Spawning conditions - Mating system



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Under articificial conditions, eels are promiscuous Promiscuity Coad, 2005
Anguilla anguilla In articificial conditions, apparently promiscuous Promiscuity Deelder, 1970
Anguilla anguilla The number of participating males was 1-3 per female. During the first 15 minutes or so the male will swim around as if he were searching for someting while the female will remain almost quiet. When finally the male has detected the female he starts rubbing her belly with his head. He is especially attracted by her abdominal apertures. The female is thereby pushed slowly forwards through the water and starts a slow swimming. Still while the couple is moving, the stimulated male will try to obtain maximum contact between the bodies and is often seen to cling on the female with his back against her belly. When two or three males were placed together with one female they all tok part in the initial courtship. In every case, however, only one of the participating males released sperm during the experiment No category Boetius and Boetius, 1980
Anguilla anguilla Mating began with the males which gently touched the females very often, followed by moving together with bodies in contact near the surface No category Amin, 1998
Alosa alosa Monogamy : by pairs Monogamy Billard, 1997
Alosa alosa One female followed by 5-6 males Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa By pair Monogamy Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa alosa Males participated in more spawning acts (up to 60) than females (2) No category Acolas, 2004
Alosa alosa By pair Monogamy Boisneau, 1990
Alosa alosa Egg spawning last 4 to 7 seconds No category Belaud, 2001
Alosa alosa In 2001 and 2002, the visual observation of the number of spawners participating in a spawning act showed that > 2 individuals were involved in 45% of the spawning acts No category Acolas, 2006
Alosa fallax Schools No category Billard, 1997
Alosa fallax After spawning females move downstream again, whilst males remain awaiting the chance to spawn with other females No category Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa sapidissima During the spawning act, the female is accompanied by several males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima The fish pair and swim close together, releasing egg and milt No category Fishbase, 2006
Alosa sapidissima Spawning as several males coming up next to a female No category Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Spawning involves pairs of fish, or presumably several males and a single female. In group spawning, fish swam with their backs exposed. They splashed about forming a closely-packed circle Promiscuity Marcy, 1972
Barbatula barbatula In the spawning act males and females come to lie on their sides belly to belly, so that reproductive openings are close together and fertilization is made more certain No category Smyly, 1955
Cobitis taenia By pair, but mate with several males and females Monogamy Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia All males in the tank followed the female, the female penetrated into dense vegetation, spotted and one male embraced the female. The female started swimming and the circle began again, often with another male embracing the female No category Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis taenia Durnig spawning season, females spawn in a 6 days interval and each spawning act lasts 3-5 H. Consequently each male in the population would have spawn each day with three to four females, on average 14 h per day during the whole spawning season No category Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
Cobitis taenia In pair, one male and one female, described in detailled [Note: wide range of sexual patterns, due to unbalanced protandrous hermaphroditic and gonochoric populations. Futhermore, there are arrhenoid females, like those obersevd in other species, along with intersexual males referred to as gynoid males] Ambiguous Lodi and Malacarne, 1990
Cobitis taenia Despite the occurrence of some hermphrodite specimens, data do not support functional protandrous hermaphroditism among males. The study of gonadogenesis and gonads showed that in the population under study only accidental and non functional hermaphroditism occurs No category Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis paludica All males in the tank followed the female, the female penetrated into dense vegetation, spotted and one male embraced the female. The female started swimming and the circle began again, often with another male embracing the female No category Bohlen, 2000
Blicca bjoerkna Exhibits polyandry, with courting tactics developped by males Polyandry Fishbase, 2006
Abramis brama May be considered polygamous : each male can mate successively with several females, and each female can mate simultaneously and successively with several males [One female followed by two to eight males] Polyandry Poncin, 1996
Abramis brama Male and female spawn repeatedly with different partners. Mating is therefore promiscuous Promiscuity Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Group, communal spawning. One female and two to eight males released eggs and sperm. Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Abramis brama Fish pairs move around each other. A. brama females remain over a limited territory and defend it against other fish. Some authors state the A. brama spawn in small groups (few fish), over a limited area, and the fish taking part in spawning move from one place to another. Yet, also described that the reproductive behavior of common bream is polyandrous, mating tactics is territoarial and sneaking. Promiscuity Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis Usually more than two males follow one female [Promiscuous] Promiscuity Kolar, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis Promiscuous [The males actively chase the females, occasionally prodding their head against the belly of the females] Promiscuity Jennigs, 1988
Barbus barbus One female and two males but a sex-ratio of 50:1 for males on the spawning grounds Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus One female and two or three males were present during most successful spawning events No category Hancock, 1976
Barbus barbus By pair, but large schools Monogamy Berrebi, 2001
Barbus barbus 3 or 6 males per females in captivity Polyandry Poncin, 1993
Carassius auratus Each female may be pursued by several males No category Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus Each mature female ready to release eggs is followed by a group of males […], the relase of larbe numbers of eggs and milt occurs. Promiscuity Horvath, 1992
Carassius auratus The female may be accompanied by two or more males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Carassius auratus Small,desorganized groups of males actively follow females, frequently initiating physical contact (nudging) and inspecting their urogenital and gill regions where pheromones are released. Following behavior typically leads to active chasing, the intensity of which increases until the time of ovulation as males appear to compete to be closest to the female (s), at times pushing each other. Once ovulated, females become sexually receptive and initiate spawning acts by entering aquatic vegetation. typically,one/few male (s) will enter vegetation witha receptive femaleand then swim rapidly with the female through a small arc, at which time the female release (oviposi) eggs and the male (s) will release (ejaculate) sperm to complete a spawning act. Female spanwing behaviour will continue until all ovulated eggs are released, and may involve a hundred or more oviposition acts over several hours with various males Promiscuity Kobayashi, 2002
Carassius auratus Several males follow one female. In the spawning ground they form a tight group. Females release spawn, which is immediatly fertilized. Spawninf act may be repeated with different frequency which depends on temperature. Time intervals between batches are inversely related to spawners' body length Promiscuity Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius In estrus, two or three males chase one female, the male repeatedly hits its head against the female's abdomen until the female is lying on its side adjacent to some aquatic plants. No category Naca, 1989
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning occurs synchronously in large shoals No category Heckeis, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus In nature, multiple males spawn with a single female No category Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus The spawning act, in which several males usually are involved, lasts only few seconds No category Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus The spawning act, in which several males are involved, lasts only a few seconds. After releasing the eggs, the females swim a short distance upstream, then drift back with the current to their former position. This procedure is apparently repeated several times until all eggs are shed. No category Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Ctenopharyngodon idella During the spawning process, each female is usually by two or more males No category Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Group, communal spawning: females usually followed by more than two males, swim against the current for a considerable distance and then spawn Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Mating is promiscuous. Two to three males follow the female Promiscuity Shireman and Smith, 1983
Cyprinus carpio One female and several males Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Usually a female will be accompanied by 2 or 3 males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio Polygamous: a female is usually followed by several males No category Fishbase, 2006
Cyprinus carpio Group: communal spawning, several males pursue female for some time before spawning Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Cyprinus carpio In estrus, two or three males chase one female, the male repeatedly hits its head against the female's abdomen until the female is lying on its side adjacent to some aquatic plants. No category Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio Spawning involves polygamous groups of one female and several males and is apparently triggered, at certain times of the year, by rising water that inundates terrestrial vegetation and periods of fine, warm weather Ambiguous Smith, 2004
Gobio gobio Si nos observations sont confirméesnle mode de reproduction du goujon pourrait être considéré comme polygame, chaque femelle étant suceptible de se reproduire avec plusieurs mâles successivement, voire même simultanément, et chaque mâle pouvant se reproduire successivement avec des femelles différentes No category Poncin, 1997
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix From two to three males swam along one female No category Verigin, 1999
Leucaspius delineatus An individual male guard a nest, and females visit the nest No category Gozlan, 2003
Phoxinus phoxinus Group, communal spawning: spawning shoals Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Phoxinus phoxinus The whole mass of minnows, consisting of many males and a few females, in their bright spawning livery, was in a constant state of activity, swimming, twisting and turning in the current, occsionally some of the fish left it for quiter water at the side of the stream, where they disappeared under fist-sized stones. Presumably oviposition occurred then No category Frost, 1943
Pimephales promelas Male may spawn with several females No category Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas Males accept eggs from multiple females, each female may oviposit with several males No category DeWitt, 1993
Pimephales promelas By pair Monogamy Jensen, 2001
Pimephales promelas It was found that more than one female deposits eggs on the same nest cared for by a single male No category Markus, 1934
Pimephales promelas For the genus Pimephales, sneak spawning: two males and one female were found at one site (probably spawnning), one male had female color pattern - suggesting sneaking No category Ah-King, 2004
Pseudorasbora parva One male and few females Polygyny Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva Sneak: pairspawing with sneakers or satellites, territorial male mated alone with female on 23 of 29 occassions, 3 occassions with sneaker, on 3 occassions the female mated with 2 territorial males (in aquarium) No category Ah-King, 2004
Pseudorasbora parva One male may spawn with a consecutive females No category Witkowski, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva Females usually deposit eggs in several batches in several male territories on a day, and repeat matings several times during the course of a spawning period. When mating, a female moves rapidly along the susbtrate, releasing and attaching to the surface eggs which are inseminated soon after by the territorial males No category Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus One male and one female each time Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Spawning usually take place when the female had one to six (generally two or three) males in close attendance swimming alonside or just behind her (more details in the article). No category Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Intensive lek-like group-mating Promiscuity Kort, 2004
Rutilus rutilus Spawning in several groups was observed in rare cases Promiscuity Noges and Järvet, 2005
Rutilus rutilus Group spawners Promiscuity Jobling, 2002b
Rutilus rutilus In large groups Promiscuity Kortet, 2004b
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Group spawning. Female frequently followed by 2 males Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Tinca tinca Group of 10 to 20 fishes Promiscuity Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca Spawns start in large groups with minimum of 10 individuals Promiscuity Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca Group, communal spawning: breeding female generally attended by two males Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Tinca tinca Small spawning groups are formed from one female and one, but usually two males. Promiscuity Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Tinca tinca Tench usually spawn in groups of three, with two males competing for a female Ambiguous Vainikka, 2005
Vimba vimba The spawning behaviour and the course of spanwing was similar to those of the nase carp Chondrostoma nasus. The spawning ground was occupied by the shoal consisting of males, whereas females stayed downstream of the place. Ripe females came individually to the spawning site where the group of males joined them. The whole group of one female and several males moved upstream with simultaneous releasing of gametes. Males were found only sporadically away from the spawning place Ambiguous Lusk, 2005
Vimba vimba The spawners gathered in the spawing site form groups consisting of several individuals, one female being always accompanied by a few males […] The spawning as a rule is very boisterous, accompanied by the water splash, vigorous swimming and movements of fishes Promiscuity Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
Gambusia affinis Male fish use a gonodopodium [modified from anal fin rays] to contact's female urogenital tract and transfer sperm. No category Internet, 2005
Gambusia affinis Male very aggresive, wants to deposit their sperm in the biggest number of females into a special pocket [Sperm can remain viable for three months] No category Crivelli and Quatre, 2001
Esox masquinongy One female with one, or at times two smaller males Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy Adults pair off at spawning time, usually one large female with one ot two smaller males No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox masquinongy Female mate with one or more males No category Wynne, 2006
Esox niger Single females swim randomly over the submerged vegetation. closely accompanied by one or two males. From time to time the female and a male roll inward and flex their bodies to bring the vents into proximity No category Coffie, 1998
Esox niger A single female, accompagnied by one or two usually smaller males, swims slowly about a random way No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox niger Eggs fertilized by one or two males No category Wynne, 2006
Esox niger Group: communal spawning, one to three attendant males per female, female and male(s) swim in a meanderin patch Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Esox niger Those spawning groups observed were comprised of only one male and one female. The fish swam side by side, weaving in and out among the vegetation. The male turned his ventral side toward the female and appeared to bum her. At this time the female turned her ventral side toward the male, and the eggs were laid with what appeared to be a lashing of their tails Ambiguous Armbruster, 1959
Esox lucius By pair, or by small groups of 1 female and 2-3 males Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Esox lucius 3 to 5 male follow one female Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius Several males, usually smaller than the female, follow a female and spawn successively with it without any particular choice No category Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius The sexes pair and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males No category Fishbase, 2006
Esox lucius The sexes pair at spawning time and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius One or two smaller males pair up with one larger, mature female No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius Group: communal spawning, one to three attendant males per female, male follow female while passing frequently to spawn Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Lota lota Communal process, up to 20 or so individuals Promiscuity Van Houdt, 2003
Lota lota The actual spawning activity is said to take place at in a writhing ball about 2 feet in diameter, which moves over the bottom and is made up of 10-12 intertwined and constantly moving individuals No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota Pairspawning for Lota lota lota and by group for Lota lota maculosa: group spawn, a tangled globular mass of moving males and females, spawing 10-12 ind interwined Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Lota lota Spawning activity is quite a sight. They are known to form writhing masses of 10-12 constantly moving individuals that can get as large as 2 feet in diameter. This writhing mass of spawners moves over the bottom and frop eggs. No category Anonymous, 2003
Gasterosteus aculeatus One male and several female, female lay their eggs in several nest Polygyny Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus The male has a complex courtship dance with zig-zag motions and a leading motion to the nest. A responsible female adopts a submissive head up position, which also reveals the egg-swollen belly … No category Coad, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Complex courtship ! No category Crivelli, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus By pair, one male and and one female, but both male and female may mate with more than once with different partners Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male mate with 2 or 3 different females on average [Polygamous] No category Fitzgerald, 1983
Gasterosteus aculeatus Sneak: pairspawning with sneakers or satellites, About 10% of nests were subjected to egg stealing and sneaking fertilization No category Ah-King, 2004
Pungitius pungitius More than one female may deposit eggs in the nest No category Fishbase, 2006
Pungitius pungitius By pair, but a nest contains eggs coming from different females Monogamy Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pungitius pungitius As many as 7 females may be encouraged to deposit eggs in one nest No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Pungitius pungitius Males mate with 4 different females [Polygamous] Polygyny Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius Sneak: pairspawning with sneakers or satellites No category Ah-King, 2004
Ambloplites rupestris More than one female may spawn in the same nest and one female may spawn in more than one nest No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ambloplites rupestris By pair, apparent promiscuity [A female may spawn in different nests (3 males maximum). Males may also spawn with more than one female and four males were observed serially spawning with alternating female] Ambiguous Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris Individulas may spawn in different nests with different mates No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lepomis gibbosus Both males and females may mate with different parterns in the same or different nests No category Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus The spawning of several female are released in the same nest No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Several female may mate in the same nest No category Spillmann, 1961
Lepomis gibbosus Male prepares the nest for another spawning with the same or different females No category Fishbase, 2006
Lepomis gibbosus Males and females may spawn more than once during the spanwing season No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui By pair. After spawning, the female leaves the nest and may spawn with another male in another nest Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui Monogamy is often presumed to constrain mating variance [Female preferentially mate with relatively large males] Monogamy Iguchi, 2004
Micropterus dolomieui More than one female can spawn in the nest of a single male No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui We never observed more than one male and female at a nest site. We also did not detect any behavior by smaller smallmouth bass males that could be interpreted as sneaking or satellite spawning behavior No category Ridgway, 1989
Micropterus salmoides Promiscuous (full description), one female may mate with several male in different nests in short intervals Promiscuity Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides By pair Monogamy Spillmann, 1961
Micropterus salmoides During a spawning season, a female may mate with several males in different nests No category Internet, 2005
Micropterus salmoides By pair Monogamy Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides By pair, a female may spawn with several males in different nests Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus salmoides Female may lay eggs in more than one nest during a single spawning season No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Dicentrarchus labrax Spawns in group Promiscuity Fishbase, 2006
Dicentrarchus labrax 1 or 2 males, always smaller than a female, with a female No category Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana Individual females are surrounded by several males, and eggs and sperm are relased randomly No category Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana A review of the litterature indicates that the spawing behavior has never been observed. Yet, once: one of the large fish, female, swimming aloong a horizontal path to the bottom left a barely distinc trail, indicating ovulation, and this wa sfollowed by pominent emission of white milt by males No category Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Polygamous mating system with no mate selection No category Internet, 2005
Morone saxatilis Spawning can involve multiple males and more than one female, but it is characterized by one female and many males releasing gametes at the water surface [Once a group of males has spawned, they will continue to chase the spent female or court the next available one] Ambiguous Sullivan, 1997
Perca flavescens One female and two up to five males (even 25 males), it takes several minutes at 14-15°C and up to several days at temperatures below 5°C to extrude the entire egg mass No category Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens One female and two up to five males, during about 30 mn [described in more details] No category Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens A single larger female and many males which swim about in a long compact queue, the first males with their snouts pressed against the females No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Several males fertilize the eggs as they are extruded by the female in a gelatinous, convoluted string No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens Group, communal spawing: a ripe female is followed by several males, the males release sperm as she extrudes a convolued egg strand Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Perca fluviatilis One female and two up to five males, during about 30 mn [described in more details] No category Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis One female is followed by two males No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis One female and several males Polyandry Dubois, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Polyandry, one female and one or two males Polyandry Fishbase, 2006
Perca fluviatilis Group, communal spawning: groups spawns Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Sander lucioperca Female and male are monogamous as the female lays all eggs simultaneously No category Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca Monogamous, by pair [The actual spawning lasts only 30-40 min, of which 20-25 min is considered courtship and during the last 10-15 min female lay eggs] Monogamy Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca By pair, eggs and sperm are broadcasted over a circular pit constructed by the male, may be monogamous Monogamy Ah-King, 2004
Sander lucioperca By pair Monogamy Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander vitreus One female and two flanking males, with other males in close pursuit, but larger groups occured occasionally with maxim of two females and six males Promiscuity Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Spawning takes place in groups, one larger female and one or two smaller males or two females and up to six males Promiscuity Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus Occurs in small groups: a larger female and two smaller adults or two females and up to six males Promiscuity Fishbase, 2006
Sander vitreus Generally involves groups of one large feamle and two smaller males or two females and up to six males Promiscuity Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus Group, communal promiscuity: females spawn with one or more males, males show no territoriality, two to five or six males around one female, female attended by several males. Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Sander vitreus Any particular pair of fish. The spawning act culminates in a rush to the surface by a female and two flanking males, with other males in close pursuit and a turning or pushing of the female onto its side which indicates spawning has occured No category Malison and Held, 1996b
Coregonus lavaretus Exhibit no permanent pair-binding [Males and females swim close to each other towards the surface while ejecting eggs and milt. Males are more active than females] No category Skurdal, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Group: communal spawning, 1-4 males/female, aggregating in shallow water to spawn Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
Coregonus clupeaformis A female and one or more males rise to the surface, release eggs and milt and descend separately toward the bottom No category Fishbase, 2006
Hucho hucho By pair, males and females are very aggressive Monogamy Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Spawn in pairs Monogamy Witkowski, 1988
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Many courting pairs are attended by a number of satellite males (up to ten), which join the pair in the nest when the eggs are finally shed No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Several males may spawn with a single female in one nest, individual females my build more than one nest, and a single male may spawn with more than one female No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha In some cases, several males spawn with a single female No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Female is attented by several males No category Kwain, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Most effective spawning takes place with a predominance of males (up to 3 males per female) or with equal sex ratio coupled with low density of spawners No category Chebanov, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Ten or more males may jockey for position near a nest-digging female and dash together into the nest when she spawns. The number of males competing for access to a single female is typically greater than in other salmonids. No category Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta One male and one female, female mate with several male. Males remain sexually active for 10-14 d Ambiguous Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta A single female is often attended by more than one male, and may build and spawn in more than one nest. A single male may spawn with more than one female No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta Males are very aggressive and may spawn with different females, females likewise may spawn with other males and therefore builds different nests No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Promiscuous, male frequently attend more than one female Promiscuity Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Since a male will spawn with several females, early male arrival on the spawning grounds may promote successful fertilisation No category Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta After the depression is complete, the female and dominant male enter the redd and simultaneously extrude eggs and milt. Not all eggs are deposited at one time, as multiple egg pockets are made No category Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus kisutch The basic matting pattern seems to be positive assotative mating. With a considerable predominance of males, negative assortative mating simultaneously also occurs. [The nature of spawning behavior, assortative mating, and spawning success in coho salmon under natural conditions is similar to that of cham and pink salmons under experimental conditions] No category Chebanov, 1990
Oncorhynchus kisutch The female may spawn in as many as four different nests, probably with different males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch The pair are side by side, the whole process is repeated for several days until the female deposists all her eggs [The male then leaves and may seek another female] No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss By pair are side by side Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss Females dig and spawn in several nests with the same or other males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss The spawning act last 5-8 s with the pair parallel in the redd pressed together, both fish gape, arch and vibrate [Other males may shade sperm] No category Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss The two males, one slightly larger than the female, and the other typically a younger, smaller male not so large as either fish, quickly take positions, one at either side of the female [Both males and females participate in several mating acts before becoming entirelyfinished with the reprodcutive activities of a single season] No category Greeley, 1932
Oncorhynchus nerka One couple defending a territory, salmon pairs tend to stay together for the total spawning period of about 7-9 d until the female has laid all the eggs No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka The female may dig and and spawn in more than one nest, with different males, and a single male may spawn with more than one female No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka By pair, a female may spawn with several dominant males, a male may breed with different females Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus nerka By pair Monogamy Parensky, 2002
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha A dominante male joints the female in the redd and the two engage in the spawing act No category Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The female may dig more than one redd and spawn with more than one male No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha One female with a dominant male, sometimes with smaller males No category Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Several males are attracted as the female starts to dig in earnest. The largest male dominates and joins her in the centre of the redd. No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar By pair, one male and one female each time, but female mate with few males during the spawning season Ambiguous Groot, 1996
Salmo salar By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Salmo salar Several males are attracted as the female continues this activity. The largest male dominates and joins her in the centre of the redd No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar One male and one female per spanwing act Ambiguous Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo trutta fario By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo trutta fario The male courts the female while she is digging the nest and defends the nesting territory against intrundinf males. When the nest is finished, female and male simultaneously deposit ova and sperm during a short spawning act No category Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario The male, a larger fish then the female at all observed instances of spanwing, darts to a position agasint one side of the female and curves his body toward hers in such a manner as to hold her against the bottom [Both males and females participate in several mating acts before becoming entirelyfinished with the reprodcutive activities of a single season] No category Greeley, 1932
Salmo trutta fario "Only one spawning couple was observed at one time above the redd. It was composed of a spawning female and a ""hooknose"" courting her. Sometimes, smaller 'sneakers' were also observed near the spawning couple. 'Sneakers' stayed downstream from the couple and waited until the female spawned. At that moment, they rapidly swam between the spawning female and male, released their sperm and swam away." No category Rubin, 2005
Salvelinus alpinus The male may mate with several females during the spawning season No category Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Polygamy : one female followed by 2 to 8 males Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus alpinus By pair, but males often mate with more than one female and sometimes a female will mate successively with two or more males Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus alpinus A female is usually attended by one male during deposition and fertilization of the eggs [Males usually mate with more than one female] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus alpinus Mating stops between the pair when the female is spent No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis When the redd is completed, the pair entered the nest and deposit eggs and milt, once the eggs are completely covered, she moves to the upstream end of the redd and begins digging a new redd No category Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis The actual spawning act is performed by one male and one female, but each may spawn with different mates during the reproductive period Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis By pair, but both sex may spawn again with other fish Monogamy Coad, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis The male, a larger fish then the female at all observed instances of spanwing, darts to a position agasint one side of the female and curves his body toward hers in such a manner as to hold her against the bottom [Both males and females participate in several mating acts before becoming entirelyfinished with the reprodcutive activities of a single season] No category Greeley, 1932
Salvelinus fontinalis For males and females, tha mating costs of peripheral males were substantial because more than half (56%) of all observed brrok trout spawnings involved peripheral males. Males that paired with large females experienced a greater incidence of kleptogamy due to increase numbers of peripheral males present No category Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush By pair, on occassion as many as seven males and three females may engage in a mass spawning act Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus namaycush One or two males may spawn with one female, or a group of males and females may spawn together, extruding eggs and sperm over rocky bottom Promiscuity Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus namaycush A male will court many females within its range [Lake trout visit and probably spawn on more than one shoal] Polygyny Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Disperse to deeper water several weeks after spawning No category Goodyear, 1982
Stenodus leucichthys A female accompanied by a male swims to the surface near the upstream end of the spawning ground [Female may repeat the spawning act over the downstream portion of the spawning area or may move upstream to the head of the grounds before releaseing more eggs] No category Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus thymallus 10 male following one female, but also two males and one female No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Most by pair, 2 out of 55 included two males with one female Monogamy Poncin, 1996
Thymallus thymallus One female and one male, with few other males around Monogamy Persat, 2001
Thymallus thymallus By pair Monogamy Ah-King, 2004
Thymallus thymallus A spawning act was considered successful when the behavioural sequence observed in a pair included 'apporach', 'quiverin', 'dorsal fin clasping', 'tail crossing', 'head and tail-up posture', and finally 'gaping', associated with the release of eggs en sperm [Of the 25 spawning acts observed, 24 included the female and the territorial male with one spawning act included two males and one female, of the 70 behavioural sequences, 18 involved a second male that joined he pair before spawning] No category Darchambeau and Poncin, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Dans la nature, mâles et femelles nagent côte à côte jusqu'à ce qu'ils aient trouvé le banc de gravier favorable à leur accouplement: ces bancs de gravier délimitent en général des bassins No category Vivier, 1958
Thymallus arcticus By pair, but male mate several times Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus arcticus The male and female were near the bottom. They were side by side, touching each other. The male had his fin erect and partly laid over the female, in much the same way it was laid on the boot or rock during the vibration. The female gaped widely, but the male did not gape until just before the act was over. The whole act took perhaps 7 seconds No category Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio One male and up to ten female No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio Males achieve multiple spawning in a relatively short period No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio Some males may attract more than one female No category Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
Ameiurus nebulosus By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Ameiurus nebulosus By pair, a large number of spawning acts take place with an increasing number of eggs released at each Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus Courtship consits of one fish butting the other or mouthing the head or the tail of its partner. Paired fish also show head-to-head lateral diplays, and gently undulate side by side No category Internet, 2001
Ictalurus punctatus By pair Monogamy Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus "By pair, females spawn only once a year but males, at least in the southern USA, ""may spawn several times""" Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus By pair Monogamy Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus It takes 4 to 12 hours for a brood fish pair to complete an egg mass with eggs being release five times per gour No category Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Each female was paired with an adult male in a spawning pen No category Pacoli, 1990
Ictalurus punctatus Females and males are placed in ponds containing spawning containers that stimulate natural nesting sites, and are allowed to form spawning pairs No category Lang and Tiersch, 2007
Silurus glanis The aggressiveness of both sexes increase during the spanwing season and heavy injuries occur even during the normal spawning process. Such injuries may later be the cause of death No category Horvath, 1977
Silurus glanis By pair: one male and one female Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis Spawing in pairs Monogamy Ah-King, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus By pair: Each female usually spawns in the compagny of one male. The females extrudes her eggs, then leaves the spawning ground. Males continues spawning with other females. Monogamy Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Individual fish sometimes spawn in several streams in an estuary during the spawning period No category Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus The spawning is communal Promiscuity Maitland, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus Females drop out of the river after spawning, while the males continue to spawn with other females No category Quigley, 2004