos developing at temperature lower than 7.3°C are hatching too early in relation to the morphological advancement and are charcaterized by lower vitality. At temperature higher than 13.8°C the survival is low because of lower vitality and increase of abnormally developed larvae in the hatching 7.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1980
Thymallus thymallus At 8°C. Eyed eggs (11 days post fertilisation) were acclimated to 12°C in 4 days, when the temperature was raised by 1°C per day 8.0 °C Honkanen, 2005
Thymallus arcticus 7-11 9.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus 9 9.0 °C Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus Full range 5.8-15.5, but mainly 7-9 10.65 °C Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus Water temperatures ranged from 2.0 to 9.2°C during the incubation period in 1975. Temperature ranged from 1.0°C to 10.3°C on the west side and from 1.0°C to 11.5°C on the esat side in 1976. The mean daily temperature on the east side was 5.82°C 2.0 °C Kratt and Smith, 1977
Thymallus arcticus The eggs initially were incubated in jars with springwater 8.0 ± .°C 8.0 °C Kaya, 1989
Thymallus arcticus 8.8°C 8.8 °C Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio 11 11.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Cottus gobio 11 11.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio 12 12.0 °C Persat, 2001
Cottus gobio 11 11.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Ameiurus nebulosus 20-25 22.5 °C Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus 20.6-23.3 21.95 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus 24-26 25.0 °C Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus 15.6-27.8 21.7 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus At 30°C or higher, water temperature can adversely affect egg developmet and fry survival 30.0 °C Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus Incubated at 24.7-26.8°C 25.75 °C Riggs, 1961
Ictalurus punctatus 25-28 [Water temperatures of 30°C or higher can adversely affect egg development and fry survival 26.5 °C Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus The eggs collected on June 19 were held in 17°C water to slow egg development […] The mean water temperature was 28°C (ranged from 26 to 29°C) 19.0 °C Rach, 2004
Ictalurus punctatus Well water (24.4-25.5°C) was supplied to the incubator at approximately 12 L min-1 24.95 °C Sink and Lochman, 2008
Ictalurus punctatus Water at a temperature of 23-24°C 23.5 °C Brzuska and Adamek, 1999
Silurus glanis 22 22.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis 22-23 22.5 °C Linhart, 2002
Silurus glanis 22-25 23.5 °C Linhart, 2005
Silurus glanis Tap water at 23°C 23.0 °C Linhart, 2005b
Osmerus eperlanus 8.5-10.5 9.5 °C Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus From 6 to 16.5 6.0 °C Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus The eggs' incubation was carried out at a constant temperature. For the observations of eggs and larval development, the following temperature regimes were used: 9.5, 10.8, 12.0, 13.8 and 18.3°C 9.5 °C Gorodilov and Melnikova, 2006