Spawning conditions - Spawning substrate



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Anguilla anguilla Pelagophilous Pelagophils Boëtius and Boëtius, 1980
Alosa alosa Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Alosa alosa Gravels to coarse pebbles Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Gravels and pebbles Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
Alosa alosa Pebbles and gravels: mainly 5-9 cm but vary between 0.2-18 cm Lithophils Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa alosa Coarse gravel Lithophils Bengen, 1991
Alosa alosa Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Alosa alosa They deposit their eggs over a substrate that can vary from sand (0.02-2 mm) to pebbles (2-20 cm) Ambiguous Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Sand, gravels but no pebbles Ambiguous Boisneau, 1990
Alosa alosa Gravels Lithophils Belaud, 2001
Alosa alosa Coarse gravel Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax Over grounds of sand or pebbles Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Alosa fallax Gravels and pebbles [sometimes sand] Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa fallax Pebbles and gravels: mainly 5-9 cm but vary between 0.2-18 cm Lithophils Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa fallax Mainly gravel Lithophils Doherty, 2004
Alosa fallax Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Alosa fallax Above appropriate areas of clean gravel Lithophils Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa fallax Occurs over susbtrate ranging from mud to sandy-gravel Ambiguous Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa fallax Gravel susbtrate Lithophils Lopez, 2007
Alosa sapidissima None, but survival is apparently higher when deposited over sandy and gravel areas Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Various substrate No category Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Usually spawn over sand and gravel Ambiguous Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima Sandy or rocky bottoms Ambiguous Rue, 2001
Alosa sapidissima Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Alosa sapidissima It is generally thought that subsrate is unimportant to shad since spawning occurs in the water column and eggs are carried dowstream by the current. Spawning was observed over sand, silt, muck, gravel and boulder substrates, also over sand or gravel. Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Substrates dominated by cobble to be a positive attribute for american shad spawning sites. However, also reported over sandy bottoms free of mud and silt. Psammophils Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Aphanius iberus Within aquatic plants Phytophils Keith, 2001
Aphanius iberus Natural plants Phytophils Oltra and Todoli, 2000
Aphanius iberus Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Aphanius iberus Within aquatic plants Phytophils Maitland, 1977
Valencia hispanica Submerged plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
Valencia hispanica Submerged plants, dense Phytophils Keith, 2001
Valencia hispanica Plants Phytophils Caiola, 2001
Valencia hispanica Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Valencia hispanica Plants Phytophils Maitland, 1977
Barbatula barbatula Psmanophile: gravels or roots of aquatic plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbatula barbatula Gravels or aquatic plants Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Barbatula barbatula Gravels and plants Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Barbatula barbatula Gravel, aquatic plants Ambiguous Perrin, 2001
Barbatula barbatula Lithophil Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
Barbatula barbatula Coarse gravel, stones Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Barbatula barbatula The eggs are not laid in holes but on stones and plants Ambiguous Smyly, 1955
Barbatula barbatula Among shore rocks, eggs adhere to the bottom and weeds Ambiguous Sauvonsaari, 1971
Cobitis taenia The eggs are placed precisely and exclusively inot one specific substrate : dense vegetation [Experimental conditions] Phytophils Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia Stones Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cobitis taenia Plants and stones Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Cobitis taenia Eggs are deposited on vegetation Phytophils Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia Plants and stones Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Cobitis taenia Sand and roots Psammophils Perrin, 2001
Cobitis taenia Dense vegetation Phytophils Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis taenia Sand, stones and vegetation Ambiguous Coad, 2006
Cobitis taenia Dense vegetation Phytophils Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
Cobitis taenia Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Cobitis taenia Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Cobitis taenia Gravel and weed Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Cobitis taenia In the field, eggs of spined loach were found nearly exclusively in the densest vegetation available. This exclusive use of dense vegetation was confirmed in the experimental aquaria Phytophils Bohlen, 2001
Cobitis taenia The spined loach showed a strong preference for dense vegetation as spawning susbtrate, indicating this factor has great importance for its reproductive biology Phytophils Bohlen, 2003
Cobitis paludica Dense vegetation Phytophils Bohlen, 2000
Blicca bjoerkna Phytophil : plants Phytophils Rinchard, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Phytophil : plants Phytophils Kestemont, 2001
Blicca bjoerkna Plant substratum Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
Blicca bjoerkna Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes, <20 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Blicca bjoerkna Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Blicca bjoerkna Phytophil Phytophils Cattanéo, 2001
Blicca bjoerkna Spawn amongst dense beds of submerged macrophytes No category Smith, 2004
Blicca bjoerkna Among roots of reed and rush No category Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama Phytophilic : eggs are deposited on aquatic plants as well as drifting remains of aquatic vegetation Phytophils Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama On plants but also pebbles Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Abramis brama Aquatic plants : phytophil or phyto-lithophyl Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Abramis brama Phytophilous : roots of alder, willow trees and aquatic plants Phytophils Poncin, 1996
Abramis brama Only spawned on adventitious roots of willow No category Diamond, 1985
Abramis brama Plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
Abramis brama Litho-phytophil Phytophils Olivier, 2001
Abramis brama Generally phytophilous: flooded land plants, remains of previous year's aquatic vegetation, tree leaves, stems, and roots of emergent plants, algae, submerged macophytes Phytophils Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, bit other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent Phytophils Mann, 1996
Abramis brama Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
Abramis brama Dense weed, rarely on gravel Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
Abramis brama Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Abramis brama Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Abramis brama Under natural conditions of bream spawning, when the bottom is covered with mud and oxygen content is decreased, this adapatation enables an ecologically favourable incubation because the eggs stick to aquatic plants and others substrates Phytophils Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama It is a non-obligatory phytophilic plant spawner Phytophils Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama On water plants, e.g. dead Carex sp. Ambiguous Vetemaa, 2008
Alburnoides bipunctatus Sand or gravel Ambiguous Coad, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus Lithophil: gravel and pebbles and possibly sand Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Gravel Lithophils Billard, 1997
Alburnoides bipunctatus Gravel (2-8 cm) Lithophils Persat, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Stones and gravel: 3-25 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
Alburnoides bipunctatus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Alburnoides bipunctatus Lithophilous Lithophils Penaz, 1976
Alburnoides bipunctatus Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
Alburnoides bipunctatus Brood hider lithopphil No category Cattanéo, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Being a lithophilous species, spirlin is not capable to use flooded riparian vegetation as spawning substrate, but rather thrives on increased food availability and suitable nursery habitat for offsprings Ambiguous Polacik and Kovac, 2006
Alburnus alburnus Phyto-lithophil: plants, roots, gravels Ambiguous Rinchard, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Phytolithophil : sand, gravel and submerged aquatic plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnus alburnus Submerged plants and gravels Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Alburnus alburnus Submerged plants and gravels Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Alburnus alburnus Phytolithophil, but the substrates could be very variable Lithophils Carrell and Olivier, 2001
Alburnus alburnus Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, bit other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent Phytophils Mann, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Over a hard bottom No category Coad, 2006
Alburnus alburnus Fine gravel and adjacent weed Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Alburnus alburnus Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Alburnus alburnus It deposits its eggs on living plants or on plant debris Phytophils Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
Alburnus alburnus Phytolithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
Alburnus alburnus Sandy bottoms, gravels, or plants Ambiguous Agence de l'eau,
Aristichthys nobilis Pelagophilous Pelagophils Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1980
Aristichthys nobilis Their eggs are deposited in flowing water and develop in palegic water Pelagophils Kunz, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis The silver carp an the grass carp seem to prefer the superficial waters as well as the big head stay in the deeper horizons of the water Ambiguous Ciolac, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils Naca, 1989
Aspius aspius Lithophil : stones and gravels Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius Over grounds with stones, gravels and coarse sand Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Aspius aspius Gravel Lithophils Keith and Allardi, 2001
Aspius aspius Gravel/ large boulders Lithophils Mann, 1996
Aspius aspius Lithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Aspius aspius Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Aspius aspius Gravels Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Barbus barbus Lithophilous spawner, which lays eggs onto gravelly bottom Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
Barbus barbus Lithophil : gravels or pebbles 4-20 mm Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus Lithophilous spawner which lay eggs onto gravelly bottoms Lithophils Philippart, 1989
Barbus barbus Lithophilous: gravels and pebbles Lithophils Philippart, 1987
Barbus barbus Small pebbles Lithophils Hancock, 1976
Barbus barbus Pebbles and gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Barbus barbus Stones and gravel: 2-25 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
Barbus barbus Gravel, typically 10-40 mm diameter Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Barbus barbus Gravels Lithophils Berrebi, 2001
Barbus barbus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Barbus barbus Gravel beds Lithophils Baras and Philippart, 1999
Barbus barbus Gravel Lithophils Poncin, 1993
Barbus barbus 80% of gravel of 4-20 mm Lithophils Baras, 1993
Barbus barbus Lithophilous Lithophils Poncin, 1989
Barbus barbus Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
Barbus barbus Brood hiders lithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
Carassius auratus Plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
Carassius auratus Dense vegetation Phytophils Horvath, 1992
Carassius auratus Aquatic vegetation, submerged tree branches, roots, leaves Phytophils Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus Aquatic plants Phytophils Persat, 2001
Carassius auratus Submerged aquatic plants or willow roots Phytophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Carassius auratus Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
Carassius auratus Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Carassius auratus Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Carassius auratus Vegetation, roots or fixed objects Phytophils Scholfield, 2005
Carassius auratus Member of the phytophilous group Phytophils Belova, 1981
Carassius auratus Aquatic plant substrate Phytophils Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Carassius auratus Release eggs adhere to the vegetation Phytophils Kobayashi, 2002
Carassius auratus Just before spawning fish go to shallow places overgrown with aquatic plants Phytophils Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius auratus Eggs are scattered over thick vegetation and mud, sand, clay, or gravel, also deposited on undersides of boats and harbor pilings Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Carassius carassius Phytophilous, open substrates submerged twigs and macrophytes Phytophils Holopainen, 1997
Carassius carassius Phytophilous : submerged plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius carassius Phytophil Phytophils Persat, 2001
Carassius carassius Plant substrate Phytophils Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
Carassius carassius Dense marginal weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Carassius carassius Dense vegetation Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
Carassius carassius Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Carassius carassius Vegetation Phytophils Scholfield, 2005
Carassius carassius The fundamental requirement for spawning is the presence of susbstrat (e.g. aquatic plants) that the eggs can adhere to Phytophils Naca, 1989
Carassius carassius Overgrown with vegetation Phytophils Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius The species is described as being phytophil, open substrate spawner Phytophils Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus Gravels Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophil : stones and gravels of 10 cm of diameter Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophilic spawner, the spawning areas being characterized by coarse substratum Lithophils Keckeis, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Chondrostoma nasus Gravels and pebbles Lithophils Nelva, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophilous Lithophils Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus Over rocky-gravel substrata Lithophils Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus Rock and gravel Lithophils Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma nasus Stones and gravel: 1-10 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Coarse gravel substrates Lithophils Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus Among stones and gravel: mean of 32.5 mm Lithophils Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophilous rheophilic Lithophils Kamler, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
Chondrostoma nasus High proportion of gravel and pebbles Lithophils Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Over gravel Lithophils Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Chondrostoma nasus Lay their eggs on pebble or sandy bottoms (lithophilic species) Ambiguous Sysa, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus Lithophilous rheophilic cyprinid Lithophils Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus Stones or gravel exposed to water current Ambiguous Prawochenski, 1964
Chondrostoma toxostoma Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Chondrostoma toxostoma Gravels Lithophils Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma Boulders No category Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma toxostoma Stones and gravel Lithophils Mann, 1996
Chondrostoma toxostoma Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Chondrostoma toxostoma Coarse gravel Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Chondrostoma toxostoma Coarse substrate No category Internet
Ctenopharyngodon idella Pelagophilous Pelagophils Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1980
Ctenopharyngodon idella Gravel bottomed areas Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
Ctenopharyngodon idella Their eggs are deposited in flowing water and develop in palegic water Pelagophils Kunz, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella The silver carp an the grass carp seem to prefer the superficial waters as well as the big head stay in the deeper horizons of the water Ambiguous Ciolac, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Pelagophilic spawner Pelagophils Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio Submerged plants, grass roots of undercut tanks, dead leaves, floating plants and logs Phytophils Internet, 2005
Cyprinus carpio Phytophil : aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Foliage or roots No category Mickaels, 1988
Cyprinus carpio Aquatic plants Phytophils Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Submerged weeds, grasses or roots Phytophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio Obligatory plant spawners Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
Cyprinus carpio Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes, <5 cm in diamter Phytophils Mann, 1996
Cyprinus carpio Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
Cyprinus carpio Dense weed, bulrushes Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Cyprinus carpio Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Cyprinus carpio Phytophils Phytophils Kamler, 1996
Cyprinus carpio Member of the phytophilous group Phytophils Belova, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Abundant and fixed vegetation (macrophytes, red or even in the Camargue sansouire) Phytophils Crivelli, 1981
Cyprinus carpio The fundamental requirement for spawning is the presence of susbstrat (e.g. aquatic plants) that the eggs can adhere to Phytophils Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio Scattered thair adhesive eggs on vegetation in the littoral zone of tributary embayments Phytophils June, 1977
Cyprinus carpio Obligatory plant spawners Phytophils Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Eggs are broadcast at random near the surface over mud, muck, silt, sand, matted roots or dead grass, and abundant emergent, submergent, and floating vegetation, also over gravel, rock and rubble Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Gobio gobio Plants or gravels Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Gobio gobio Pebbles, weeds, tree roots and sodden leaves Ambiguous Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio Psmanophile: sand, pebbles and small pebbles but sometimes aquatic plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio Psmanophil: sand or gravels Ambiguous Rinchard, 1996
Gobio gobio Gravels and plants Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Gobio gobio Clean gravel and vegetation in flowing water Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Gobio gobio Eggs are laid on sand or fine roots associated with sand, washed by running water Ambiguous Mann, 1996
Gobio gobio Lithophil Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
Gobio gobio Gravel, typically 10-20 mm Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Gobio gobio Psammophil Psammophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Gobio gobio Psammophils Psammophils Balon, 1975
Gobio gobio Psammophil Psammophils Cattanéo, 2001
Gobio gobio Si nos résultats préliminaires sur le goujon tendaient à se confirmer, il deviendrait intéressant de discuter le caractère psammophile de la reproduction de cette espèce Psammophils Poncin, 1997
Gobio gobio Sur un fond de gravier ou de cailloutis […] Accessoirement les œufs peuvent être pondus, partiellement au moins, sur les végétaux immergés des rives du cours d'eau. Il est probable que les œufs qui tombent sur un fond vaseux sont perdus, car en aquarium, on constate que des oeufs reposant sur le fond (verre ou sable) ne se développent pas No category Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Pelagophilous Pelagophils Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1980
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Their eggs are deposited in flowing water and develop in palegic water Pelagophils Kunz, 2004
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The silver carp an the grass carp seem to prefer the superficial waters as well as the big head stay in the deeper horizons of the water Ambiguous Ciolac, 2004
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Belong to the pelagophilous group Pelagophils Belova, 1981
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils Naca, 1989
Leucaspius delineatus Phytophil: in plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
Leucaspius delineatus Around aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus Around plants or on any flat surface Phytophils Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus Large leafs, around stems, and floatings objects No category Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
Leucaspius delineatus Phytophils: eggs are laid in thin ribbons on plat leaves and stems Phytophils Mann, 1996
Leucaspius delineatus Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Leucaspius delineatus Phytophil Phytophils Balon, 1975
Leucaspius delineatus Submerged plants, roots and sunken objects Phytophils Bonislawska, 1999
Leucaspius delineatus On plants Phytophils Agence de l'eau,
Leuciscus cephalus Rheophilous, gravel Lithophils Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus Phyto-lithophil : plants and gravels Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Gravel banks BUT one population spawned on allochtonous gravel with a mean diameter of 39± 16 mm Lithophils Arlinghaus and Wolter, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Plants and gravels Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus Gravel, weed and stones Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus cephalus Stones and gravel: >2.5 Lithophils Mann, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Gravel, typically 20-40 mm diameter Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Lithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus Stony bottom Lithophils Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
Leuciscus cephalus Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus cephalus Lithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Belongs to a reproductive guilds of lithophils. They spawn on stones or gravel Lithophils Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus idus Plants or sandy grounds Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Leuciscus idus Plants or gravels Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Leuciscus idus Stones, sand or with plants Ambiguous Kestemont, 2001
Leuciscus idus Gravel, weed, stones Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus idus Eggs adhere to submerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, pebbles Ambiguous Mann, 1996
Leuciscus idus Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Leuciscus idus Eggs are deposited on submerged plants, as well as roots, trunks, and branches of fallen trees, but they can be laid on stones, gravel, sand, and a muddy bottom. Thus classified as an indifferent lithophytophilous Ambiguous Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus idus Plants or sandy bottoms Ambiguous Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus idus Phytolithophic No category Kuliskova, 2009
Leuciscus leuciscus Lithophile: sand or gravel Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus Gravel Lithophils Persat, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus Gravel and stones Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus leuciscus Gravel Lithophils Mills, 1986
Leuciscus leuciscus Eggs adhere to submerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, 3-25 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Is clearly a lithophil spawner Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus Gravel, typically 10-40 mm diameter Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Leuciscus leuciscus Gravel spawning sites Lithophils Mills, 1981
Leuciscus leuciscus Gravel spawner Lithophils Mann and Mills, 1985
Leuciscus leuciscus Lithophilous Lithophils Clough, 1998
Leuciscus leuciscus Plants or sand Ambiguous Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawn in the main river channel over gravel substrata Lithophils Smith, 2004
Mylopharyngodon piceus Pelagophilous Pelagophils Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1980
Mylopharyngodon piceus Bottom No category Crosier, 2005
Mylopharyngodon piceus Their eggs are deposited in flowing water and develop in palegic water Pelagophils Kunz, 2004
Mylopharyngodon piceus Belong to the pelagophilous group Pelagophils Belova, 1981
Phoxinus phoxinus Pebbles and gravels Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
Phoxinus phoxinus Lithophil : gravels and stones Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus Stones and gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Phoxinus phoxinus Clean and well-oxygenated gravels Lithophils Kestemont, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus Clean gravel and stones Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus Gravel grounds Lithophils Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus Gravels Lithophils Wooton and Mills, 1979
Phoxinus phoxinus Stones and gravel: 2-3 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus Lithophil Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
Phoxinus phoxinus Gravel and weed Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus Rocky substrates Lithophils Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus Gravels are required to induce spawning Lithophils Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Pimephales promelas Eggs are spawned on the undersurfaces of submerged or floating objects No category Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas Nest sites are typically depressions under benthic debris or the cleared lower surfaces of submerged objects No category DeWitt, 1993
Pimephales promelas Eggs are laid on the underside of a rock, branch or log, also on stems of hardstem bulrush Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pimephales promelas Eggs are laid in a nest hollowed out in mud or sand under submerged objects, such as rocks, sticks or cans. They are deposited in a mass on the underside of the objects Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Pimephales promelas Nests may be found under rocks, timber, concrete, metal or tile if there is enough space underneath the object for activity of male Lithophils Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva Lower surfaces of stones, occassionnaly on mollusc shells Lithophils Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva Stones Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva Stones, sometimes on sticks, in the empty shells of molluscs and even on objects which have accidently fallen into the water Ambiguous Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
Pseudorasbora parva Various substrates No category Rossechi, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva The species beloongs to the indifferent litho-phytophilous reproductive guild. The eggs are laid on plants, sand, stones, mollusc shells and other substrata Ambiguous Witkowski, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva Eggs are laid on stones, valves of mollusks, sunken trees, and other bottom susbrates as well as on underwater vegetation Ambiguous Boltachev, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva Around smooth surfaces of rocks, boulders and plants Ambiguous Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus Mussels Ostracophils Smith, 2004
Rhodeus sericeus Spawns on the gills of living unionid freshwater mussels Ambiguous Smith, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Mussels Ostracophils Billard, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus Mussels [Unionidae] Ostracophils Oliver and Carrel, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus Ostracophils Ostracophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus Ostracophils Ostracophils Balon, 1975
Rhodeus sericeus Obligate spawning relationship between a species of freshwater fish, the bitterling, and four species of freshwater mussels [The mussels were collected along the silt bottoms near to the banks] Ambiguous Mills and Reynolds, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Phyto-lithophyl: plants, roots, stones (sometimes concrete) Ambiguous Rinchard, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Above and around plants Phytophils Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Plants, roots, stones Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Rutilus rutilus Phyto-lithophyle No category Le Houarn, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, 5-15 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Dense weed, occasionally gravel Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Rutilus rutilus Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Rutilus rutilus In lake Geneva, roach usually spawn on rocks Lithophils Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Rutilus rutilus Phytolithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Spawn over willow tree roots and long-leafed vegetation Phytophils Smith, 2004
Rutilus rutilus It spawns generally on vegetation, but it can spawn also on the remnants of vegetation, other debris or even in stones Ambiguous Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
Rutilus rutilus Spawns on stones and vegetation Ambiguous Kortet, 2004b
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Aquatic plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Phytophil: aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Submerged plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Typical phytophil: plants Phytophils Lafaille, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Vegetation Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Deposit their eggs amonst vegetation Phytophils Hicks, 2003
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Phytophil Phytophils Cattanéo, 2001
Tinca tinca Aquatic plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
Tinca tinca Phytophil : Spawning ground are rich in aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca Phytophil Phytophils Linhart, 2000
Tinca tinca Aquatic plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
Tinca tinca Aquatic plants Phytophils Feunteun, 2001
Tinca tinca Vegetation Phytophils Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
Tinca tinca Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
Tinca tinca Dense weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Tinca tinca Psammophil Psammophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Tinca tinca Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Tinca tinca Phytophils Phytophils Kamler, 1996
Tinca tinca Spawn amongst dense beds of submerged macrophytes No category Smith, 2004
Tinca tinca Eggs are deposited on submerged plants,rarely on submerged dead plants or grass overhanging from the shore Phytophils Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba Gravel or stones Lithophils Shikhshabekov, 1979
Vimba vimba Lithophil : pebbles [Rarely on aquatic plants when there is flood] Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Vimba vimba Eggs are deposited on gravel or stones, concrete structures and flooded fields Lithophils Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Vimba vimba Gravels, or plants Ambiguous Keith and Allardi, 2001
Vimba vimba Stones and gravel, flooded grasses Ambiguous Mann, 1996
Vimba vimba Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Vimba vimba Generatively lithophilous. Use for spawning the stony-gravelled bottom parts of the River Czarna orawa above the reservoir Lithophils Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba Gravelled segments of the riverbed Lithophils Kesminas, 1999
Vimba vimba Its belong sto the lithophilous group Lithophils Ermolin and Shashulovskii, 2006
Vimba vimba Deposit eggs on stony and gravel beds Lithophils Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
Vimba vimba On a gravel bottom covered with pebbles or larger stones Lithophils Luszczek, 2008
Gambusia affinis Bearer [Viviparous] No category Balon, 1975
Esox masquinongy Frequently spawns in vegetated areas but also dense beds of stonewort growing over floculent marl substrate. Different types of spawning habitat are utilized in different waters Ambiguous Dombeck, 1984
Esox masquinongy Heavy vegetated flooded areas No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy Spawning activity usually occurs in heavily vegetated flooded areas No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox masquinongy Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Esox masquinongy Over mud, muck, clay, or sand with decayed vegetation and woody debris, including brush, logs and stumps Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Esox masquinongy Underwater stumps and logs on a muck bottom Pelagophils Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox masquinongy Over muck and detritus substrates No category Miller and Menzel, 1986
Esox masquinongy Over organic sediment, woody debris, and submersed vegetation Phytophils Rust, 2002
Esox niger Marshy areas or flooded benches No category Coffie, 1998
Esox niger Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Esox niger Over underwater weeds Ambiguous Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox niger Vegetation Phytophils Anonymous, 2006
Esox niger Over flooded vegetation Phytophils Wynne, 2006
Esox niger Spawning occured over a mass of willow roots in vegetation Phytophils Armbruster, 1959
Esox lucius Aquatic plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
Esox lucius Dense aquatic and terrestrial plants Phytophils Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Aquatic plants are necessary = phytophile Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius Presence of plants [Usual substrata are old leaves and trees] Phytophils Toner and Lawler, 1969
Esox lucius Submerged aquatic plants Phytophils Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius Eggs were concentrated in areas of terrestrial vegetation Phytophils Bryan, 1967
Esox lucius Phytophil: plants Phytophils Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
Esox lucius On heavily vegetated floodplains No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius Silt, detritus, and vegetation Phytophils Lucas, 1992
Esox lucius Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
Esox lucius Dense weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Esox lucius Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Esox lucius Optimal substrate is flooded vegetation, preferably grasses and sedges Phytophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
Esox lucius The preferred spawning substrate is a moderatly dense mat of flooded vegetation in shallow (5-60 cm deep), wind sheltered area. Although grasses, sedges and rushes with fine leaves make the best substrate for egg deposition, the type of vegetation does not appear to be critical providing the vegetative susbtrate is adequate to entrap eggs and suspend them above the susbtrate where anoxic conditions can develop. The type of bottom over which spawning occurs varies widely, but a soft, silt-filled area with decaying vegetation is common . The absence of inundated vegetation can inhibit or delayed spawning. Thus, the following characterisctics constitute suitable spawning sites for pike, presence of live or decaying vegetation, shallowness, no significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Phytophils Bradbury, 1999
Esox lucius The optimal spawing substratum for nothern pike is a dense mat of short vegetation. The type of vegetaton does not appear to be critical although grasses and sedges appear to be preferred Phytophils Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
Esox lucius Scattered thair adhesive eggs on vegetation in the littoral zone of tributary embayments Phytophils June, 1977
Esox lucius Eggsare scattered over soft bottom, with abundant emergent and submergent vegetation, may also spawn over gravel and rock Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Esox lucius Plants as the substratum Phytophils Engström-öst and Lehtiniemi, 2004
Esox lucius With vegetation as spawning base Phytophils Vehniäinen, 2007
Esox lucius Grasses and sedges are preferred, but other vegetation may be used. The shelter provided by vegetation is essential for the larvae and young pike […] Pike can spawn over a range of macrophyte species. However, reed belts formed by Phragmites australis are a dominant feature in sheltered shores, bays and estuaries in wide regions of the northern Baltic Sea coast, and this common habitat serves as a major spawning and larval area for pike Phytophils Lappalainen, 2008
Lota lota Clear substrate of sand or gravel Ambiguous Van Houdt, 2003
Lota lota Sand or gravels Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lota lota Clear gravels Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
Lota lota Sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota Gravel and sandy sites Ambiguous Vedeneev, 2003
Lota lota Stones/gravels Lithophils Mann, 1996
Lota lota Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Lota lota Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Lota lota Over clean sand, gravel or cobble/rubble substrates Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Lota lota Over rocky susbtrates Lithophils Anonymous, 2003
Lota lota Spawning grounds of burbot are typically river beds covered with stones and gravel Lithophils Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota Eggs are scattered in mid-water over rock, gravel, shale, sand, clay, or mud Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus Twigs and debris, strands of algae and pieces of aquatic plants, fragments of aquatic plants, algae, and debris Phytophils Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Rich in vegetation Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Sandy areas Psammophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Gasterosteus aculeatus Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Gasterosteus aculeatus Ariadnophil No category Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Gasterosteus aculeatus Ariadnophil No category Balon, 1975
Gasterosteus aculeatus In marine or estuarine habitats, spawning may occur in a variety of habitats including rock crevices, sheltered ellgrass bads, algal mats and sometimes over sand and silt near vegetation Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Pungitius pungitius Aquatic plants Phytophils Lafaille and Feunteun, 2001
Pungitius pungitius Among the weeds Phytophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Pungitius pungitius Prefers to nest in relatively thick vegetation, but are not confined to these areas (rocks) Ambiguous Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Pungitius pungitius Ariadnophil No category Balon, 1975
Pungitius pungitius Areas containing dense aquatic vegetation Phytophils Bradbury, 1999
Pungitius pungitius Eggs are deposited in nest built on vegetation, rock, or rubble, or inhighly organic mud or sand Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris Gravels or plants Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Ambloplites rupestris Gravels Lithophils Carrel, 2001
Ambloplites rupestris Swamps and gravels shoals Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ambloplites rupestris Coarse sand to gravel, nest susbtrate averaging 1.7 cm [No nests were found in muddy, organic substrates] Ambiguous Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris Sand or gravel bottom, swamps, gravels shoals, coarse sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ambloplites rupestris Lithophil Lithophils Balon, 1975
Ambloplites rupestris Gravel, rock, sand, clay, marl or vegetation to expose fibrous plant roolets Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Lepomis gibbosus Gravel, sand, hard clay or debris such as broken glass Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus Sand Psammophils Spillmann, 1961
Lepomis gibbosus Polyphil No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Sand Psammophils Billard, 1997
Lepomis gibbosus Various substrates No category Carrel, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus Clay to sand, gravel or rocks [Nests are found within submerged aquatic vegetation] Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus Aquatic vegetation with clay, sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lepomis gibbosus Polyphil No category Balon, 1975
Lepomis gibbosus The susbrate of a nest was largely determined by its location in the pond: nests in the Dam area contained mostly flat rocks and gravel, while nests in the East and West areas were often built on a muddy substrate with varying amounts of gravel Lithophils Shao, 1997
Lepomis gibbosus Eggs are deposited in conspicuous depression made in sand, gravel, or marl, or in mid or detritus excavated to expose gravel or plant roots, nest is always among vegetation, mau spawn over nests of other centrarchids Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui Sandy to rocky bottom, gravel and rock rubble, rocky river and creek bed Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Micropterus dolomieui Sand, gravel, or rocky bottoms Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui Sandy, gravel or rocky bottom Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui Gravel substrate with some current Lithophils Rue, 2001
Micropterus dolomieui The bottom material may be comprised of gravel, rock or less frequently, sand [The preferredsize of gravel or rock bubble is 3.3-6.0 cm in diameter] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui Nest substrate range from silt to gravel [Seventeen out of a total of 18 were in close association with stumps or boulders] Lithophils McNeill, 1995
Micropterus dolomieui Lithophil Lithophils Balon, 1975
Micropterus dolomieui Nest were constructed typically on sand and gravel. When adequate gravel was not available, the bottom of the concave bowl of each nest was usually covered with woody debris or broken clam shells, or both Ambiguous Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Nest usually built close to boulders, logs, docks or other such structures, sometimes among rooted macrophytes, in an area with good water movement that is protected from wave action Pelagophils Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides Almost any substrate may be used as a nest site from rock to organic substrate. But mostly over gravel (coarse and fine), and mud, sand to mud below boulders Ambiguous Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Nesting substrates vary from sand or gravel bottoms, to organic debris and mats of needle rush Ambiguous Newburg, 1975
Micropterus salmoides Mostly over gravel, but also mud, sand to mud below boulders Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Micropterus salmoides Over sandy ground Psammophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides Over various substrate No category Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
Micropterus salmoides Muddy bottoms No category Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus salmoides Gravelly sand (more rarely) to marl and soft mud in eeds, bullrushes or water lilies Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus salmoides Lithophil Lithophils Balon, 1975
Micropterus salmoides Largemouth are known to nest on a wide variety of bottom mineral including sand, gravel, clay and mud or on roots of emergent vegetation Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Nest is usually among vegetation or near structures, such as logs or stumps Phytophils Goodyear, 1982
Dicentrarchus labrax Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Dicentrarchus labrax Above rocks Lithophils Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana Occur over any and every bottom type with little evidence of preference No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone americana May be clay, sand, pulverized shells, or gravel Ambiguous Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Over fine gravel or sand Ambiguous Rue, 2001
Morone americana Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Morone americana Spawn under banks of streams or under old trees and debris No category Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Gravel or sand Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Morone chrysops Firm gravel or sand Ambiguous Kohler, 1997
Morone chrysops Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Morone chrysops Took place over submerged deaed vegetation or debris Phytophils June, 1977
Morone chrysops Eggs are scattered at random at surface or in mid-water usually over firm bottom of rock, gravel, rubble, sand, or clay, occassionally over mud, abundant vegetation may be present Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Morone saxatilis No substrate No category Internet, 2005
Morone saxatilis Over bottoms of sand or mud Psammophils Rue, 2001
Morone saxatilis Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Morone saxatilis Egg survival is increased when spawning takes place over large substrates or conditons cause them to stay suspended. In a controlled experiment, it was showed that egg survival was 22.6% higher for eggs deposited over coarse sand than those deposited over a mix of silt and clay. Eggs deposited over a mix of organic matter, sand, silt and clay showed no survival. Psammophils Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawn on occurs on a variety of substrates : open-substrate, phytolithophil, submerged plants, logs, branches, or gravel or rocks but also hard bottoms, sand, clay, or gravel Ambiguous Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Ribbons are winded up aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus Submerged plants, logs, branches, rocks Ambiguous Crosier, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus Stones and vegetation Ambiguous Craig, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus Plants, or gravel Ambiguous Crivelli and Rosecchi, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, bit other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, <5 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
Gymnocephalus cernuus Stones and weed Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
Gymnocephalus cernuus Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Gymnocephalus cernuus Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Gymnocephalus cernuus Stones and plants Ambiguous Maitland, 1977
Perca flavescens Usually near rooted vegetation, submerged brush, or fallen trees, but at times over sand or gravel Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Over a wide variety of substrates including boulders and gravel, aquatic macrophytes, roots of trees, dead branches and other materials Lithophils Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens Non obligatory plant spawner Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
Perca flavescens Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent Phytophils Mann, 1996
Perca flavescens A variety of bottom is sused, including aquatic vegetation Phytophils Rue, 2001
Perca flavescens Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Perca flavescens Yellow perch seem to have little preference for bottom type, allowing them a wide variety of habitat choices No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens Usually near rooted vegetation, fallen trees, or brush Phytophils Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Perca fluviatilis Would spawn anywhere away from fast currents attaching their eggs to plants or logs, also over sand and gravel, floating debris: wide variety of habitats Ambiguous Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis Various substrates : plants, branchs, rocks Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Wide variety of substrates including boulders and gravel, aquatic macrophytes, roots of trees, dead branches and other materials Lithophils Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Mainly macrophytes No category Treasurer, 1983
Perca fluviatilis Around vegetation, on the bottom Phytophils Smith, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Female lays the ribbon of eggs over weeds or other submerged objects Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
Perca fluviatilis Dense submerged weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Perca fluviatilis Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Perca fluviatilis Bottom overgrown with a variety of submerged plants, and with patches of emergent vegetation. Underwater sandy and gravel bottom elevations are also preferred by this fish Ambiguous Korzelecka, 1998
Perca fluviatilis Perch accept a wide variety of substrates on which to deposit spawn, which they generally drape or wind round the chosen object in order to hold it clear of the lake bed No category Urho, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Female perch have no specific substrate and can spawn on submerged vegetation, plants and fallen branches, and even on artificial substrates Phytophils Mansour, 2008
Sander lucioperca Sand or stones Ambiguous Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca Clear ground of coarse gravel or pebbles with short plants, also with trees and submerged plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Sander lucioperca Sandy or gravel bottoms, but rarely on submerged plants Ambiguous Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca Preferably roots, but can be sand, gravel or stones, from which ther males removes the silt to built its nest Ambiguous Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander lucioperca Sand or gravel Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
Sander lucioperca Gravel and sand Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Sander lucioperca Over gravel [Eggs are found attached to emergent vegetation or stones and gravel] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca Spawn preferably on a sandy or stony bottom. The eggs are deposited upon plant roots Ambiguous Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca Nest at base of weed beds Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
Sander lucioperca Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Sander lucioperca Phytophil Phytophils Balon, 1975
Sander lucioperca Plants Phytophils Laurent, 1973
Sander lucioperca Sandy grounds. However females can lay their eggs also on stones, roots of waterplants and other hard substrates. Also on dead zebra mussel Ambiguous Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca The sole substratum that can be used for spawning in the Futhermorte Canal are roots and other woody debris No category Poulet, 2005
Sander lucioperca Females usually attach their egg stands to physical supports (plants, branches, etc …) Phytophils Dubois, 1996
Sander vitreus Over gravel and rubble shoals, gravel bottoms of inlet stream,or flooded wetland vegetation Ambiguous Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Over various bottom types (sand, gravel, sometimes vegetation) where sediments and sufficient exchanges or movement of water permit an adequate supply of oxygen Ambiguous Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Survival of egg was best on gravel-rubble Lithophils Corbett and Powles, 1986
Sander vitreus Rocky areas, boulder, or coarse-gravel shoals Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus Typical spawning sites include gravel-rubble shoals, gravel-cobble subtrates Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Sander vitreus Rocky areas Lithophils Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Sander vitreus Walleye were found on rubble or gravel bottoms of major tributaries Lithophils June, 1977
Coregonus lavaretus Large stones with coarse gravel and send embebded Lithophils Skurdal, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Coregonus lavaretus Sand Psammophils Gerdeaux, 2001
Coregonus lavaretus Bottons being hard, stony and gravelly, or gravelly and sandy, sometimes with scarce vegetation [Sometimes on plants] Ambiguous Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus lavaretus Graves, but also over sand or even mud Psammophils Coad, 2006
Coregonus lavaretus The bottom was found to consist of a witish clay covered by a layer of sand. There were a few scattered stones and patches covered with a growth Fontinalis antipyretica [Schelly eggs were found round the stones, on the sand and more plentifully on and amongst the weed] Ambiguous Bagenal, 1970
Coregonus lavaretus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Coregonus lavaretus Over gravel Lithophils Maitland, 1977
Coregonus lavaretus Lithophils Lithophils Kamler, 1996
Coregonus lavaretus Gravel banks Lithophils Fuller, 1976
Coregonus albula Often stony or gravelly bottom which is most frequently covered with Dreissentia polymorpha, sometimes covered with vegetation Ambiguous Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus albula Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Coregonus albula Over gravel or stones Lithophils Maitland, 1977
Coregonus albula Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Kamler, 1996
Coregonus clupeaformis Hard or stoney bottom but sometimes over sand Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Coregonus clupeaformis Bottom type is often flat rock, stone or gravel or sometimes sand [Spawning shoals could also be composed of cobble-boulder limestone over a sand, clay or bedrock base located from the shoreline out to a depth of several metres] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Coregonus clupeaformis "Over hard, clean bottom, including stone, rubble, honeycombed rock, gravel, sand, and clay, used a variety of substrate types than lake trout, vegetation suaully not present, but spawning over ""moss"" has been reported" Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis Over rocky, hard, or sandt susbtrate Ambiguous Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Coregonus clupeaformis Preferred spawning susbrate appears to be gravel, cobble or boulder, but spawning may occasionally occur over sand [Mud botoms are generally avoided by both river and lake spawners] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Pebbles or big rocks Lithophils Mack and Billard, 1984
Hucho hucho Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Hucho hucho Small gravels Lithophils Perrin, 2001
Hucho hucho Sand or gravels Ambiguous Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Sand or gravels Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Hucho hucho Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Hucho hucho Gravelly and sandy bottom Ambiguous Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
Hucho hucho Bottom is covered with gravel or coarse sand Ambiguous Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho Fist-sized loose gravel Lithophils Jungwirth, 1978
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Gravels Lithophils Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Eggs are dpeosited in redd dug in medium-sized gravel Lithophils Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Mainly oversand/gravel/cobble substrate Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Oncorhynchus keta Gravel : 0.5 to more than 3.1 Lithophils Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning takes place over substrates ranging from medium gravel to bedrock strewn with boulders Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta Over sand and pebbles Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Gravel bottom Lithophils Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Oncorhynchus keta Gravel substrate Lithophils Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta Gravel sizes which averaged 25% less than 0.5 cm, 45% from 0.6 to 3.0 cm and 30 percent greater than 3.1 cm [In tributaries of the Columbia rivers, redds were found to consist of gravel greater than 15 cm (13%), 15 cm or less (81%) Lithophils Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus kisutch Gravel [acceptable gravel substrate-size ranges are 1.310.2 cm, 3.8-12.7 cm, and 7.5-15.0 cm for different salmon-spawning streams] Lithophils Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch Gravelly areas Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch 2-15 cm is the optimal spawning substrate [Prefers smaller substrates than O. tshawytscha] No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Oncorhynchus kisutch Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean, small or mediu-sized gravel, fine sediment detrimental to reproductive success Lithophils Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus mykiss Gravel Lithophils Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus mykiss Optimal gravel size range from 1.5-6 for spawners smaller than 50 cm and 1.5-10 forfemales larger than 50 cm Lithophils Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Bed of fine gravel Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Oncorhynchus mykiss Lithophils Lithophils Kamler, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Gravels Lithophils Greeley, 1932
Oncorhynchus nerka Gravel beds Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka Generally gravel Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus nerka Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Oncorhynchus nerka Fine gravel, alson in sand along lake shore Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Gravels to coarse gravels Lithophils Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Gravels [Larger gravel siez may occur in large rivers] Lithophils Beacham, 1989
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Gravel : 1.3-5.1 [80% of the optimal gravel], full range 1.3-10.2 Lithophils Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Does not spawn on coarse rubble (more than 20 cm in diameter) No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Larger gravel than other salmons Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning subrates sizes from fines (0.3 cm) to cobble (15cm) No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Eggs are deposited in redd dug in gravel and small rubble with good interstitial water flow, little mud or silt Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Salmo salar Gravel Lithophils Groot, 1996
Salmo salar Lithophil : gravel 6-15 mm Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo salar Gravel and pebbles Lithophils Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
Salmo salar Gravel Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
Salmo salar Usually a gravel-bottom Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar Stream bed gravel and a flow of intra-gravel water [Gravel from 5.1-20.3 cm diameter] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Salmo salar Gravel-bottomed riffle sections of streams [In Newfoundland, lake-spawning has been reported to occur over a gravel substrate at depths of 1.51.3 m, Lake-spawning has also been observed along shorelines as well as near areas of moving water, usually outlet streams and near the mouths of inlet streams Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Salmo salar Zones of cleaned gravel particles Lithophils de Gaudemar, 2000
Salmo salar Gravel Lithophils Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar Riverbed gravels Lithophils Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean coarse gravel and small stones with good interstitial water flow, eggs may also be deposited directly on impenetrable susbtrate where redd construction is impossible Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Salmo salar The substratum consisted of a 0.6 m thick layer of 10-80 mm graded cobble and gravel, an optimum particle range for Atlantic salmon redds Lithophils Dumas and Marty, 2006
Salmo salar Salmo and trout preferred pebbles (16-64 mm) fpr spawning Lithophils Louhi, 2008
Salmo trutta fario Gravels: 0.2 mm -2 cm [Lithophil] Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Gravels: range : 0.3 to 10 cm with a preference for sizes 1 to 7 cm Lithophils Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Gravels [Big pebbles >60 mm and sand <4 mm led to less survival] Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Salmo trutta fario Gravels Lithophils Ombredane, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Gravelly Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo trutta fario Banks of fine gravel Lithophils Crisp, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Gravel substrate: size preference to be 10 to 20 mm in diameter [If no gravel can be found, spawning is known to occur in areas of sand or hard clay perticles] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Salmo trutta fario Female spawners usually select clean gravel as spawning sites. The gravel composition chosen by sea trout, 210 cm diameter Lithophils Landergren and Vallin, 1998
Salmo trutta fario Gravel-beds Lithophils Acornley, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Lithophils Lithophils Kamler, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Gravels Lithophils Greeley, 1932
Salmo trutta fario Gravels: bigger than 3.7 cm are the most frequent Lithophils Plasseraud, 1990
Salmo trutta fario At some locations, especially in the lower sections, the substratum was dominated by fine sediment. These areas were never used for spawning. All the spawning grounds were exclusively lovated on clean gravel areas Lithophils Rubin,2004
Salmo trutta fario Spawning gravel Lithophils Rubin, 2005
Salmo trutta fario Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean, coarse gravel and rubble or in firm sand or hard play if gravel not available Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario Salmo and trout preferred pebbles (16-64 mm) fpr spawning Lithophils Louhi, 2008
Salmo trutta fario Gravel bed Lithophils Meyer, 2008
Salvelinus alpinus Gravels to pebbles (1-5 cm and few about 30 cm) but no sand in the Léman Lake, mostly gravels and corase gravels but rarely sand [if nothing else present], mud in other parts Ambiguous Rubin and Buttiker, 1992
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning substrate ranges from coarse sand to gravel with boulders [Sand botooms are utilisez when density of spawning fish is high or when gravel substrates are limited] Ambiguous Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Lithophil: gravels, pebbles 1-5 cm in diameter Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus alpinus Gravels: 2-10 cm Lithophils Gerdeaux, 2001
Salvelinus alpinus Bottom areas were covered with large stones Lithophils Pavlov, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus Gravel or rocky shoals Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus alpinus "Genrally occurs over areas or gravel, but occassionally sand The size of spawning material can vary anywhere between coarse sand and boulder-strewn gravel, but the preferred size of spawning material seems to be ""walnut-sized"" gravel" Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Salvelinus alpinus Under experimental conditions, Lake saimaa Arctic charr preferred cobbles to finer material as spawning substrate No category Huuskonen, 2003
Salvelinus alpinus Over a variety of substrates ranging from fine sand and mud to rubble, however, gravel and cobble appear to be the most favoured spawning substrate [Lake-spawning has been observed from mud and gravel to boulders] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Habitat for the majority of sites consisted of 40% boulders, 50% rubble, and 10% san/gravel Lithophils Beddow, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus In this area the substratum seems to be most suitable for spawning. Dwarf males were generally foudndeeper then 15 m thoughout the spawning season. During the first part of the spawning period the distribution of sexually mature females resembled that of the corresponding male groups, however during late spawning (December 8) dwarf females were also found at the depth of 5-15 m No category Jonsson and Hindar, 1982
Salvelinus alpinus Arctic charr normally spawn on a gravel substrate, but spawning can occur in deposits varying from coarse sand to boulder-strewn gravel Ambiguous Walker, 2007
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravels Lithophils Mirza, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravels or clear sand Ambiguous Rivier, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis Small pebbles Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis Most often over gravels beds Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravels Lithophils Snucins, 1992
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravel-sand shoal that extends about 25 m from shore Ambiguous Fraser, 1985
Salvelinus fontinalis Particle diameter mostly 8 -15.99 mm No category Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
Salvelinus fontinalis Suitable spawning gravel range from 3 to 8 cm Lithophils Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravel-bottomed [Preferred lake spawning substrate isgravel or a sand/gravel/small cobble mixture] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Usually gravelly streams Lithophils Coad, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis "While ""pea"" gravel (0.4-2.0 cm) is the preferred substrate for spawning, brrok trout are know to used other loose bottom material [Areas of silt where upwellings are present are also commonly used, even in the absence of gravel" Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravels [Fines (small and smaller particles) in spawning gravel can be deleterious to eggs Lithophils Hausle and Coble, 1976
Salvelinus fontinalis Gravels Lithophils Greeley, 1932
Salvelinus fontinalis The stream bottoms were composed of large stones, broken pieces of shale, gravel and sand Ambiguous Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
Salvelinus fontinalis Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean rubble, marl, or gravel Lithophils Goodyear, 1982
Salvelinus namaycush Gravels Lithophils Perrin, 2001
Salvelinus namaycush Most often occurs over a large boulder or rubble bottom No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus namaycush Mostly over cobble, boulder and borken rock substrates, only once on macrophytes Lithophils Beauchamp, 1992
Salvelinus namaycush Lake trout ave very selective in their choice of sites for spawning: good spawning substrate consists of clean cobble, boulder or broken angular rock with large interstices that provide protection to eggs [Prefereed spawinng grounds consist of largest diameter rock rock with three to 15 cm and is common,ly interspersed with larger boulders, average diameter of 4.3] Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Salvelinus namaycush The spawning substrate is usually composed of large gravel (>2 cm in diameter), cobble and rubble interspered with boulders and is generally free of sand, mud, detritus and vegetation. Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush The spawning rubble, consisting of broken, mixed pieces (about 10-30 cm length) of quarzite, feldspar, and granite, is underlain with solid bedrock Lithophils Gunn and Keller, 1984
Salvelinus namaycush Eggs are broadcast by shallow-water races over rough, silt-free bottom, including honeycomb rock, rubble, boulders, and gravel, deep-water races spawn over clay, sand, mud, and silt, planter varieties spawn over all substrates Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Stenodus leucichthys Grounds covered with sand and gravel Ambiguous Belyaeva, 2005
Stenodus leucichthys Sandy-pebbly bottom Psammophils Chereshnev, 2000
Stenodus leucichthys Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Thymallus thymallus Lithophil : gravels, coarse sand (between 2 to 60 mm) Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Clean 1-3 cm gravel Lithophils Poncin, 1996
Thymallus thymallus Gravel or sand Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Fine pebble, and fine gravel and also coarse pebbles Lithophils Sempeski and Gaudin, 1995
Thymallus thymallus Prefererred coarse gravel and fine pebbles [From sand, fine gravel, coarse gravel to fine cobble] Ambiguous Nykänen and Huusko, 2002
Thymallus thymallus Lithophil: mainly coarse gravel, pebbles, cobbles and stones Lithophils Meyer, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Fine gravel, gravel but also sand or stones Ambiguous Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus 5 to 15% of sand, 40-70% of gravel (< 2 cm in diameter), 20-30 % small stones (2-10 cm in diamter) and a few larger stones (>10 cm diameter) Ambiguous Crisp, 1996
Thymallus thymallus On gravel Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Thymallus thymallus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Thymallus thymallus Fine gravel shallows with moderate current Lithophils Northcote, 1993
Thymallus thymallus Gravel Lithophils Maitland, 1977
Thymallus thymallus Gravel and gravel-boulder substrate serve as spawning grounds Lithophils Zaytsev, 1987
Thymallus thymallus Gravel Lithophils Bardonnet and Gaudin, 1990
Thymallus thymallus The stream beds consisted of fine gravel (1-2 cm)mixed up with larger pebbles (5-10 cm) and stones (15-25 cm). Lithophils Darchambeau and Poncin, 1997
Thymallus thymallus During spawning, eggs are deposited a few centimetres below the gravel surface Lithophils Gregersen, 2008
Thymallus thymallus Banc de graviers relativement fins (1 à 3 centimètres) No category Vivier, 1958
Thymallus arcticus Gravel or rock Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus Over stable coarse gravel (2-4 cm) Lithophils Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
Thymallus arcticus Coarse gravel Lithophils Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus Gravel: 5 mm to 76 mm in diameter Lithophils Kratt and Smith, 1977
Thymallus arcticus Studies showed that pure mud, sand, and clay were not chosen at all, only gravelled areas were used. Ambiguous Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio Sand, gravel, pebbles Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio A mixture of sand and firly clean,fine to coarse gravel, with occasional large rocks Ambiguous Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio Eggs under stones Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
Cottus gobio All dominated by coarse substrata, mainly cobbles and large stones Lithophils Abdoli, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus Sand, gravel, logs, rock, vegetation Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus In a bottom of mud or sand or among the roots of aquatic vegetation, usually near the protection of a stump, rock or tree Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus Nest is located over mud or sand or among roots of aquatic vegetation in a protected area Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ameiurus nebulosus Mud, sand, or clay under logs and roots, stones, gravel, or coarse sand, breakwalls, in muskrat burrows, or in debris, including cans, tires or stumps Ambiguous NO REFERENCE
Ictalurus punctatus Undercut banks, under rock ledges, weedy areas, log jams, muskrat burrows Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus Undercut, log jams, or rocks Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus Hollow logs or cavities in tha bank No category Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus Spawn under ledges, around or in submerged logs, stumps, or roots and in cavities in the bank No category Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus Cavities, burrows, under rocks near shore, undercut banks, under logs Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ictalurus punctatus Hollow logs, undercut banks, or stumps, on bottom of rock, rubble, gravel, mud, sand, clay, or vegetation, also on rock breakwalls Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning occurs in natural nests such as undercut banks, muskrat burrows, containers, or submerged logs No category Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Ictalurus punctatus In nature, it spawns under edges, around or in submerged logs, stupms or roots and in cavities in the bank No category Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Spawned over rock, rubble, and gravel bottoms of the main river, upstream of the reservoir proper, and in the upper reaches of several of its major tributaries Lithophils June, 1977
Silurus glanis Phytophil Phytophils Balon, 1975
Silurus glanis Under vegetation Phytophils Maitland, 1977
Silurus glanis Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
Silurus glanis Sand and mud and located near the roots of tree Psammophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis Over roots No category Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
Osmerus eperlanus Stones, pebbles, water plants, submerged parts of bushes, grass and other things. They do not occur on muddy bottom Ambiguous Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus In lake, the spawning substrate may be vegetation mainly water moss and the roots and stems of terrestrial plants or coarse sand and gravel. In river, mainly submerged vegetation Ambiguous Ivanova and Polovka, 1972
Osmerus eperlanus Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
Osmerus eperlanus Sand or gravel Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Osmerus eperlanus Typically, the substrate in the spawning area of coastal streams in the spawning area is gravel Lithophils Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus Normally clean gravel, stones or macrophytes of various kinds Lithophils Maitland, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus Sand bottom Psammophils Fishbase, 2006