Spawning conditions - Spawning release



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Total spawner, only once Total Rinchard, 1996
Anguilla anguilla It seems that female eel undergoing artificial maturation function as batch spawners Mutliple Pedersen, 2003
Anguilla anguilla Each female probably spawns intermittently with several males each time Ambiguous Vollestad and Jonsson, 1986
Anguilla anguilla Most eels ovulated more than once over periods up to several days Mutliple Palstra, 2005
Alosa alosa Batch spawner Mutliple Acolas, 2004
Alosa alosa 5 to 7 batches during a spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Several batches Mutliple Spillmann, 1961
Alosa alosa Only one batch by night, 5 to 7 batches during a spawning season Mutliple Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa alosa 5 to 7 spawnings per spawning season No category Boisneau, 1990
Alosa fallax Free, several batches Mutliple Spillmann, 1961
Alosa fallax Several batches during a spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa fallax Only one batch by night, 5 to 7 batches during a spawning season Mutliple Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa fallax Batch spawning reproductive behavior Mutliple Lopez, 2007
Alosa fallax Evidence that twaite shad are serial spawners releasing discrete batches of eggs over an extended spawning season includes macroscopic and histologic indications of recent spawning concurrent with mature vitellogenic oocytes Mutliple Pina, 2003
Alosa sapidissima Broadcast singly No category Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Batch spawner: an individual female spawns repeatedly during each spawning season [Spawning frequency (every four fays) is preliminary] American shad probably exhibit indeterminate fecundity, contradicting previous studies Mutliple Olney, 2001
Alosa sapidissima Batch spawner Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Alosa sapidissima American shad in the St. Johns river are batch spawners Mutliple Olney and McBride, 2003
Alosa sapidissima Histological evidence that an individual spawn in batches over a period of days or weeks Mutliple Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Aphanius iberus Multiple spawning throughout the reproductive cycle Mutliple Vargas and De Sostoa, 1997
Aphanius iberus More than four spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Aphanius iberus Mutiple spawner No category Fernandez-Delgado, 1988
Valencia hispanica Multiple spawner, releasing a number of batch eggs throughout the reproductive period Mutliple Caiola, 2001
Valencia hispanica Eggs are deposited solely No category Billard, 1997
Valencia hispanica Eggs are deposited one by one No category Keith, 2001
Barbatula barbatula Two periods of spawning : May and late-summer-early autumn Mutliple Skryabin, 1993
Barbatula barbatula One period of spawning No category Saat, 2003
Barbatula barbatula Multiple spawner Mutliple Perrin, 2001
Barbatula barbatula Spawn only once a year for several years in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawning within a season in high productivity environments Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Barbatula barbatula Female lay their egg one by one No category Sauvonsaari, 1971
Barbatula barbatula Multiple spawning have been suggested Mutliple Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis taenia Batch or fractional spawner, enables the fish to extend the reproductive period Ambiguous Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia Only a single batch of eggs during a few days Mutliple Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia Multiple spawner: 100-500 eggs Mutliple Perrin, 2001
Cobitis taenia Several batches Mutliple Coad, 2006
Cobitis taenia Despite the eggs not being abundant, spawning can occur until 4-5 times each day and 100-400 eggs are emitted on the whole. Mating is repeated more than once in the reporductive period Mutliple Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
Cobitis taenia If this species is a fractional spawner the actual number of eggs produced by each female may be greater Fractional Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis paludica Multiple spawner or batch spawner: two batches per year per females Mutliple Oliva-Paterna, 2002
Cobitis paludica Multiple spawning have been suggested also for C. paludicola Mutliple Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple spawner Mutliple Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple, fractional spawner Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple spawner: Batches of 8000-15000 eggs Mutliple Kestemont, 2001
Blicca bjoerkna Three to four batches of eggs in few days Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna The batch-spawing white bream also spawned twice within several weeks Mutliple Molls, 1999
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Intermittent spawning Fractional Luksiene, 2000
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple spawner, but in several years and different water bodies it spawn only once per breeding season Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple spawning Mutliple Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Blicca bjoerkna Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
Blicca bjoerkna Mutiple spawners No category Lefler, 2006
Blicca bjoerkna Multiple spawners Mutliple Lefler, 2008
Abramis brama Once No category Rinchard, 1996
Abramis brama Once or repeated spawning No category Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Several batches of eggs are released and fertilized by different males Mutliple Poncin, 1996
Abramis brama At least two batches of eggs per female Mutliple Sokolova, 1990
Abramis brama In most cases, spawns once per breeding season, but it is known to spawn twice or three times especially in southern water bodies No category Fredrich, 2003
Abramis brama Clement weather and increased temperature stimulated further spawning of this fracionally spawning species No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Abramis brama Only some females in thermally polluted waters show a tendency for batch spawning and due to en ecological stress in dam reservoirs in the first years after flooding . The proportion of females with batch spawning increases in A. brama populations southwards in the range in comparison with centrally located waters. Northern A. brama spawn in one portion only Mutliple Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama Bream is a single spawner in the sense the in one individual all eggs mature synchronously […] In lake Peipsi, breams lay their eggs usully in 2-3 groups during the spawning period Total Noges and Järvet, 2005
Abramis brama Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Alburnoides bipunctatus Multiple spawning Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Alburnoides bipunctatus Multiple spawner : eggs are released in several times Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Multiple spawning over a period of 15 weeks Mutliple Coad, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus Multiple spawner Mutliple Persat, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Spirlin is reported to belong to batch spawners […] The absence of the gap, and no increase in mean diameter of the oocytes supports the idea that spirlin has indeterminate fecundity Mutliple Polacik and Kovac, 2006
Alburnus alburnus Multiple spawner, several spawning during the breeding season Mutliple Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Multiple : 3 spawns during the spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnus alburnus From 2-4 batches per year, up to 6 Mutliple Carrell and Olivier, 2001
Alburnus alburnus Several spawing during the reproduction season Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
Alburnus alburnus It spawns 2 or 3 times laying a total of 3000 up to 10500 eggs Total Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
Alburnus alburnus Typical multiple spawners Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
Alburnus alburnus Produced two or three batches Mutliple Mackay and Mann, 1969
Alburnus alburnus The bleak behaved like multiple spawners in the tributary of Rimov Reservoir. After the main runs, several weaker spawning runs occurred, each with decreasing strength Mutliple Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Alburnus alburnus Multiple spawning Mutliple Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Alburnus alburnus Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
Alburnus alburnus Fractional spawning, 3 spawnings Fractional Agence de l'eau,
Alburnus alburnus Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Aristichthys nobilis Bighead carp often have two or three spawning periods per year [Extended spawing period or multiple spawning] Mutliple Schrank, 1999
Aspius aspius Spawning is non-intermittent Fractional Shikhshabekov, 1979
Aspius aspius Eggs are released synchronously No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
Aspius aspius Asp has only one spawning No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Barbus barbus Females spawn only once within the season in the River Ourthen even under exceptionally high temperatures No category Baras, 1995
Barbus barbus Female reseased 50 egg and up to 280 releases during 10-11 hours No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus 3-8000 eggs per female No category Spillmann, 1961
Barbus barbus Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Barbus barbus Batch of 50 eggs each [Spawning each 8 days in captivity] Mutliple Poncin, 1993
Barbus barbus One bacth Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
Barbus barbus Mutiple spawners No category Lefler, 2006
Barbus barbus Multiple spawners Mutliple Lefler, 2008
Carassius auratus 3-4 spawnings in reared conditions No category Spillmann, 1961
Carassius auratus Spawn several times under natural conditions Mutliple Aida, 1988
Carassius auratus Female are able to spawn more than once each spawning season Mutliple Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus Multiple spawner: up to 4 a year Mutliple Persat, 2001
Carassius auratus In favourable conditions fish may spawn several times in a season Mutliple Horvath, 1992
Carassius auratus In rearing conditions, up to 3-4 spawnings per season No category Billard, 1997
Carassius auratus Batch spawner Mutliple Scholfield, 2005
Carassius auratus In the region where temperatures of water maintains above an higher value during several months, several spawning could be observed in the same breeders Mutliple Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Carassius auratus Ovulate oneto several times over a protracted spring-summer spanwing season Mutliple Kobayashi, 2002
Carassius auratus Duirng on spawning event they spawn about 2 thousand eggs. One gram of spawn contains 1.2 thousand eggs No category Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius Mutiple No category Rinchard, 1996
Carassius carassius Three periods of spawnings have been commoly observed from late May to mid-July, with female producing similar number of eggs Mutliple Holopainen, 1997
Carassius carassius Multiple (fractional) spawner Ambiguous Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius Fractionnal spawner : 4 to 5 spawning during a period of 10-15 days [Polycycle] No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius carassius Batch spawner Mutliple Scholfield, 2005
Carassius carassius Crucian carp is one of the batch-spawning cyrpinids fround in nothern Europe Mutliple Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Carassius carassius Spawn in 3-5 batches during each summer Mutliple Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius The eggs are laid in 2-3 batches […] This species is a fractional spawner: the females release only part of their eggs at each spawning Ambiguous Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus Eggs are released in small quantities No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus The spawning act is repeated several times until all eggs are released Mutliple Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus One batch Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Single spawner Total Lefler, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning act is short. Repeated spawnings on the spawning ground were not observed No category Prawochenski, 1964
Chondrostoma nasus Single spawner Total Lefler, 2008
Chondrostoma toxostoma Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Ctenopharyngodon idella Multiple spawning Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Ctenopharyngodon idella One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Ctenopharyngodon idella Either single spawning per year or two or four spawnings per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Ctenopharyngodon idella Multiple spawning in a year has been reported, but probably rarely occurs Mutliple Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Intermittent spawner in the Amur basin. When the absolute fecundity of 90 females was depicted the curve was clearly two-peaked for 82 females (91%) and had one perka for only eigth females (9%), the latter females should be classified as fish which lay all their eggs on a single occassion. The size of the first batch of eggs in females in which the sizes of yolk ooctyes had a two-peaked curve ranged from 55 to 91.5% and was on average 67% of absolute fecundity Ambiguous Gorbach, 1972
Ctenopharyngodon idella Presents the only evidence for multiple-spawning by individual grass carp in one year Mutliple Shireman and Smith, 1983
Cyprinus carpio Able to spawn more than once during the breeding season Mutliple Internet, 2005
Cyprinus carpio Eggs are released in two or three times over a period of 10-14 days No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Sometimes several batches Mutliple Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Cyprinus carpio Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
Cyprinus carpio Carp may spawn repeatedly during the same year if environmental conditions are favourable. Multiple maturation was confirmed by histological analysis Mutliple Dubost, 1997
Cyprinus carpio As long as conditions are met, and there is appropriate habitat, common carp will spawn repeatedly. Thus, common carp in tropical fresh waters are perennial spawners, and females annually release four to five discrete batches of eggs. Ambiguous Smith and Walker, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Carp are fractional spawners with indeterminate breeding season fecundity. Depending on local thermo and photo conditions, each female may spawn one to five batches of eggs per year. In India, carp spawn once. In southern France, Bengladesh, and west Bengal they may spawn twice. In tropical climates, carp are perennial spawners and spawn 4-5 times per year Ambiguous Smith, 2004
Gobio gobio Frationnal and multiple spawner Mutliple Chemillier, 1995
Gobio gobio Frationnal and multiple spawner Mutliple Rossechi and Kestemont, 2001
Gobio gobio Batch spawner [Spawns once a year in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawinng within a season in high productivity environments] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Gobio gobio By batches Mutliple Spillmann, 1961
Gobio gobio Ova were scattered over the bed of the rivulet singly, in two and three and occassionaly in clumps of 4 together No category Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio 1000 to 5000 eggs are released each time, and 8-15 days between each spawning and four spawning duraing the season No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio Multiple spawner Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Gobio gobio Up to four batches Mutliple Kestemont, 1987
Gobio gobio Released by small batches Mutliple Billard, 1997
Gobio gobio Either single spawning per year of two to four spawnings per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Gobio gobio Typical multiple spawners Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
Gobio gobio Most females lay two or more batches of eggs each season Mutliple Mann, 1980
Gobio gobio Spawned repeatedly in four terms No category Penaz and Prokes, 1978
Gobio gobio Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
Gobio gobio Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Gobio gobio Ponte multiple Mutliple Beelen, 1998/1999
Gobio gobio Pluralité de pontes d'une même femelle au cours d'une même saison No category Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The average egg deposition was 3 hours, several clutches Mutliple Verigin, 1999
Leucaspius delineatus Several spawnings occur over a few weeks Mutliple Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus Mutiple spawner No category Rinchard, 1996
Leucaspius delineatus Fractional asynchronous Fractional Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
Leucaspius delineatus Fractionnal spawner : 3 spawns or five generations of ovocytes released by batch of 20-30 Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus Spawing is asynhcronous and fractional: the spawning consists of ribbon of 8-10 cm Fractional Le Louarn, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus Female release a strip of up to 80 eggs No category Gozlan, 2003
Leucaspius delineatus Batch spawner Mutliple Gozlan, 2003b
Leucaspius delineatus Typical multiple spawners Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
Leucaspius delineatus Egg are laid in batches, so spawners spawn every few or every several days. Also observed that each female laid 3-5 batches of eggs Mutliple Bonislawska, 1999
Leucaspius delineatus Fractional spawning with 3 to 5 generations of oocytes Fractional Agence de l'eau,
Leucaspius delineatus Batch spawning cyprinid Mutliple Pinder, 2005
Leuciscus cephalus Unique/multiple Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Fractional spawner Fractional Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus 4 batches per spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Either single spawning per year or two to four spawnings per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Leuciscus cephalus Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Total or multiple spawner ? Ambiguous Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus One batch Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus In natural conditions chub females release maximally two batches of eggs. Russian authors suggest that the number of released batches depends on the time of beginning of breeding season. Females spawning in May can repeat spawning in August, while those maturing in June release only one batch of eggs. Mutliple Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus Three cohors of L. cephalus hatched between July 3 and 25 No category Rheinberger, 1987
Leuciscus cephalus Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Leuciscus idus Multiple Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Leuciscus idus Once a year Total Kestemont, 2001
Leuciscus idus Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus idus Single spawner Total Lefler, 2006
Leuciscus idus Single spawner Total Lefler, 2008
Leuciscus leuciscus Unique No category Rinchard, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning is synchronous: each female deposited 15000-25000 eggs No category Persat, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Leuciscus leuciscus Single spawning Total Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus leuciscus Release one batch of egg Mutliple Mann and Mills, 1985
Leuciscus leuciscus Shed a single batch of eggs in a well-defined spawning period Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Mylopharyngodon piceus One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Mylopharyngodon piceus In a single batch Mutliple Crosier, 2005
Phoxinus phoxinus Multiple Mutliple Runchard, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus Multiple and fractional spawning Ambiguous Kestemont, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus Mutiple No category Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus 4 to 5 batches, each batch contains about 200-1000 ovocytes Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus A potential to spawn 7 to 9 batches of eggs Mutliple Mills, 1987
Phoxinus phoxinus Two to four spawnings per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Phoxinus phoxinus Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning is protracted, intermittent Fractional Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus The condition of spent fish in Windermere, particulalryl of females captured in late May, indicates that all the eggs are shed at one time, and thus long-drawn-out breeding time is not due to the same individuals shedding their eggs and sperm during a protracted period but to a population composed of fish, which mature at different times from may to July No category Frost, 1943
Phoxinus phoxinus Analysis of the changes in egg numbers in the gonads over this period indicates that each female ripens and sheds several batches of eggs over the spawning season. Spawn at least four successive batches of eggs Mutliple Mills and Eloranta, 1985
Phoxinus phoxinus In southern habitat, this species spawns multiple clutches over a prolonged spawning season (April to August) but few individuals survive their first breeding season. Production of multiple clutches persist as far north as Konnevesi in central Finland, and the life-span remains relatively short. A greatly prolonged life-span has been reported from a minnow population in eastern forest Lapland Mutliple Mills, 1988
Phoxinus phoxinus Frationnal spawning with an interal of 12-15 days between two spawnings No category Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Phoxinus phoxinus Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Pimephales promelas Fractional spawner Fractional Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas Multiple of fractional spawner Ambiguous Jensen, 2001
Pimephales promelas Fractional spawner: can result in from 16 to 26 spawning events per females Fractional Duffy, 1998
Pimephales promelas Fractional spawner Fractional Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pseudorasbora parva Intermittent spawning, the number of batches which the female lays during the spawning season may be 60 or more Ambiguous Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Under optimal temperature, female spawns each 5 days No category Billard, 1997
Pseudorasbora parva Multiple spawning Mutliple Rossechi, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva Intermittent Spawning with up to 85 eggs per batch. up to 60 batches og eggs may be laid in a spawning season Ambiguous Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva Multiple Mutliple Rosecchi, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva Batch spawner Mutliple Pinder, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva During one act it lays up to several dozen eggs. Mutliple Witkowski, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva Spawning is intemittent No category Boltachev, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva Is a multiple spawner that lay eggs repeatedly duting the spawning season. Mutliple Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus Batch spawners with determinate fecundity, breeding season is fixed at the onset of the spawning season. with egg number in the ovary declining over the spawning season Mutliple Smith, 2004
Rhodeus sericeus Several batches of eggs, the time between two batch is about 5-20 mn Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Female can spawn in more than one mussel and lay 50-100 clutches of 1-6 eggs during a breeding season No category Smith, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Multiple spawner: up to 5 Mutliple Oliver and Carrel, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Multiple spawner: up to 5, batch of 40-100 eggs Mutliple Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Single No category Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Once, no evidence of further spawning No category Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Spawn only once No category Molls, 1999
Rutilus rutilus Single spawner Total Rinchard, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Spawns only one batch of eggs per season Mutliple Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Rutilus rutilus Spawn a single time per spawning season No category Kopiejewska, 2003
Rutilus rutilus Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Synchronous type of spawning has been reported No category Tarkan, 2006
Rutilus rutilus One single spawning Total Luksiene, 2000
Rutilus rutilus Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
Rutilus rutilus Sheld all their eggs in one batch Mutliple Mackay and Mann, 1969
Rutilus rutilus Only one spawning of roach occurred each year No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Rutilus rutilus One batch Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
Rutilus rutilus R. rutilus spawned only once, the embryos hatching around May 23rd No category Rheinberger, 1987
Rutilus rutilus Shed a single batch of eggs in a well-defined spawning period Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Rutilus rutilus Single event No category Jobling, 2002b
Rutilus rutilus Pondeur unique No category Beelen, 1998/1999
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Multiple Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Monospawner fish but in other areas where female shed the eggs over several months Mutliple Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Fractionnal spawner No category Spillmann, 1961
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawns no less than 2 batches of eggs (the first is the main one), seem to spawn only twice Mutliple Shikhshabekov, 1979
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Fractional spawner : several batches of eggs Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Synchronous type of spawning has been reported [Yet in some areas, rudd has asynchronous ovogenesis and shed the eggs over several months, spawn two batches of eggs int he absence of suitable conditions (particularly temperature) for spawning, the female remain throughout the spawning period with unspawned sexual products] Mutliple Tarkan, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus The eggs are laid in two portions, the first portion consisting of 80% of all the eggs No category Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus S. erythrophthalmus spawned four times,the embryos hatching between June 19 and August 1st No category Rheinberger, 1987
Tinca tinca Multispawning, 3 spawnings under natural conditions, intervals of 15-22 days No category Pinillos, 2003
Tinca tinca Intermittent spawner Fractional Breton, 1980
Tinca tinca 9 spawnings under heated conditions No category Horoszewicz, 1983
Tinca tinca Multiple spawning Mutliple Spillmann, 1961
Tinca tinca 3 to 9 spawings during a season No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca 3 if temperature is low and up to 9 during warm summer No category Billard, 1997
Tinca tinca Up to 8 batches Mutliple Feunteun, 2001
Tinca tinca Batch-spawner Mutliple Kamler, 1995
Tinca tinca Multi-batch spawning Mutliple Pimpicka, 1990
Tinca tinca In normal spawning pond, females deposited 3-4 eggs batches [39-54 000 eggs] during the season, and 5-8 batches in heated ponds, interval spawning was 15-22 days and first batch of eggs yielded 33-38% of total fecundity per season Ambiguous Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca Several batches during a breeding season Mutliple Poncin, 1987
Tinca tinca Independent of climatic conditions, it depositis different numbers of batches during the spawning period: in Wes siberia 2-3 batches, in Lithuania and in the Kijowski dam reservoir, 3 batches, in the danube estuary 3-4 batches and in the Dniepr basin 4-5 batches Mutliple Morawska, 1984
Tinca tinca The first batch is spawned usually in June, about one-third of total numbers is released at that time. The next batches (usually two) are spawned usually in 20-days intervals Ambiguous Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba Spawning is non-intermittent, however it could also spawn intermittently (as many as 3 batches of eggs with interval of 14-15 days) Ambiguous Shikhshabekov, 1979
Vimba vimba Spawning is non-intermittent Fractional Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba Usually spawn twice in one season, or even three times No category Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
Vimba vimba Three batches Mutliple Hliwa, 2002
Vimba vimba As a portion-spawning fish, V. vimba usually makes, with favourable weather conditions, 2-3 spawning migrations from this reservoir No category Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba Ovaries, close to the spawning, contain small (24-45%) and large (55-75%) eggs, which indicates spawning in batches Mutliple Kuliev, 1988
Vimba vimba According to our examination wimba has a single spawning per season in the studied population. According to other study, V. vimba in the basins of the Baltic and Black seas is a repeat spawner (2-3 batches) and it is therefore impossible to compare those results with ours Ambiguous Lusk, 2005
Vimba vimba Batch spawning Mutliple Luszczek, 2008
Gambusia affinis Females can have up to six groups of frys during a season No category Crivelli and Quatre, 2001
Gambusia affinis Viviparous No category Koya, 1998
Gambusia affinis Release 10-100 neonates by batch, each 3-4 weeks, i.e. 3 or 5 times per year Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gambusia affinis The female carries about 30 alevins and gestation last for a period of 24 days to a month No category Fishbase, 2006
Gambusia affinis More than four spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Esox masquinongy Fractionnal spawner, producing two clutches of eggs per year No category Lebeau, 1991
Esox masquinongy The spawning act is carried out many times at irregular intervals over several days Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy Fractional spawner Fractional Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
Esox niger A single female may spawn several times over the course of one or two days until all eggs are shed Mutliple Coffie, 1998
Esox niger Spawning act is carried out at various intervals over 1 or 2 days No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius Single No category Rinchard, 1996
Esox lucius Single spawner, developping egg in a single clutch annually Total Lebeau, 1990
Esox lucius Each individual of both sex perfoms the spawning act only once annually Total Toner and Lawler, 1969
Esox lucius Batch spawner, one clear seasonal peak per year Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Esox lucius Numerous release of small batches of eggs (5 à 60 ovules) within few hours, a great distance could be made between two spawns Mutliple Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Frational spawning, over few days. Each spawning contains few dizaines eggs No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius Ova are released in small batches of 5-60 many times over some distance, ensuring a wide distribution Mutliple Billard, 1996
Esox lucius Batches over 2-5 days Mutliple Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
Esox lucius The spawning act is repeated many times during the day for 2-5 days [Usually in numbers of 5-60 at each spawning act] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius Once a year Total Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
Esox lucius Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Esox lucius A single female may spawn over a period of several days Mutliple Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius Eggs are shed in a succession of batches on flooded arable and grassland, or dense mats of aquatic vegetation Mutliple Giles, 1986
Esox lucius One single spawning Total Luksiene, 2000
Lota lota One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus Multiples Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female can spawn several times per year Mutliple Crivelli, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Females may lay eggs in sevreral nests over a period of several days or may be courted by the same male Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus Estimated number of clutches per female is about 14 No category Copp, 2002
Gasterosteus aculeatus 50-300 in several spawnings. mostly less than 100 and more than 50 per batch Mutliple Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus 100-400 eggs per batch Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Males and females only complete one spawning in natural conditions though laboratory studies show males capable of 5 reproductive cycles and females of producing a clutch of eggs every 3-4 days. No category Coad, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Eggs are laid in clusters Fractional Scott and Crossman, 1973
Gasterosteus aculeatus Clutches of 112 ± 19 No category Wallace and Selman, 1979
Gasterosteus aculeatus Clutches of 33-660 eggs No category Poizat, 2002
Gasterosteus aculeatus May ovulate several batches in a season is conditions are favourable Mutliple Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
Gasterosteus aculeatus Eggs are deposited in clusters in the nest Fractional Bradbury, 1999
Gasterosteus aculeatus Several batches during a breeding season Mutliple Poncin, 1987
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawn several in breeding season Mutliple Wootton, 1973
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female have the physiological capacity to spawn several times during a breeding season. A well-fed female spawn 10 or more times in a breeding season Mutliple Ali and Wooton, 1999
Gasterosteus aculeatus The numbers of mature oocytes decreased gradually to the end of breeding as a consequence of multiple spawning Mutliple Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus The female lays about 100 to 150 eggs at a time. No category Swarup, 1958
Gasterosteus aculeatus Several spawnings may occur each season Mutliple Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius Multiple spawner Mutliple Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius Female release about 100 eggs No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pungitius pungitius Female lays about 50 to 80 eggs No category Fishbase, 2006
Pungitius pungitius 20-30 batches of eggs Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
Pungitius pungitius Estimated number of clutches per female is about 21.3 No category Copp, 2002
Pungitius pungitius The range of clutch size in the two lakes was similar accross the 2 years. In Airolo Lake clutches ranged in size from 43 to 291 eggs (females 40.3-70.4mm Ls), whereas clutches in Dog Bone Lake contained 36-261 eggs (females 40.5-68.7 mm Ls) No category Heins, 2005
Pungitius pungitius May spawn more than once a season Mutliple Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius The presence of partly spent females shows that spawning in this species is portioned: a female can spawn several times during one breeding season. After one clutch of eggs has been laid in the nest the next batch of oocytes begins to mature in the ovaries Mutliple Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
Pungitius pungitius In most populations probably produce multiple clutches of eggs during a spawning season Mutliple Heins, 2003
Ambloplites rupestris Multiple spawner Mutliple Carrel, 2001
Ambloplites rupestris Multiple spawner Mutliple Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris Spawing takes place at short intervals over a period of 1 hour or more but only a few eggs are laid at time No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus Multiple spawner: Batches of 8000-11000 eggs for a female of 9-11 cm Mutliple Carrel, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Multiple spawning: Mean number of spawning periods 3 [Batch fecundity either 1800-3900 or 2500-14100 eggs per female] Mutliple Fox and Crivelli, 1998
Lepomis gibbosus Multiple spawner fish, each female spawns repeatedly over several months [Spawn several batches of eggs, three times or more at intervals of 20-30 days] Mutliple Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Lepomis gibbosus Small numbers of eggs and small quantities of sperm are meiited at irregular intervals [Males may spawn more than once in the same season, in the same nest, with the same or different females] Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus Eggs are deposited in clusters in the center of the nest Fractional Spillmann, 1961
Lepomis gibbosus Deposited in clusters, or singly but very dense pert unit area Fractional Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus Several hundreds of eggs (600-5000) are released by each female in a kind of visquous ribbon Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Deposited in clusters Fractional Billard, 1997
Lepomis gibbosus Either single spawning per year or from two to four spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Micropterus dolomieui Small clusters, becoming loose Fractional Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Each nests receives only a single batch of eggs from a single female Mutliple Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Females tend to spawn once a year. However, the spawing act may be prolonged and females may lay their eggs in more than one nest Total Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Bass spawned intermittently during the spawning season as revealed by (i) the presence of fry over the entire duration of the spawning season, (ii) pattern of GSI : values returned to the regressed level gradually Fractional Rosenblum, 1994
Micropterus salmoides Multiple spawning periods have been observed during one spawning season Mutliple Newburg, 1975
Micropterus salmoides Several batches of eggs are deposited into the nests at short intervals Mutliple Internet, 2005
Micropterus salmoides Most ripe eggs are released with the initial spawn, each subsequent spawn normally contains approximatively half the eggs of the preceding spawn No category Williamson, 1993
Micropterus salmoides Females lay their eggs in several nests nut in a short period of time, fractionnal spawner [each nest could contain 5000-40000] Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides A female may spawn with several males on different nests Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus salmoides From two to four spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Micropterus salmoides "The experiment did not allow to check the occurrence of ""multiple spanwing"". If it does occur, then it did running within a very short period of time, since in early June there were no stage IV occytes observed in the ovary sections, only stage I oocytes, oocytes in the degenerative process or empty oocytes remained. In other studies: eggs occurred of different development stages and spawning was made by small batches, over a more or less long period" Mutliple Martin, 1997
Dicentrarchus labrax Once a year (but several times in captivity) Ambiguous Prat, 1990
Dicentrarchus labrax Once a year [One batch per female released during few hours] Ambiguous Zohar, 1984
Dicentrarchus labrax Batch spawner [Once clear seasonal peak per year] Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Dicentrarchus labrax Batch spawner Mutliple Berlinsky, 1995
Dicentrarchus labrax Batch Mutliple Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
Dicentrarchus labrax Multi-batch spawner Mutliple Secor, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax Fractional spawner [Once spawning has started, successive clutches appear to be recruited in quick succession from the large hetegogeneous population of smaller secondary oocytes. The first cluth contained 30-50% of the total number of seconday oocytes and that successive clutches contained relatively fewer oocytes. Spawn three or four seperate clutches in quick succession, successive clutches containing fewer oocytes. No secondary oocytes are 'held over' for the subsequent reproductive season.] Ambiguous Mayer, 1990
Morone americana Batch spawners Mutliple Berlinsky, 1995
Morone americana Eggs may be released during two or three spawning acts No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone americana Two or three seperate spawnings No category Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Spawn once a season, the occurrence of a large proportion of fish with partly psent gondas indicated that a single individual does not expel its full complement of eggs at one time. The various degrees of the partly-spent condition indicated that eggs might be expelled on more than two or three occassions probably depending on biological and environmental stimuli. No category Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Batch spawners Mutliple Berlinsky, 1995
Morone chrysops White bass shed only about one-half of their ova No category Ruelle, 1977
Morone saxatilis Once, single clutch. Females releases one long continuous cloud of eggs for less than ten seconds, sometimes another (minor) synchronous gamete release can be observed No category Sullivan, 1997
Morone saxatilis Females spawn more than once in a season [One clear seasonal peak per year] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Gymnocephalus cernuus More than one clutches of eggs per spawning season, intermittent spawner Fractional Leino and McCormick, 1997
Gymnocephalus cernuus Eggs are extruted in long adhesive and 'accordion folded' strands No category Billard, 1997
Gymnocephalus cernuus Female spawn several batches during the spawning season Mutliple Crivelli and Rosecchi, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus Intermittent spawner with prolonged spawning season Fractional Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Gymnocephalus cernuus Eggs are extruted in long adhesive and 'accordion folded' strands like perch ??? No category Spillmann, 1961
Gymnocephalus cernuus "Ruffle eggs are extruded in ""strands"" ? Never observed anywhere else" No category Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 1000-6000 by batch, in a form of a ribbon Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus Females may spawn two or more batches of eggs in a season, one in winter-spring and one later in summer. Spawnings occurs intermittently, with eggs being laid in two or more batches per year Ambiguous Crosier, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus Intermittent spawners: eggs are laid in two or more batches Ambiguous Craig, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawing is prolonged and portional, the eggs being laid in two or three portions No category Neja, 1988
Gymnocephalus cernuus The analysis indicated that an average ruffe in all heated areas produced three mature portions of eggs during the spawing season, compard with two in the reference area No category Luksiene, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus In asynchronous spawners like ruffe, egg size in consecutive batches is found to be smaller, which is associated with the diminishing resources of the female Mutliple Albert, 2006
Perca flavescens Total spawner Total Dabrowski, 1996
Perca flavescens Once a year Total Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens Eggs of the yellow perch are extruded in adhesive strands, eggs are extruted in long adhesive and 'accordion folded' strands about 5 cm thick No category Mansueti, 1964
Perca flavescens Extruded in a unique transparent, gelatinous, accordion-folded string or tube No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Eggs are laid in masses or ribbons on structure suc as aquatic vegetation No category Rue, 2001
Perca flavescens Intermittent spawning Fractional Luksiene, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Total spawner Total Rinchard, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Once a year. All together in a ribbon Total Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis All together, unique transparent gelatinous accordion-folded stran Total Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis All together, in a ribbon Total Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis All eggs are shed in a single batch Mutliple Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
Perca fluviatilis All together Total Fishbase, 2006
Perca fluviatilis Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Perca fluviatilis One single spawning Total Luksiene, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Shed a single batch of eggs in a well-defined spawning period Mutliple Nunn, 2007
Sander lucioperca Total spawner Total Rinchard, 1996
Sander lucioperca Annual spawning Total Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca Once a year Total Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca Lays all the eggs simultaneously, monogamous [Female can participate in reproduction only once per season, the same applies for male] No category Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
Sander lucioperca Partly a portion spawner No category Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca Female lays all the eggs simultaneously No category Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander vitreus Once a year Total Craig, 2000
Sander vitreus Batch spawner, with one clear seasonal peak per year Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Sander vitreus 200-300 eggs released per each spawning act, with acts repeated at 5-min intervals, waleye randomly broadcats eggs onto suitable substrates No category Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Broacast-spawners, the act of emission may occur some distance off the bottom and the eggs settle gradually to the substrate below No category Corbett and Powles, 1986
Sander vitreus Apparently most individual females deposit most of their eggs in one night of spawning No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Coregonus lavaretus Females move in each night as they rippen No category Coad, 2005
Coregonus albula Observations and histological analysis revealed that vendace in both lakes was a monocyclic spawner No category Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
Coregonus albula Observations on the annual cycle of gonad development suggest that in lakes under study vendace lied eggs in one portion only Total Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
Coregonus clupeaformis Eggs being deposited over a period of several days Mutliple Kerr and Grant, 1999
Hucho hucho NO INFORMATIONS No category Witkowski, 1988
Hucho hucho Eggs are buried in spawning redds No category Holcik, 1990
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Once a year Total Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta 35% of eggs are deposited in the first nest and that the last few nests contain only one-half to one-quater of the number of eggsfind in the first [most females (>80%) completed spawning within 30-40 h after starting theri first nest No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta A fish spawns 7000-7000 eggs in two or three egg releases No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Females may excavate more than one redd and males may spawn with more than one female No category Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus kisutch Eggs are buried at depths ranging from 18 to 39 cm and aredd can contain four to five egg pockets No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss The whole process is repeated for several days until the female deposists all her eggs Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss Deposited in loose cluster or piles Fractional Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus mykiss Females lay about 800-1000 eggs in each nest pocket No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka Eggs are released in three to four times No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka A female normally needs 3 to 5 days to deposit all her eggs and utilizes 3 to 5 nests for this prupose No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Deposited and buried in clusters in gravel Fractional Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Fertilized eggs are buried under 20-60 cm of gravel, in several times Mutliple Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Buried in the ground at about 25-30 No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The whole process of mating and spawning is repeated until the female releases all her eggs, which may take several days [The male the leaves the female and may mate with another female] Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Females spawn multiple times in a series of nests, usually comprising a single redd Mutliple Berejikian, 2000
Salmo salar Batch spawner Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Salmo salar The spawning act is repeated many times until the spawing is completed No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar The spawning is repeated several times until all eggs have been released Mutliple Groot, 1996
Salmo salar As many as five to nine excavations may occur, the last one serving to cover the final batch Mutliple Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Several batch of eggs in 5-10 mn intervals Mutliple Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo trutta fario Once No category Rinchard, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Several nests are generally completed in succession by the female during the spawning season before she is spent, with each nest containing a few hundred eggs Mutliple Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario The process is repeated many times, but when spawning is completed, the female covers the redd with gravel No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo trutta fario A female may dig three to four redd No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Mean of 34 (range 5-69%) of repeat spawning for anadromous populations, Mean of 64.6% for resident populations No category Fleming, 1998
Salmo trutta fario Each female spawned all her eggs on a single spawning area in only one redd generally over one to two nights Total Rubin, 2005
Salvelinus alpinus Once, may not spawn every year but spend several years between two spawning season Mutliple Jamet, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus Batch spawner Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus alpinus Females can release all the eggs over a period from 4 h to 3 d during which she can prepare ut to 8 nest pockets [Eggs can be buried under a layer of gravel 10-20 cm thick] No category Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Females spawned an average of 2.7-3.4 times to deposit a total of 552-571 eggs each Total Hokanson, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis There are usually several extrutions followed by a resting period Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis During spawning, there are usually several extrusions of eggs and milt followed by resting periods before the nest is closed Mutliple Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Female brook trout continue to excavate new redds an deposits eggs until they are spent No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Repeat spawning has been reported for brrok trout, but the accounts of successive spawning indicate that such behavior may lead to the deposition of ova in seperate pockets within a redd No category Hausle and Coble, 1976
Salvelinus namaycush Batch spawner, the spawning act (one female and one or two males) is repeated until the female releases all her eggs Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Stenodus leucichthys Once No category Belyaeva, 2005
Stenodus leucichthys Female may repeat the spawning act over the downstream portion of the spawning area or may move upstream to the head of the grounds before releasing more eggs No category Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus thymallus Females deposit their eggs several times and need to rest between spawning acts Mutliple Sempeski and Gaudin, 1995
Thymallus thymallus Eggs are released in several times Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Eggs are released several times, usually with the same male and at the same place [From to 10 spawings within 2 days] Mutliple Persat, 2001
Thymallus arcticus A female may spawn only once, or several times in different areas Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus arcticus The female may spawn once only, or several times in different areas Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus Grayling females in Providence Creek release most, or all, of their eggs in one act, because, as nearly as could be ascertained, no female was caught with only part of her ripe eggs remaining in the ovary No category Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio Once/Multiples Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
Cottus gobio Usually one but up to four in certain britain populations No category Persat, 2001
Cottus gobio Spawns once a year for several years in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawning within a season in high productivity enviroments Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Cottus gobio 100 to 500 eggs by spawning No category Spillmann, 1961
Cottus gobio 100-500 by batch Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio Multiple spawning during the same breeding season Mutliple Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio Multiple broods Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
Cottus gobio Females laid all their eggs during the same period [Producing only one single batch of eggs per year] Yet, Fox also found that bullhead in less productive streams lay only one batch of eggs annually but in highly productive streams may lay up to four batches of eggs Ambiguous Abdoli, 2005
Cottus gobio Typically once for females in upland streams, and up to four times in warmer, more productive lowland streams [Females adopt fractional reproduction in the latter, with successive batches of secondary oocytes developping into eggs, which the females then lays, perhaps with different partners] Ambiguous Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
Cottus gobio Several batches during a breeding season Mutliple Poncin, 1987
Cottus gobio Apperead to be multiple spawners [...] laid four batches [Other area: Although it is possible that a female might lay parts of her batch separately, the distribution of egg sizes and the very short spawning season both suggest that females only ripen one egg batch per season Mutliple Fox, 1978
Ameiurus nebulosus Expels 30-50 eggs at time, deposited in clusters Fractional Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus One individual may spawn more than once in one year Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning may occur twice a year Mutliple Goodyear, 1982
Ameiurus nebulosus Females deposit all of their annual production of ripe eggs in the nest of a single male. Males apparently spawn with only one female during a single breeding season Total Internet, 2001
Ictalurus punctatus This species may spawn more than once a year Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus Batch spawners Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning lasted 4-6 h with about 9 releases of eggs per hour No category Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus Two spawning peaks may occur No category Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Sequential spawners. Periodically the female deposits a layer of eggs and the male fertilizes them No category Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Cluster Fractional Hecht, 1996
Silurus glanis Spawns intermittently [Most female spawns two batches of eggs] Ambiguous Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
Silurus glanis After reaching maturity in nature, reproduce only once year Total Legendre, 1997
Silurus glanis One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
Osmerus eperlanus Individual males may spawn on as many as 8 nights consecutively, whereas females may spawn only 3 to 4 nights No category Buckley, 1989