Spawning conditions - Parental care



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Anguilla anguilla The parents showed absence of parental care so their behaviour can be classified as non-guarding No care Vincent, 2005
Alosa alosa None No category Spillmann, 1961
Alosa alosa None No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Die after reproduction No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax None No category Spillmann, 1961
Alosa sapidissima Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Aphanius iberus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Aphanius iberus Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Valencia hispanica Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Barbatula barbatula Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Cobitis taenia No brood protection No category Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia Male guard eggs until hatching Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cobitis taenia Do not express parental care No category Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
Cobitis taenia Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Cobitis taenia No parental care is shown No category Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
Cobitis paludica No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Blicca bjoerkna Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Blicca bjoerkna Non-guarder No care Mann, 1996
Abramis brama Never described in the FAO Fisheries Synopsis No category Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Abramis brama None No category Ah-King, 2004
Alburnoides bipunctatus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Alburnoides bipunctatus Non-protecting their roe No category Penaz, 1976
Alburnus alburnus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Aristichthys nobilis Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Aspius aspius No, immediatly after spawning the asp leaves the spawning ground for the sea No category Shikhshabekov, 1979
Aspius aspius Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Aspius aspius Asp return quickly to the reservoir and evn its juveniles do not stay in the river for long No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Barbus barbus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Barbus barbus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Barbus barbus Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Carassius auratus No, rather spawning parents often prefer to eat the new-laid eggs and hatched alevins No category Horvath, 1992
Carassius auratus Non-parental No category Kobayashi, 2002
Carassius carassius Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Non guarders No care Mann, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus After the release of eggs, the females swim a short distance upstreamand then drift passively back to their former position No category Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Non-guarding No care Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma Nonguarding No care Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma toxostoma No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Ctenopharyngodon idella Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Ctenopharyngodon idella None No category Ah-King, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Not described in that review No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Cyprinus carpio Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Cyprinus carpio No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Cyprinus carpio Non-guarding No care Smith, 2004
Gobio gobio Nonguarder No care Fishbase, 2006
Gobio gobio Non-guarder No care Mann, 1996
Gobio gobio No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Leucaspius delineatus Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male who covers them with a bacteriostatic thermal mucus No category Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus Eggs are guarded by the male Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus Eggs are guarded by the male during the time of incubation (about 10 days) Male parental care Billard, 1997
Leucaspius delineatus Eggs are protected No category Le Louarn, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus "Male guard and ventilate the ""nest"" until hatching " Male parental care Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
Leucaspius delineatus Male guards a nest, chases and attcaks any untruders (bittig and head-butting) Male parental care Gozlan, 2003
Leucaspius delineatus The egg guarding behaviour of the males No category Gozlan, 2003b
Leucaspius delineatus Sun bleak are egg guarder, as soon as he eggs are fertilized, the male starts to fan and guard them eagerly No category Bonislawska, 1999
Leucaspius delineatus Male aerate the eggs No category Agence de l'eau,
Leuciscus cephalus Non guarders No care Mann, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Leuciscus idus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus idus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus leuciscus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Mylopharyngodon piceus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus Eat his own eggs No category Kestemont, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Phoxinus phoxinus No care No care Ah-King, 2004
Pimephales promelas Guarders No category Fishbase, 2006
Pimephales promelas Male guards the nest and drives off other males Male parental care Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas Males establish and defend territory and care for eggs laid there No category DeWitt, 1993
Pimephales promelas Adult males guard the nest and deposit a mucus layer on the spawning surface that may enhace egg survival by imporving egg attachment Male parental care Duffy, 1998
Pimephales promelas Males guard nest Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pimephales promelas Males remain at spawning site to guard nest No category Goodyear, 1982
Pimephales promelas The male performs three important functions when caring for the eggs during the incubation period. One is protection. Second, his constant movement underneath the eggs which keeps the water continually agitated. The third funtion is keeping the nest free from sediment that may be deposited from the water. No category Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva Protected by the male using the head tubercules to drive away other fishes. Males clean the eggs and remove dead ones No category Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva Males protect the spawning No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva The male protect the batch, driving away other small fish [Also, males clean the eggs and evidently remove dead ones] Male parental care Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Male guards eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
Pseudorasbora parva Non guarders, brood hiders, the male leaves the nest before the eggs hatch No care Fishbase, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva Eggs are guarded by males Male parental care Rossechi, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva The territorial male defends the ggs until they hatch Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
Pseudorasbora parva The male guards the eggs till hatching, and aggressively drives away others, often larger fish Male parental care Witkowski, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva The male protects actively the egg clutch, thus increasing the survival rate of juveniles Male parental care Boltachev, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva The males entices several females to lay their eggs, fertilizes the eggs and guards the fertilized eggs until the embryos hatch No category Konishi and Takata, 2004
Pseudorasbora parva A territorial male defends eggs until the embryos hatch Male parental care Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus Males defend territories around one or several mussel No category Smith, 2004
Rhodeus sericeus Male defend a territory around one or several mussels, then a he brings a female Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Male guards the eggs and larvae until they quit the mussel Male parental care Billard, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus Non guarders, brood hiders [The male keeps the eggs and alevins until they leave the refuge] No care Fishbase, 2006
Rutilus rutilus No, after spawning the shoal dispersed No category Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Rutilus rutilus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Rutilus rutilus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Does not display parental care No category Kort, 2004
Rutilus rutilus Roach show no parental care for their offspring No care Kortet, 2004b
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Non guarders No care Mann, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Tinca tinca Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Tinca tinca Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Tinca tinca Care not mentionned No category Ah-King, 2004
Vimba vimba No protection, after spawning the vimba does not stay in the spawning grounds No care Shikhshabekov, 1979
Vimba vimba Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Vimba vimba Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Vimba vimba Soon after spawning, the spawners migrate toward river mouths, where they feed until the next spawning season No category Kuliev, 1988
Gambusia affinis Female is viviparous, internal fecondation: ovovipariy lecitotrophe No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gambusia affinis Bearers, internal live bearers: the species is viviparous No category Fishbase, 2006
Gambusia affinis No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Esox masquinongy Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Esox masquinongy Receive no parental care No care Clemmons and Newman, 1997
Esox niger There is no parental care of the eggs No care Coffie, 1998
Esox niger Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Esox niger None No category Anonymous, 2006
Esox niger No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
Esox lucius Not any parental care No category Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Not any parental care No category Toner and Lawler, 1969
Esox lucius Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Esox lucius Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Esox lucius No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Esox lucius Provides no parental care for eggs or young No care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
Lota lota No care is given to the young No care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Lota lota No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards and ventilates eggs until hatching, and then continue to protect larvae for 2 weeks [Fight between males] Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards and fans the eggs and guards the fry Male parental care Coad, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards eggs and juveniles Male parental care Billard, 1997
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards and aerates his nest Male parental care Crivelli, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards and ventilates the eggs and young Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards the newly hatched fish until they are able to care for themselves Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Gasterosteus aculeatus Males care for eggs and fry Male parental care Fitzgerald, 1983
Gasterosteus aculeatus Males protect brood No category Environment agency, 1996
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male care only No category Ah-King, 2004
Gasterosteus aculeatus The male guards and fans the nest and protects the young for up to 2 weeks after hatching or until they are able to fend for themselves Male parental care Bradbury, 1999
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male fans its eggs during their development. We found no significant difference when we compared the proportion of time males spent fanning their nests during the day with night levels? However, nocturnal fanning bouts were significantly longer and less numerous than diurnal ones. No category Rebs, 1984
Gasterosteus aculeatus After collecting eggs for a period of between 1 and 10 days, the male switches to the parental phase, during which he actively repels potential egg predators, fans oxygenated water through the nest and removes unfertilized eggs and dead or diseased embryos No category Barber, 2000
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards nests and newly hatched larvae fry for maximum of 9 day and then begins return to deeper water Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius Male guard its nest and the spawning until and after the htaching of eggs Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pungitius pungitius The male guards and aerates the eggs Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
Pungitius pungitius The nest is guarded by the male who engages in considerable fanning at the entrance, causing a current ot flow through the nest and aerate the eggs within [The male may build a second nest] Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Pungitius pungitius Males care for eggs and fry Male parental care Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius Male guarding and fanning Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
Pungitius pungitius Male guards the nest and aerate the eggs through fanning with their pectoral fins Male parental care Bradbury, 1999
Pungitius pungitius Male guards nest and fry Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius The fry remain close to the males and do not swim far from the nest No category Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
Ambloplites rupestris The spawning is guarded by male Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Ambloplites rupestris The spawning is guarded by male Male parental care Billard, 1997
Ambloplites rupestris The male guards and fans the eggs and later brrods the young for a short period Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ambloplites rupestris The male cares about the young No category Fishbase, 2006
Ambloplites rupestris Male provides care for the eggs and larvae interm of egg fanning and predator defence: on average 14 days No category Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris Males guard eggs and fry Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ambloplites rupestris Male guards nest and newly hatched fry Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris Brrods are guarded No category Noltie and Keenleyside, 1987
Lepomis gibbosus Male guards nest, sometimes two nests until larvae are free-swimming Male parental care Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus Nest is guarded by male Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Spawn is guarded by male Male parental care Spillmann, 1961
Lepomis gibbosus The male guards the eggs and fans them, and guards the newly hatched young for a period of a few days Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus Male defends the nest for 6-7 days Male parental care Gross and Nowell, 1980
Lepomis gibbosus The male guards the eggs and the young (to about 11 days after hatching) Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
Lepomis gibbosus A long period of protection by one sex (> 1 month) or brief care by both sexes Biparental care Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus Males guard nest and fry Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lepomis gibbosus Parental males remain at their nests immediatly after spawning No category Danylchuk and Fox, 1994
Lepomis gibbosus During a breeding season, some male spawned again after their preivous brood had hatched and dispersed. Some males fertilized and guarded as many as four broods, although the mean was close to one No category Shao, 1997
Lepomis gibbosus Males guard nest and newly hatched fry Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui Male guards the nest during incubation and after hatching until juvenile reach about 25 mm TL, or during 1-3 weeks Male parental care Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Males guard the eggs and young Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui The males guard the nest, fans the eggs, and guards the young after they hatch Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui Site defense of guarding males is costly because of injury risk from interaction with intruders Male parental care Iguchi, 2004
Micropterus dolomieui Nest-guarding males Male parental care Cooke, 2003
Micropterus dolomieui The males guards the nest from predators and fans the eggs during the inbubation period Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui There was no obvious explanation of why some nests failed and were deserted by the guarding male No category Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Males provide sole parental care to offspring No category Ridgway, 1989
Micropterus dolomieui Parental care requires 24 h per day fanning up to 1 month with males rarely leaving the nest. Guarding males rarely leave the nest to feed. Filial cannibalism has never been observed. Females come to the nest to spawn and leave the area promptly after depositing eggs Male parental care Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui Male guards nest and fry until fry are about 1 inche long. Adults move downstream or offshore to depths of 36-42 ft as water temperature approaches 77°F, usually by July Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides Male is a vey attentive parent. closely follows and guards the bass larvae, continues to guard the young fish for several weeks after they hatch No category Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides The spawning is guarded by the male and larvae are also guarded during 3 to 4 weeks after the hatching. Male parental care Spillmann, 1961
Micropterus salmoides Male guard the spawning and ventilate the eggs, very aggressive, during 2-3 weeks Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides Male guards the eggs and alevins, during that period he is very agrressive and eat few Male parental care Billard, 1997
Micropterus salmoides The male guards and fans the eggs Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus salmoides A long period of protection by one sex (> 1 month) or brief care by both sexes Biparental care Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Micropterus salmoides Male guards the nests, even after the eggs have hatched Male parental care Everly and Boreman, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Almost any substrate may be used as a nest site from rock to organic substrate. But mostly over gravel (coarse and fine), and mud, sand to mud below boulders No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides The male parent, whose function it i to guard and fan the nest during the egg stage of the young bass, deserts the nest with the lowering of the water temperature. The result of his action is that the eggs are left without aeration, and death follows No category Jurgens and Brown, 1954
Micropterus salmoides Males aggressively guarding the nests No category Beamish, 2005
Micropterus salmoides Little movement from spawning site, male guards nest and fry until fry are about 1 inche long, may move to somewhat deeper water after spawning Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
Dicentrarchus labrax Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Dicentrarchus labrax Not any parental care is provided to eggs No category Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Morone americana After ovulating at random, the females leave their eggs to survive as best they may with no parental care No care Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops No parental care is given to eggs or young No category Internet, 2005
Morone chrysops Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Morone chrysops No parental care is given to eggs or young No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone chrysops After spawning, all females and most males abandonned the area, within 1 wk all males departed No category Ruelle, 1977
Morone chrysops No care is provided to the eggs No care Kohler, 1997
Morone saxatilis Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Gymnocephalus cernuus Non-guarding No care Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Non-guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Gymnocephalus cernuus Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Perca flavescens No protection is given the egg mass or young by either parent No care Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens There is little if any protection of the eggs No care Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens No protection is given the egg masses or young by the parents No care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Perca flavescens No parental care is provided to the eggs or fry No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
Perca fluviatilis Little if any protections No care Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Not any observations of parental care No category Dalimier, 1982
Perca fluviatilis Perch do not provide care to their offspring No category Smith, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Perca fluviatilis Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
Perca fluviatilis No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Perca fluviatilis No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
Sander lucioperca Male stays to protect the eggs and young fry Male parental care Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca Males guards the eggs anf fans clean water over them. After spawning, the male chases the female away from the nest, and are very agreesive and attacks if thretened Male parental care Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca The spawning is guarded No category Spillmann, 1961
Sander lucioperca Males guards the eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
Sander lucioperca Guarders No category Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca Male protects the eggs, which takes up a great deal of his time during the spawning season Male parental care Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca A long period of protection by one sex (> 1 month) or brief care by both sexes Biparental care Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Sander lucioperca Males guard eggs Male parental care Environment agency, 1996
Sander lucioperca Male guards and fans the eggs Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
Sander lucioperca Soon after spawning, pikeperch females leave the spawning grounds while male guards the nest until their hatch Male parental care Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca The male stays to aerate by fin movements and protects the spawn and young fry Male parental care Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander vitreus No parental care No category Craig, 2000
Sander vitreus Do not provide any parental care No category Malison and Held, 1996a
Sander vitreus No parental care No category Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Males are not territorial No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Sander vitreus No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus Does not protect their eggs No category Skurdal, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Coregonus lavaretus No protection No care Coad, 2006
Coregonus lavaretus Care not mentionned No category Ah-King, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
Coregonus lavaretus Individual females migrate to the spawning-grounds as ovulation takes place, spawn, and return to deep water No category Fuller, 1976
Coregonus albula Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Coregonus albula Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
Coregonus clupeaformis Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Coregonus clupeaformis No parental care is provided to the eggs or young No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis After spawning, adullts return to deeper water No category Bradbury, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
Hucho hucho Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Hucho hucho There is no parental care during the hatching or embryonic phase [After spawning, the parent fish go downstream and keep close to deep places and rocks] No care Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho No defence by females No care Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Nest construction and defence of territories appear to continue day and night No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The female usually guards the nest as long as she is able but the spawning adults die in a few days or weeks No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Nesting defence by females after No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus keta The female guards the nest as long as she is able Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta The female covers the nest Female parental care Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Phase 2 post-spawning which lasted less than 1 to as much as 5 days- spawning ceased even though males wre still in attendance and females guarded the redds against intruding females, phase 3, extirpation which lasted 1 to 6 days, females were no longer attended by males and passively guarded the redds Male parental care Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus keta The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus keta Female defence after Female parental care Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus kisutch After covering the nest the female guards it as long as she is able Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch Cover the eggs No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus kisutch Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus kisutch The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch Nest guarding time was similar for hatchery (mean 4.89 days) and wild females (5.10 days] No category Fleming and Gross, 1992
Oncorhynchus kisutch Female defence after Female parental care Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss Female continues to stay over the redd site to further shape the gravel mound and to defend the area against other females [Female stellhead do not guard their redds after spawning and tend to leave the spawning area] No care Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Nest may be adandonned the day No category Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss Eggs are not guarded by either parents No care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss Female steelhead reportdly do not nest-guard No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus mykiss The female, throughout the long period of egg covering (a process continued for one to several hours) resents the presence of any fish at or just above the spot where the eggs lie [Male defence lasts only trough early stages of egg covering] No category Greeley, 1932
Oncorhynchus mykiss No protection by female No care Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka When the female is spent, she contines to finish the redd and defends the area aginast females searching for nest sites and males that are passing by until she die No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus nerka The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus nerka Nest defence after No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Female may defend the redd area against other females to 4 to 26 days Female parental care Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The female buries the eggs in loose gravel and remains at the nest for about two weeks or until she dies No category Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The female guards the nest as long as she is able Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Brood hiders [The eggs are covered and a new nest is made], the female guards the nest for as long as she can Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The female may guard the redd as long as she is able No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Nests and completed redds are defended against surimposition of nests by other males. Males compete for acess to spawning females, and males abandon their mates in search of other active females shortly after spawning No category Berejikian, 2000
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Females defence after Female parental care Fleming, 1998
Salmo salar Soon after the spawning act, the female covers the eggs with about 10-25 cm of gravel by gently digging in front of the nest Female parental care Groot, 1996
Salmo salar Brood hiders, males cover the eggs after fertilization No category Fishbase, 2006
Salmo salar The female covers the eggs with gravel Female parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar None after nesting No care Fleming, 1998
Salmo salar Atlantic salmon, an oviparous fish that does not provide care for eggs after they are fertilized No category Berg, 2001
Salmo trutta fario The female defends the redd against other females searching for a place to spawn Ambiguous Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Salmo trutta fario When spawning is completed, the female covers the redd with gravel Female parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo trutta fario No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Salmo trutta fario The female, throughout the long period of egg covering (a process continued for one to several hours) resents the presence of any fish at or just above the spot where the eggs lie [Male defence lasts only trough early stages of egg covering] No category Greeley, 1932
Salmo trutta fario None after nesting No care Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Non guarders [The females covers the eggs, and begins the next redd] No care Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus alpinus The male abandons the female and immediately begins to court another ripe female. The spent female leaves the spawning site No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Arctic char females may defend the nest briefly, unlike brook char No category Willson, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus None for the anadromous populations and rarely for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis The nests are not defended for extended periods No category Mirza, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis Nonguarders, the female covers the eggs and then leaves Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis On completion of spawning, the female covers the eggs with gravel in a manner resembling the excavation of the redd Female parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Females become very aggressive during the post-spawinng period and defend the redd against possible intruders No category Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Adults leave spawnig areas shortly after spawning No care Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis No parental care is provided after the nest is covered No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Arctic char females may defend the nest briefly, unlike brook char No category Willson, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis The female, throughout the long period of egg covering (a process continued for one to several hours) resents the presence of any fish at or just above the spot where the eggs lie [Male defence lasts only trough early stages of egg covering] No category Greeley, 1932
Salvelinus fontinalis No defence No care Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus namaycush Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus namaycush Dispersal of adults from spawning areas begins shortly after spawning No care Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
Salvelinus namaycush No defence No care Fleming, 1998
Stenodus leucichthys Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus thymallus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus thymallus Non-guarding No care Sempeski and Gaudin, 1995
Thymallus thymallus No care No care Ah-King, 2004
Thymallus arcticus Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus arcticus No parental care is given to eggs or young No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus Redds are not constructed or covered by the female No category Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus The male swam off as soon as the act was over, the female stayed around for a few seconds and then also sawm off. Male parental care Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio Male guards the nest, up to 3-4 weeks (aggressive) Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio Male guards the nest Male parental care Spillmann, 1961
Cottus gobio Male guards eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
Cottus gobio Male protects several batches of eggs, for about 3 weeks |Larave are not guarded and may occasionally been eaten] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Cottus gobio The male fertilizes the eggs and guards them for about 4 weeks, during this time he fans the eggs almost constantly with his pectoral fins No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio When scuba diving I have observed that the larvae remain under a stone in the care of their parent at least until their fins have differentiated No category Urho, 2002
Cottus gobio Eggs under stones protected by male Male parental care Environment agency, 1996
Cottus gobio The male defends the brood against egg predators, and manages the nest by fanning the eggs with his pectoral fins. Male parental care Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
Ameiurus nebulosus Eggs stick to one another and are covered by a gelatinous coating, and are guarded and aereted by one or both parents, sometimes the egg mass is put into the mouth and then ejected Biparental care Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus Although eggs are cared for by one or both parents, there have been reports of parents eating their own eggs Biparental care Fishbase, 2006
Ameiurus nebulosus The eggs in the nest are cared for by one or both parents [Sometimes one or both parents eat some or all the eggs] Biparental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus Parental care is given to the eggs by one or both parents [One or both parents may eat the eggs] Biparental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ameiurus nebulosus Parental protection is provided for the schooling young for some weeks before dispersal No category Rue, 2001
Ameiurus nebulosus Adults guard fry in weedy shallows for 2-3 weeks Biparental care Goodyear, 1982
Ameiurus nebulosus Both sexes are involved in nest preparation and in the care and defense of the young, although they usually have somewhat different roles. Males are often the principal care givers, aerating the developping eggs by fanning and manipulating the eggs and larvae in their mouths. Females are more frequently involved in chasing away would-be nest predators, although they may also care for the eggs. The entire period of care giving by the parents may last about one month Biparental care Internet, 2001
Ictalurus punctatus After the spawning, males drive females away from the nest and guard eggs from predators and aerate the eggs until larvae disperse [During incubarion males may eat some eggs] No category Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus The males guarding their own egg masses express aggressive behavior Male parental care Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Ictalurus punctatus Nest is guarded by the male Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
Ictalurus punctatus Males protect the nest after egg laying, aerate and clean the eggs by fanning with the paired fins, and press and pack the eggs with body and fins No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus After spawning is complete, the male protects the eggs by driving away other fish including the female, the male fans his eggs with his fins [The male continue to guard the young fish for a few days after they hatch] Male parental care Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus After the male has mated with a female he drives her away and cares for the eggs and fry after hatching No category Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus Males guards nests and young fry Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ictalurus punctatus One or both adults guard nest and fry until they are about 1 inche long Biparental care Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus After spawning, the male guards the nest for several days Male parental care Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Ictalurus punctatus The males assume care of the egg mass after oviposition No category Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Paternal guarder Male parental care Hecht, 1996
Silurus glanis Males guard eggs until hatching Male parental care The Halyn Publishing Group limited, 1976
Silurus glanis Guarded by the male Male parental care Legendre, 1997
Silurus glanis Male guards eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
Silurus glanis Male guard eggs and discard mud and give oxygen to the eggs Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis Male guards eggs Male parental care Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
Silurus glanis The eggs are guarded by the males until they hatch Male parental care Alp, 2004
Silurus glanis Males guards the nest Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
Silurus glanis Male guards a cluster of eggs Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
Osmerus eperlanus Does not guard eggs and larvae No care Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006