Spawning conditions - Parity



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Semelparous Semelparous Rinchard, 1996
Anguilla anguilla Mirgating to sea to spawn and die Semelparous Coad, 2005
Anguilla anguilla Spawing once and die Semelparous Palstra, 2005
Anguilla anguilla Spawn and then die Semelparous Vincent, 2005
Alosa alosa Semelparous, un grand nombre de reproducteurs meurt après la fraye Semelparous Acolas, 2004
Alosa alosa Semelparous, most fish die after psawning [10-11% of male and 19% of female survive in the Dordogne, France] Semelparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Numerous exhausted spawners die after spawning Semelparous Spillmann, 1961
Alosa alosa Most die after spawning Semelparous Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa alosa Part of spawners die after the spawning season and survivors get back to sea immediatly Semelparous Billard, 1997
Alosa alosa Almost all allis shad die after spawning Semelparous Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Populations are semelparous No category Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa alosa Most spawners die after the first migation Semelparous Belaud, 2001
Alosa alosa 95% of individuals make their spawing migration only once No category Rochard, 2001
Alosa alosa The percentage of multispawners was very low (2.1-2.5%) No category Acolas, 2006
Alosa fallax Iteroparous (could reproduce up to 5 times during a lifetime) Iteroparous Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax Iteroparous, most survive after spawning [84% of male and 77-97% of female in Gironde, France], up to 3-4 tiesin a lifespan Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa fallax Spawners get back to sea immediatly after the spawning season No category Billard, 1997
Alosa fallax Many twaite shad recover to spawn again next year No category Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa fallax All populations are iteroparous, having a high proportion of repeat spawners No category Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa fallax May spawn several times in their lives No category Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa sapidissima After spawning, the spent fish begin to drop back to salt water and vanish until the next spawning season [Some might die] Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima Populations may be either semelparous in southern rivers from Florida to North Carolina or predominately iteroparous in more northerly rivers No category Olney, 2001
Alosa sapidissima Iteroparous, spawn annualy Iteroparous Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima Adults descend shortly after spawning No category Fishbase, 2006
Alosa sapidissima Iteroparous or semelparous Iteroparous Olney and McBride, 2003
Alosa sapidissima Although alewifes generally do not die after spawning, the fluctuating temperatures that the adults are exposed to when they move to inshore waters often results in mortality due to osmotic stress. In some years, temperature changes caused by upwelling may result in a massive die-off of spawning alewifes Semelparous Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Alosa sapidissima May spawn up to 7 times and live to be 13 years No category Bradbury, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Some adults die after spawning with the percentage generally decreasing with increasing latitude Semelparous Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Alosa sapidissima The proportions of repeat spawning fish in the sample decreased to 85% for males in 1972 and 78 and 64% for males and females respectively in 1973 Iteroparous Carscaden and Legget, 1975
Alosa sapidissima American shad stocks in Virginia may be partially iteroparous (i.e., some proportion of the population dies after spawning), however there is no direct evidence of the phenomenon (e.g., spent carcasses on the shore) in the York River Semelparous Olney, 2006
Aphanius iberus Only few male and female adults of the 1+ group succeed in surviving the reproductive phase and the following winter No category Vargas and De Sostoa, 1997
Aphanius iberus This stock contains only three age groups (0+, 1+, and 2 +) of which 0+ group constitutes more than 95% [Very few of the 1+ group specimens survived to spawn the following year] No category Fernandez-Delgado, 1988
Valencia hispanica Maximum observed ages were 4+ in females and 3+ in males No category Caiola, 2001
Barbatula barbatula Iteroparous Iteroparous Fishbase, 2006
Barbatula barbatula Specimens over four years old were rare, and only a few 6-year-olds were found No category Sauvonsaari, 1971
Cobitis taenia Lives up to 5 years and is mature in its second year of life No category Coad, 2005
Cobitis paludica Iteroparous [Adult specimens have no more than two or three reproductive years] Iteroparous Perdices and Doadrio, 1977
Blicca bjoerkna Return to the river after spawning Iteroparous Molls, 1999
Blicca bjoerkna Older fish with resting gonads were not found, indicating that spawning takes place each year after maturity is reached No category Hansen, 1980
Abramis brama Iteroparous : spawn every year [During its life cycle, it can spawn 8-9 times] Iteroparous Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama The spawning populations included up to height age classes No category Sokolova, 1990
Abramis brama Many bream returned back to the reservoir after spawning while another part stayed every season in the river pools above the traps for a longer time and returned after subsequent spawning No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Abramis brama In June, July, and August, that is after spawning, the fish moved back to deeper parts or deeper water bodies, where they feed intensively. Abramis brama is a long-lived species in northern area of distribution.Age of A. brama un its southern area of distribution rarely exceeds 10 to 12 years Semelparous Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Alburnoides bipunctatus In Azerbaijan, maturity is attained at 1-2 years and life span is 3 years No category Coad, 2005
Alburnus alburnus Maturity is attained at 3 years and life span is up to 9 years No category Coad, 2005
Alburnus alburnus Live up to 6-7 years No category Agence de l'eau,
Aristichthys nobilis After spawning, they migrate to floodland lakes No category Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis The maximum age of Bighead carp was reported to be 16 years of age No category Kolar, 2005
Aspius aspius Life span in the Volga delta is 7-8 years with the bulk of the population mature at 6 years. In the waters of Dagestan life span is 8 years with maturity at 4 years No category Coad, 2005
Aspius aspius The representatives of every age class within the range of 3-16 years were found in the material studied Semelparous Trzebiatowski and Leszcewicz, 1976
Aspius aspius Females migrated to the tributary later and returned immediatly after spawning. Males seem to stay at the spawning grounds a few days longer No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Barbus barbus Iteroparous Iteroparous Baras and Philippart, 1999
Barbus barbus High degree of iteorparity [Could live up to 25 years] No category Baras, 1993
Carassius auratus Reproduction occurs annually for about 6-7 years No category Scholfield, 2005
Carassius auratus Begin breeding in their second year and while they may continue to reproduce for six or seven years they yield the maximum number of eggs in their third and fourth years No category Battle, 1940
Carassius auratus They continue reproduction yearly during 6-8 years No category Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius The maximum lifespan of wild crucian carp is about 10 years No category Scholfield, 2005
Chondrostoma nasus Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus It was used by the same individuals repeatedly from year to year No category Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma Single spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Chondrostoma toxostoma Could live up to 9 years No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Chondrostoma toxostoma Could live up to 9 years No category Internet
Ctenopharyngodon idella Live between 5-11, and up to 15 years No category Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Shortly adter spawning, some white amur enter marshy ponds for feeding. In the fall when the water level begins to drp, they return to the Amur channel where they over-winter seperately from juveniles Iteroparous Gorbach and Kryhtin, 1988
Cyprinus carpio Iteroparous, one cycle/year when reared in an outside natural pond [but up to five if maintained at 20-24°C] Iteroparous Linhart, 1995
Cyprinus carpio Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio In Victoria, estimates of longetivy range between 15-40 years No category Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Disperse after spawning but remain in shallows throughout the summer, No category Goodyear, 1982
Gobio gobio Spawns once a year for several years No category Fishbase, 2006
Gobio gobio Both sex had low survival rates ad their reproductive life spans were rarely more than three years No category Mann, 1980
Gobio gobio Peut vivre de 5 à 7 années et se reproduire dès la seconde année No category Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Up to 10 or 15 years of age No category Kolar, 2005
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix After spawning, beginning of July, gradually return to feed and over-winter Iteroparous Gorbach and Kryhtin, 1988
Leucaspius delineatus Life span is about 4-6 years with growth fairly continuous over this period No category Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus Live up to 2-3 (5) years No category Agence de l'eau,
Leuciscus cephalus The ages of captured fish ranged from I to VII years No category Sasi, 2004
Leuciscus cephalus Up to 5 or 6 year classes No category Sasi, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Each fish appeared to spawn every year No category Mann, 1976
Leuciscus cephalus Maximum ages observed were VI in males and VII in females No category Ünver, 1998
Leuciscus idus Live up to 10-15, even 20 years of age No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus idus Maximum life span of ide is 18 years, maximum length (TL) 70 cm, maximum weight 6-8 kg No category Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus idus Can reach 15 years No category Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus idus In contrast, L. idus was observed to undertake similar long-distance migrations in spring but in the opposite direction, i.e. downstream during spring and returning upstream towards formely occupied areas later in the season No category Kuliskova, 2009
Leuciscus leuciscus Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus Female dace did not necessarily spawn every year once they had reached maturity No category Mann, 1974
Leuciscus leuciscus Release one batch of eggs annually for up to seven successive years. There was no evidence that any female had a rest year from spawning once they were mature No category Mann and Mills, 1985
Leuciscus leuciscus Iteroparous Iteroparous Clough, 1998
Mylopharyngodon piceus Once maturity has been reached, reproduction is capable of occuring annually No category Crosier, 2005
Phoxinus phoxinus Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus Few males survived to their fourth birthday and the oldest fish, aged five years, was a female No category Mills and Eloranta, 1985
Phoxinus phoxinus The lifespan is on average 3-4 years with a maximum of 5-6 years, which thus limit the sexual life of females to 2-3 years No category Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Pimephales promelas Postspawning mortality is often great for both males and females No category Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas They are short live, with most dying adter spawning at an age of 1 year, althoufh a small proportion of any population lives at and age of 2+ years No category Duffy, 1998
Pimephales promelas The death rate of the adult minnows is very high after the spring spawning period Semelparous Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva Lifespan is about 5 years with maturity attained at 1-2 years, usually at 1 year in Europe No category Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva NO INFORMATIONS No category Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Rhodeus sericeus 2-3 up to 5 No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Iteroparous Iteroparous Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Iteroparous, oldest male was 13 and oldest female 17 years Iteroparous Vollestad, 1987
Rutilus rutilus Iteroparous cyprinid Iteroparous Kort, 2004
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Iteroparous Iteroparous Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Tinca tinca One clear seasonal peak per year No category Fishbase, 2006
Tinca tinca 7 different age classes No category Alas and Solak, 2004
Vimba vimba Life span is 6 years in Iran, at least 7 years elsewhere No category Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba At least six age class, from 4+ to 9+ participate in the spawning season No category Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
Vimba vimba Mature females range from 5+ to 9+ No category Hliwa, 2002
Vimba vimba Soon after spawning, the spawners migrate toward river mouths, where they feed until the next spawning season No category Kuliev, 1988
Vimba vimba The oldest individual found in our study was a female of 10 years and 300 mm Sl. One aged 9 years and three aged 8 years were also females. The oldest males (n=6) were 7 years old and there were 8 females of this age No category Lusk, 2005
Gambusia affinis Weak longevity: 6 to 18 months. This species is usually annual with fex individuals able to life and reproduce at 2 years of age No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gambusia affinis No obvious seasonal peak No category Fishbase, 2006
Esox masquinongy Males return to lake when water temperatures reaches about 60°F, females remain in river channels several weeks and return to lake in mid-August Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Esox masquinongy There is typically postspawning movement dowstream or to somewhat deeper ater, where the fish may enventually summer home ranges No category Miller and Menzel, 1986
Esox masquinongy Muskellunge may live to be 8 to 10 years old No category Clemmons and Newman, 1997
Esox niger Chain pickerel live an average of 3 to 4 years but may attain age of 8 to 9 years under certain conditions No category Coffie, 1998
Esox lucius Iteroparous Iteroparous Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Iteroparous Iteroparous Billard, 1996
Esox lucius Can be long-lived reaching at least 24 or 25 years No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius Return to lake after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Lota lota Spawning may not repeat every year No category Vedeneev, 2003
Lota lota Can live up to 10 to 15 years No category Anonymous, 2003
Lota lota Some mature fish do not spawn every year No category Hewson, 1955
Lota lota Burbot spending a rest year do not accumulate and store energy reserves over the summer for the next year, and that such rest years, if they exist, do not occur for nuttritional reasons No category Pulliainen and Korhonen, 1990
Lota lota After spawning, fish migrate downstream to lakes No category Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota Usually return to deeper water by April, may remain in harbors until mid-June before moving into lakes, often move from lakes into rivers after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus Semelparous, broodstock die after the spawning Semelparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Can reproduce twice in a year No category Billard, 1997
Gasterosteus aculeatus Have a maximum lifespan of about 2 and 1.5 years No category Bradbury, 1999
Gasterosteus aculeatus All nest builders survived No category Barber, 2000
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male guards nests and newly hatched larvae fry for maximum of 9 day and then begins return to deeper water Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus After the breeding season, though there was a large mortality, a few of those remaining have experienced two summers and /or two winters. […] Usually, the three-spined stickleback had a life-span of year and a few months No category Mori and Magoshi, 1987
Pungitius pungitius Several spawns per year No category Billard, 1997
Pungitius pungitius Die few weeks after spawning Semelparous Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
Pungitius pungitius Longevity of the river form was 1 year and some months, whereas the lake form lived for more than 2 years No category Bradbury, 1999
Ambloplites rupestris Lake residents than return to lake Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Lepomis gibbosus Iteroparous Iteroparous Fox and Crivelli, 1998
Lepomis gibbosus Gsi of all females by age class increased with age No category Copp, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus Longevity: 9 years [Ontario Lakes, Canada], 5 years [Cottesmore Pond, England], 3-7 years [Rhône River, Delta canals, France], 3 years [Mirgenbach Reservoir, Moselle, France] No category Dembski, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui One clear seasonnal peak per year No category Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui Female probably spawns every year No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui May live up to 13 years No category Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Iteroparous Iteroparous Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides Female probably spawn yearly between the age of 5 to 12 No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus salmoides Female spawn once a year No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Dicentrarchus labrax Iteroparous Iteroparous Zohar, 1984
Dicentrarchus labrax Could live up to 20 years, even 30 years in reared conditions No category Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana Females may spawn more than once during an extended spawning season Iteroparous Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
Morone americana Spawn once a year No category Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops After spawning, all females and most males abandonned the area, within 1 week all males departed No category Ruelle, 1977
Morone chrysops May live up to 7 years No category Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Morone chrysops Return to lakes or deeper water in rivers after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Morone saxatilis Iteroparous Iteroparous Sullivan . Reproduction in Harrel Editor 1997
Morone saxatilis Females don't necessarily spawn every year No category Fishbase, 2006
Morone saxatilis Although females spawn more than once, they do not necesseraliy spawn every year Iteroparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone saxatilis Iteroparous Iteroparous Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Morone saxatilis After spawning, followed perhaps by a short stay in fresh waters, most adult striped bass return to marine waters Iteroparous Dudley, 1977
Morone saxatilis Spawn once a year during a relatively short period in the psring No category Vuthiphandchai, 2002
Gymnocephalus cernuus Female ruffe may reach age 11, but male ruffe generally do not exceed age 7 No category Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus The prolonged spawning period is possibly due to different rates of development of the ovaries among females of different ages No category Brown, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Most individuals atain a maximum age of 6 years, excepeionally 7 or 8 years No category Kovac, 1998
Perca flavescens Iteroparous Iteroparous Dabrowski, 1996
Perca flavescens Have been reported to live up to 11 years No category Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Perca fluviatilis Iteorparous, but perch spawn only once per year but it is not know with certainity that they spawn every year after reaching maturity No category Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis Spawn once a year No category Dubois, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Iteroparous Iteroparous Blanchard, 1997
Sander lucioperca Iteroparous Iteroparous Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca She can participate in reproduction only once per season [Spawn only once a year] No category Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca The spawner survival rate in both years was similar, 98 and 99%, respectively No category Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
Sander lucioperca After spawning, the pikeperch from the Szcecin and Curonian lagoons migrate to the bays and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea to feed No category Kosior and wandzel, 2001
Sander vitreus Spawn annually No category Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Walleye have been known to live as long as 26 years No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus lavaretus Can live up to 10 years No category Maitland, 1977
Coregonus lavaretus The youngest and oldest females were aged 1+ and 10+ No category Heese, 1990
Coregonus albula Can live up to 10 years No category Maitland, 1977
Coregonus albula Four year ages sampled No category Sarvala, 1992
Coregonus clupeaformis Breeds annually in the southern parts of the range, but only every other year or even third year in the arctic and sib-arctic region No category Fishbase, 2006
Coregonus clupeaformis Lake withefish have a maximum life spawn of about 18 years No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Return to deep water occurs soon after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis After spawning, adullts return to deeper water Iteroparous Bradbury, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Typically iteroparous, although reproduction does not occur every year for some individuals and populations No category Willson, 1997
Hucho hucho Iteroparous : 8-12 spawning during a lifetime Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hucho hucho The fishes spawning represented nine age groups: 4 to 12 years No category Witkowski, 1988
Hucho hucho The reproduction is annual No category Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Spawning takes place once a year No category Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho They are known to spawn up to 12 times per lifetime No category Jungwirth, 1978
Hucho hucho Mean of 64 (range 51-77%) of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Semelparous : died soon after the end of the spawning season Semelparous Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Survivorship rates are low, at 1-25% Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink salmon have a rigid 2-year life cycle No category Murray and Beacham, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink salmon have the shortest and most inflexible life cycle of all the Pacific salmon No category Macquarrie, 1979
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 0% of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus keta The adults die in a few days without returning to the sea Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta Adults die after a week Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta All species of Oncorhynchus die after spawning Semelparous Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta The adult fish die after spawning and may live only a week after first entering fresh water Semelparous Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Die after spawning Semelparous Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus keta All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
Oncorhynchus keta 0% of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus kisutch Soon after spawning is completed the adults die Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch Adult salmon spawn only once, then die Semelparous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch None die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus kisutch Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus kisutch All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
Oncorhynchus kisutch 0% of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss Not all rainbow trout die after spawning [The trend toward repeat spawning increases from north to south] Ambiguous Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Individual rainbow trout have been known to spawn in as many as five successive years, however survival is often low and the number spawning more than once can be less than 10% Iteroparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Repeat spawning can occur for up to 5 years Iteroparous Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. First the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
Oncorhynchus mykiss Mean of 10 (range 0.6-31.3%) of repeat spawners for anadromous populations, and 26 (range 18-33%) for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka Nine to ten days after starting to spawn, male and female die Semelparous Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka The adults of both sex usually die a few days to several weeks later Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka All adult die after spawning Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus nerka Post-spawning death Semelparous Parensky, 2002
Oncorhynchus nerka Die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus nerka Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus nerka Semelparous Semelparous Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus nerka All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
Oncorhynchus nerka 0% or repeat spawning for both anadromous and resident populations Iteroparous Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Most die after spawning, although some precocious males have been reported to survive Semelparous Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Semelparous Semelparous Hankin, 1993
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Adults die, usually within a few days to weeks Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spent adults usually die a few days after spawning Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha After about a week to ten days or more the adult male and female fish die Semelparous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 0% of repeat spawners (mature male parr may survive to breed again) No category Fleming, 1998
Salmo salar Many atlantic salmon die after spawning but some may survive and return for spawning one or more times Semelparous Groot, 1996
Salmo salar 101 female were stripped: 21 survived to spawn twice, 14 three times, and a single spawned four times No category Jarrams, 1979
Salmo salar Iteroparous: from 1,2 and 4 spawning in a lifetime but female could lost 99% of their fat reserve ! Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo salar About 10% survive the spawning season No category Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
Salmo salar Often do not die after spawning and may spawn more than once Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar Although many Atlantic salmon die after spawning, iteroparity (up to 5 or 6 times) also occurs. The interval between breeding differs, however, with the length or stream discharge of the river used for spawning. Repeat spawning is more common in females than males Ambiguous Willson, 1997
Salmo salar Although some adults return to sea immediatly after spawning, others may overwinter in freshwater or estuarine habitats and migrate to sea the following spring Iteroparous Bradbury, 1999
Salmo salar 11 (0.7-42.5 %) or repeat breeding for anadromous populations, and 30% for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
Salmo salar Most leave streams immediatly after spawning or after resting in pools for a few weeks, others overwinter in streams No category Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario Brown trout as old as thirteen years of age have been reported No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Age ranges from 2 to 15 years No category Crisp, 1994
Salmo trutta fario Few anadromous brown trout spawned more than once in Själsöan (7.3% of the males and 5.7% of the females). Fourteen males and 11 females were observed spawning in Själsöan 2 years in succession, and three males and two females 3 years in succession Iteroparous Rubin, 2005
Salmo trutta fario Some fish spawned and left the river, some died after spawning, while others died unspent Semelparous Aarestrup and Jepsen, 1998
Salmo trutta fario Return to lake after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario It lives for 3 to 5 years and older individuals are less abundant No category Randak, 2006
Salvelinus alpinus Either once a year or not every year [May only spawn two or three times, and at the most four times in a lifetime] No category Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Females spawn every second or third year, but seldom every year except in southern partsof the range No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus alpinus Adults normally spawn every second or third year, but seldom every year except in southern part of its range No category Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Breeding is annual in some populations of Arctic charr (mostly freshwater, one anadromous population), but for most anadormous individuals, the interval between breeding is 2 to 4 years, especially in the north. Lifespan is potentially long, up to 40 years, but more often 15 years No category Willson, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus Since spawning requires high energy output, females often oly spawn every 2 or 3 years, and therefore, not all the adults are part of the spawning population in a given year No category Beddow, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Lives more than 24 years [It is apparent that all the females within the size range of maturity do not spawn every autumn] No category Grainger, 1953
Salvelinus alpinus Mean of 41 (range 32-50%) of repeat spawners for anadromous populations and 61 (range 33684%) for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis Tag recaptures from fish tagged several years suggest that brrok trout spawn each year at the same spawning bed No category Fraser, 1985
Salvelinus fontinalis Adults leave spawnig areas shortly after spawning No category Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Brook trout mature early in life but have a considerably shorter life span than other salmonids No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Male brrok char often reproduce annually, but females in some populations only breed at 2 to 3 year intervals. This species tends to be short lived, with a maximum lifespan of less than 12 years, females tend to live longer than males No category Willson, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis Iteroparous Iteroparous Berejikian, 2000
Salvelinus fontinalis Iteroparous Iteroparous Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis As soon as S, fontinalis of either sex attains sexual maturity, it can spawn several years in succession No category Vladykov, 1956
Salvelinus fontinalis Most of the brook trout in these infertile streams mature, spawn, and die before reaching 6 inches in total length Semelparous Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 21% of repeat spawners for anadromous populations, and 24 (range 12-32%) for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis May return to lake after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning occurs annually in southern areas, every other year in other parts No category Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus namaycush Can live to 40 years of age No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Dispersal of adults from spawning areas begins shortly after spawning No category Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Lake char females commonly breed in alternate years, especially in the north. These fish are potentially long lived (>25 years), and indiduals may reproduce many times if maturity is not delayed No category Willson, 1997
Salvelinus namaycush Mean of 53 (range 6-79%) of repeat spawners in different populations No category Fleming, 1998
Stenodus leucichthys Twice in his lifecycle, with an interval of 2-3 years No category Belyaeva, 2005
Stenodus leucichthys Suspected that individual fish spawn only once every 2, 3 or 4 years No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Stenodus leucichthys Russian fish appear to spawn only every third or fourth year No category Fishbase, 2006
Stenodus leucichthys Spawning occur only once or twice in the life cycle of most fish although exceptional famesl may spawn 3 times [spawning occur at intervals of 2-3 years] No category Coad, 2006
Stenodus leucichthys Live up to 20 years No category Maitland, 1977
Thymallus thymallus Iteroparous: 1 or 2 in a lifetime Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Survive after spawning No category Persat, 2001
Thymallus thymallus One clear seasonal peak per year No category Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus thymallus Seem to spawn almost every year No category Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus Could live up to 15 years No category Maitland, 1977
Thymallus thymallus Typically iteroparous, although reproduction does not occur every year for some individuals and populations No category Willson, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Grayling in Lake Mjosa are consecutive and repetitive spawners No category Kristiansen and Doving, 1996
Thymallus thymallus A few exhausted grayling were caught every season drifting downstream after spawning No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Thymallus arcticus Adults spawn several times but possibly not all of them every year No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus Grayling may spawn every year No category Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus Once reaching sexual maturity, grayling may spawn every year, although they do not necessarily do so No category Northcote, 1993
Cottus gobio Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio Actively reproducting female range from 2 to 7 years No category Abdoli, 2005
Cottus gobio Could live up to 4 to 6 years No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Cottus gobio In the Bere stream all fish ripen and lay eggs at the end of their first year of life. Thereafter, most of them die and only a small percentage survive to breed in their second year. In the trout beck systme, fish do not ripen eggs until their second or third years of life but the maximum recorded life expectancy appears to be nine years Semelparous Fox, 1978
Ameiurus nebulosus Adults guard nest and fry and then return to lake in summer and fall Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Return to lakes in fall Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus After reaching maturity in nature, reproduce only once year No category Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Only one cycle of oogenesis normally occurs each year No category Pacoli, 1990
Silurus glanis Alternate year spawning by some females No category Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
Silurus glanis After reaching maturity in nature, reproduce only once year No category Legendre, 1997
Osmerus eperlanus Spawns either once a year, or not every year [From one to two or three times during a lifetime] No category Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus River consits of large repeat spawners [The largest females and males arrive in spawning grounds and spawn first] No category Ivanova and Polovka, 1972
Osmerus eperlanus Consists chiefly of only two age groups (1+ and 2+) with only a small proportion of 3+ year old individuals No category Hutchinson and Mills, 1987
Osmerus eperlanus After spawning, adults return to saltwater to spend the summer in the estuary or in a narrow zone along the coast Iteroparous Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus The maximum age recorded for smelt from the river Shannon is 3+ No category Quigley, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus Many individuals die after the spawning Semelparous Fishbase, 2006