Spawning conditions - Spawning water type



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Sargasso Sea No category Deelder, 1970
Anguilla anguilla Sargasso Sea [Larvae hatch in region with low current] Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Anguilla anguilla Sargasso sea No category Vollestad and Jonsson, 1986
Anguilla anguilla Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Alosa alosa Rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Alosa alosa Quite rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
Alosa alosa Chiefly 50-100 m wide, with water current of 0.9-2 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa alosa Streams, water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bengen, 1991
Alosa alosa In flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Water with current, 0.45 to 0.90 m/sec Flowing or turbulent water Boisneau, 1990
Alosa alosa Water ccurent about 1m/s Flowing or turbulent water Belaud, 2001
Alosa alosa Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa alosa Water flows observed during spawning period over the three years varied between 2.7 and 47.6 m3 s-1. In 2001 and 2002, current surface speeds ranged between 0.1 and 1.5 m s-1. Flowing or turbulent water Acolas, 2006
Alosa fallax Turbide water No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa fallax Chiefly 50-100 m wide, with water current of 0.9-2 m/s, also in estuaries Flowing or turbulent water Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa fallax With constant current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
Alosa fallax Lower reaches of the large accessible rivers along the coasts No category Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa fallax Upper tidal limit of the River No category Doherty, 2004
Alosa fallax Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa fallax Occurs in fresh water No category Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa fallax Enter the lower and middle rivers to spawn. Ebro River characterized by laminar fast flow areas No category Lopez, 2007
Alosa fallax In this study, eggs, embryos and larvae of Twaite shad were only found in the upstream, riverine stations located close to the upper boundary of estuarine influence and the vicinity of the suspected spawning grounds in the River Mira No category Esteves and Andrade, 2008
Alosa sapidissima Concentrated near the shore, main channel [Freshwater, possibly brackish water] Stagnant water Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Rarely if ever in lakes Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima Freshwater of moderate current Flowing or turbulent water Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima In the main channels of rivers, preferred moderate current for spawning, about 0.3-0.93 or 0.15-0.61 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima Primarily in tidal or sometimes in non-tidal freshwater No category Rue, 2001
Alosa sapidissima in their native coastal habitats, alewifes spawn in the upper reaches of coastal rivers, in slow-flowing sections of slightly brackish or freshwater. Flowing or turbulent water Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Alosa sapidissima Spawn in rivers or brackish estuarine rivers, seldom if ever in lakes [River spawning usually takes place in moderate to strong flowing water, generally where there is sufficient velocity to eliminate silt deposits, and at the same time, far enough upstream for eggs to drift and hatch before reaching saltwater] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Spawning occurs in open water beyond tidal influence No category Zydlewski and McCormick, 1997
Alosa sapidissima Current velocities ranged from 0.5 to 2 ft/sec. Flowing or turbulent water Marcy, 1972
Alosa sapidissima American shad choose either tributary and spawn in upsream segments characterized by shallow depths, high dissoled oxygen,and relatively high currents Flowing or turbulent water Olney, 2006
Barbatula barbatula Low productivity streams or high productivity environments No category Fishbase, 2006
Barbatula barbatula Well oxygenated Flowing or turbulent water Losange, 1999
Barbatula barbatula [In three successive years, fish in aquarium, in which the water was still, did not spawn, but a circular concrete ponds out of doors supplied with water from jets set at an angle so that the water in the pond was continually moving Stagnant water Smyly, 1955
Cobitis taenia Slow-flowing or stagnant places with rich vegetation Ambiguous Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia Well-oxygenated Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Cobitis taenia Slow to still water Stagnant water Coad, 2006
Cobitis taenia Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Cobitis taenia Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Cobitis taenia No eggs were found in the belt of rough detritus, which indicates a preference of vegetation in water of medium depth rather than detritus in shallow water by the spawning fish No category Bohlen, 2003
Blicca bjoerkna Oxbows, rich in vegetation but return to the river after spawning No category Molls, 1999
Blicca bjoerkna Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Blicca bjoerkna Spawning grounds of white bream in Estonia are usually shallow water areas among roots of reed and rush, lifted by the ice. No category Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama In border of river [current about 30 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Abramis brama Typical spawning sites are temporarily flooded water bodies, low-floodplains and lakes Stagnant water Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama Near the shoreline Stagnant water Spillmann, 1961
Abramis brama Weed beds No category Internet, 2005
Abramis brama In border of river No category Olivier, 2001
Abramis brama Sheltered places, where the water is either still or the current is weak Flowing or turbulent water Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Oxbows, with vegetation adults remain in that site after spawning No category Molls, 1999
Abramis brama Current velocity < 20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Abramis brama Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Abramis brama Consist of shallow areas, overgrown with vegetation and protected from winds, or old river beds connected with the main course, river mouths areas, lake shores. May also spawn on flooded meadows. Stagnant water Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama Spawning grounds of bream in Estonia as relatively shallow places on water plants, e.g. dead Carex sp. No category Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama The spawning grounds of A. brama are the shallow waters of the lake where there is dense vegetation Stagnant water Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Alburnoides bipunctatus Fast-flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Coad, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Persat, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus Current velocity 20-50 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Alburnoides bipunctatus This may indicate that this species uses the reservoir as a refuge for overwintering and the river for spawing and feeding during spring and summer No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Alburnus alburnus Near the shoreline Stagnant water Spillmann, 1961
Alburnus alburnus Current velocity < 20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Alburnus alburnus The roe of the bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.) was collected on evenings from artificial substrate (small branches of juniper placed in spawning areas - between coastal reeds) at the depth of 20-30 cm No category Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning takes place after a sharp rise in the water level and current velocity Flowing or turbulent water Abdusamadov, 1986
Aristichthys nobilis Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Aristichthys nobilis Typically occurs ar river confluences or behind sandbars, gravels bars, and islands charcaterized by current faster then 0.8 m/s and turbulent flow Flowing or turbulent water Schrank, 2001
Aristichthys nobilis Primarily used low velocity habitats behind wing dikes Flowing or turbulent water Kolar, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning grounds are usually located in river reaches characterized by turbulent or whirlpool-like flow, often in the vicinity of islands or stream junctions [Reported current velocities of spawning areas in China ranged from 0.33 to0.90m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Scholfield, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis Natural reproduction occurs in channel of large rivers in swift current where velocities exceed 0.8 m/sec [The spawning is generally deposited among the rocks of rapids in river channels, behind sandbars, and at islands at the junction of the currents] Flowing or turbulent water Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis Spawning typically occurs at the confluence of two rivers, behind sanbars, stonebeds, or islands. These areas are characterized by rapid current (>0.8 m/s) and mixing of water Flowing or turbulent water Schrank, 1999
Aristichthys nobilis The existence and the persistence of the increasing water level, the water flow up to 3 m per second No category Ciolac, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis En effet, en Chine, les géniteurs sont placés dans des bassins frayères traversés par un courant d'eau continu dont la vitesse est comprise entre 30 et 60 m/s, qui a pour but de créer un facteur mécanique rappelant aux géniteurs leurs lieux de ponte naturelle Flowing or turbulent water Lloze, 1967
Aspius aspius Open sections of the lake with the greatest flow, more rarely in places weaklt overgrown with very coarse submerged vegetation (mainly reeds and rushes) Stagnant water Shikhshabekov, 1979
Aspius aspius After riffles No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Aspius aspius Water with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Keith and Allardi, 2001
Aspius aspius Water with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Aspius aspius Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Barbus barbus Fast-flowing waters Flowing or turbulent water Philippart, 1989
Barbus barbus 28-43 cm:s No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Philippart, 1987
Barbus barbus Clear, flowing Flowing or turbulent water Hancock, 1976
Barbus barbus Current velocity: 25-49 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Barbus barbus Water with current: 28-43 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Baras, 1993
Carassius auratus Creeks, ditches, ponds and reservoirs Stagnant water Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus Seeks warm, weedy shallows No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Carassius auratus Stagnant water or with a weak flow Stagnant water Belova, 1981
Carassius auratus Current-free areas in lower reaches of rivers, bays, harbors, lagoons, marshes, and flooded lowlands Flowing or turbulent water Goodyear, 1982
Carassius carassius Ponds Stagnant water Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius Naturally reproduce in the still or running waters of Southern and Nothern China No category Naca, 1989
Carassius carassius Near-shore parts of water bodies Stagnant water Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Grounds with current : 1m/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
Chondrostoma nasus Riffles with high current velocities [high water current ranging from 70 to 120 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Heckeis, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Water with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Nelva, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Fairly strong current Flowing or turbulent water Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma nasus Current velocity: 70-90 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Large rivers or tributaries, high current velocities (1-2 m/s) Flowing or turbulent water Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus Current velocity: mean of 0.9 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Water velocities of 0.7-1.1 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Zbinden and Maier, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Average current velocities between 0.4 and 0.6 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Sites with swift current Flowing or turbulent water Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Chondrostoma nasus Nase spawn in numerous sectionsof the main channel of the Austrian Danube. […] This finding is in contrast with assumption that reproduction takes place only in shallow water tributaries No category Winkler, 1997
Chondrostoma toxostoma Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma Small rivers or near the shore of main stream Stagnant water Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma Small tributary streams, deep pools just dowstream of riffles No category Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma toxostoma Small rivers with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Chondrostoma toxostoma Search for small tributaries with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Internet
Ctenopharyngodon idella Slow current, sides of river Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Ctenopharyngodon idella Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Ctenopharyngodon idella Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Le Houarn, 2001
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning takes place after a sharp rise in the water level and current velocity Flowing or turbulent water Abdusamadov, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Ctenopharyngodon idella Places with a rapid and turbulent water current, about 0.7-1.4 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Ctenopharyngodon idella Riverbeds with strong current Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Ctenopharyngodon idella Primary channels of rivers and canals during high water, upper part of the water column over rapids and sand bars, preferred spawning habitat is found in turbid, turbulent water at the confluence of rivers or below dams, prefer to spawn in water currents ranging from 0.6 and 1.5 m/s, but will spawn in current as low as 0.2 m/s, or even in ponds where current is absent [Increases in water level exceeding 122 cm within 12 hour period are required for spawning] Ambiguous Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning grounds are usually located in river reaches characterized by turbulent or whirlpool-like flow, often in the vicinity of islands or stream junctions [Reported current velocities of spawning areas in China ranged from 0.33 to0.90m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Scholfield, 2005
Ctenopharyngodon idella In a water current of between 0.5-2.4 m/sec Flowing or turbulent water Scott and Cross, 1973
Ctenopharyngodon idella Adults spawn upstream in the tributaries [high current velocities and long segments of unimpounded river] Flowing or turbulent water Brown and Coon, 1991
Ctenopharyngodon idella The existence and the persistence of the increasing water level, the water flow up to 3 m per second No category Ciolac, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Apparent minimum current velocity of 0.6 m/second to keep eggs supported in the water column Flowing or turbulent water Leslie, 1982
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawn in the primary channels of rivers and canals. [In relatively-large rivers] Stagnant water Shireman and Smith, 1983
Cyprinus carpio Tidal and non-tidal fresh water, either in fresh water or oligohaline water (10 ppt) No category Internet, 2005
Cyprinus carpio Flooding areas if available No category Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Weedy and grassy shallows No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio Spawn in marginal, shallow, weed-infested areas No category Fishbase, 2006
Cyprinus carpio Stagnant water or with a weak flow Stagnant water Belova, 1981
Cyprinus carpio A shallow flooded area No category Crivelli, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Cyprinus carpio Naturally reproduce in the still or running waters of Southern and Nothern China No category Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio Preferred spawning sites are lentic habitats with abundant food, warm water and protection from predators No category Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Protected areas of lakes and rivers, including bays, harbors, marshes, sloughs, flooded shorelines, and river mouths, also on shoals and reefs Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Gobio gobio Rivulet of about 30 cm wide, canal of 2 m wide Stagnant water Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio Slow-flowing current : 10 to 80 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio Water with some current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
Gobio gobio Current velocity: 2-80 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Gobio gobio Dans une eau faiblement courante Flowing or turbulent water Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix River with stroung current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Water with strong current: 0.7-1.4 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Water with strong current: 0.7-1.4 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Barbier, 2001
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning takes place after a sharp rise in the water level and current velocity Flowing or turbulent water Abdusamadov, 1986
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Places with a rapid and turbulent water current, about 0.7-1.4 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Current velocities 0.3-3 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Kolar, 2005
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning grounds are usually located in river reaches characterized by turbulent or whirlpool-like flow, often in the vicinity of islands or stream junctions [Reported current velocities of spawning areas in China ranged from 0.33 to0.90m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Scholfield, 2005
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The existence and the persistence of the increasing water level, the water flow up to 3 m per second No category Ciolac, 2004
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Their spawning occurs in a considerable current Flowing or turbulent water Belova, 1981
Leucaspius delineatus Sunbleak typically lay their eggs on marginal macrophytes that generally grouw out of anoxic silt No category Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leuciscus cephalus Relatively swift-flowing streams Flowing or turbulent water Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Lotic habitat conditions, moderate to high water flow [0.15-0.75 m/s], BUT one population found spawning without any current Flowing or turbulent water Arlinghaus and Wolter, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus cephalus Current velocity: 20-50 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Located near erosion banks or in shallow upstream of a bridge. The current speed near the spawning substratum ranged between 0.15 to 0.35 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Fast current speed Flowing or turbulent water Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus idus Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Leuciscus idus Ide spawn in rivers, streams, old arms, lakes, dam reservoirs, and meadows covered with flood waters. Stagnant water Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus Riffles : water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Spillmann, 1961
Leuciscus leuciscus Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Leuciscus leuciscus Current velocities: 20-50 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Prefers swifter currents Flowing or turbulent water Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus Fast-flowing waters Flowing or turbulent water Mills, 1981
Leuciscus leuciscus Fast flowinf rivers and streams No category Mann and Mills, 1985
Mylopharyngodon piceus Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
Mylopharyngodon piceus Turbulent waters Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Mylopharyngodon piceus Spawning grounds are usually located in river reaches characterized by turbulent or whirlpool-like flow, often in the vicinity of islands or stream junctions [Reported current velocities of spawning areas in China ranged from 0.33 to0.90m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Scholfield, 2005
Mylopharyngodon piceus Their spawning occurs in a considerable current Flowing or turbulent water Belova, 1981
Phoxinus phoxinus Slow current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus Close to the shore of the river or brook Stagnant water Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus Water edge of lakes Stagnant water Wooton and Mills, 1979
Phoxinus phoxinus Current velocity: 20-30 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus Tributary streams No category Scott, 1979
Phoxinus phoxinus Where the water is well-saturated with oxygen, mainly on bars and in channels No category Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus Running waters No category Frost, 1943
Pimephales promelas Ponds Stagnant water Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas Ponds Stagnant water DeWitt, 1993
Pimephales promelas Protected areas, such as lake margins and marshes Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Pimephales promelas Ponds Stagnant water Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva Warm, shallow and calm waters No category Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva Warm and calm waters, inshore areas of ponds Stagnant water Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Ponds and rivers Stagnant water Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus In tributary of the river, near to banks No category Mills and Reynolds, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Canal Stagnant water Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Rivers, small tributaries of lakes Stagnant water Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Rutilus rutilus Stream near a lake Stagnant water Vollestad, 1987
Rutilus rutilus Current velocity: >20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Rutilus rutilus In lake Geneva, along the embankments Stagnant water Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Rutilus rutilus Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Rutilus rutilus Littoral waters, bays, creeks and small ponds, which are warm in spring Stagnant water Kortet, 2004b
Rutilus rutilus Shallow, sheltered, and vegetated shores are important as spawning and larval areas for roach in lakes Stagnant water Härmä, 2008
Scardinius erythrophthalmus River, reservoir, lakes Stagnant water Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Current velocity: < 5 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Tinca tinca Deep parts of littoral zone in lake or dam reservoir [Stays at the same place during the spawning season at about 25 m from a spawning place] Stagnant water Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca Low or no flow No category Environment agency, 1996
Tinca tinca Current velocity: < 5 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
Vimba vimba High rate flow : current of 0.6-0.9 m/second Flowing or turbulent water Shikhshabekov, 1979
Vimba vimba Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Vimba vimba Current of 0.6-0.9 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Maitland, 1977
Vimba vimba Spawns in a swift current Flowing or turbulent water Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba There is the largest number of vimba spawning grounds in this part of the river. For instance, one of the major factors, the average velocity of the flow in the Middle Nemunas fluctuates from 0.7 to 0.9 m/s and there are plenty of shallow gravelled segments of the riverbed there Flowing or turbulent water Kesminas, 1999
Vimba vimba Favorable places for this fish are water bodies with weak current: bays, lakes, and reservoirs. Ambiguous Ermolin and Shashulovskii, 2006
Vimba vimba For the spawning purposes the vimbs enter streams with clear water and fast current Flowing or turbulent water Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
Vimba vimba Fast-flowing river currents, in well oxygenated waters Flowing or turbulent water Luszczek, 2008
Gambusia affinis Variable: sluggish water, land-locked ponds, reservoirs, creeks, streams, and sloughs [Mostly in freshwater but oligohaline water] Stagnant water Internet, 2005
Esox masquinongy Spawn on shoals in the main river, with water velocity greater than 0.1 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Farrell, 1996
Esox masquinongy Flooded areas No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy Usually spawn at either the upper or lower ends of low gradient pools No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox masquinongy Protected bays, harbors, marshes, stream mouths, feeder streams, and flooded lowlands, also in current-swept areas at edges of channels Flowing or turbulent water Goodyear, 1982
Esox masquinongy Lakes and rivers which have dense, aquatic or flooded terrestrial vegetation Stagnant water Wynne, 2006
Esox masquinongy The upper river muskellunge spawning distribution is usually restricted to bays and coastal marshes in shallow waters < 1.5 m deep No category Farrell, 2005
Esox masquinongy Shallow pools close to moving water No category Clemmons and Newman, 1997
Esox niger Lakes and/or ponds over submerged vegetation Stagnant water Coffie, 1998
Esox niger Flood benches of streams, lakes or ponds, very shrotly after the ice melts Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox niger Flooded benches of streams, lakes and ponds Stagnant water Anonymous, 2006
Esox lucius Located in flooding areas and near the shore of lakes and ponds Stagnant water Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Backwater habitats with little current or negligible current Flowing or turbulent water Farrell, 1996
Esox lucius Littoral zones of lake and border line of pond Stagnant water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius Calm waters near the shoreline Stagnant water Spillmann, 1961
Esox lucius May spawn either in marshy areas of lakes or in connected soughs Stagnant water Franklin and Smith, 1963
Esox lucius At the lake edge or in flooded river areas Stagnant water Billard, 1996
Esox lucius Preferentially on flooding rivers and plants near shore Stagnant water Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
Esox lucius Rivers, marshes and bays of larger lakes Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius Small tributary streams, marshes to adjacent to lakes or in shallow, weedy days of larger lakes or rivers Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius No significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Flowing or turbulent water Bradbury, 1999
Esox lucius Shallow lake margins, inflowing streams, ditches and drainage marshes Ambiguous Giles, 1986
Esox lucius Shallow wind-sheltered area No category Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
Esox lucius Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Esox lucius Areas with sluggish water current, including shore line weeds beds and marshes, sloughs, bays and harbors, river mouths, ditches, feeder streams, and temporarily flooded lowlands Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Lota lota """Bras morts ou les annexes inondées en rivières"", 2-3 m in lakes" Stagnant water Persat, 2001
Lota lota Shallow bays, usually spawn in the lake they are also know to move into rivers to spawn Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota Lakes or rivers Stagnant water Vedeneev, 2003
Lota lota Both lakes and rivers Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
Lota lota Spawning condition occured both inshore and offshore, but they were observed in greater numbers in the inshore nets Stagnant water Hewson, 1955
Lota lota Typically in river beds. Spawning in lakes was reported as well. A part of burbot lacustrine populations in Sweden spawned in the lakes Stagnant water Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota Nearshore areas, including shorelines, river mouths, bays, and harbors, offshore bars and reefs, swift, open water in streams Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Lota lota Burbot can spawn either in lakes or rivers. In washington, burbot evidently spawn in lakes and reservoirs except for some Lake Roosevelt fish that spawn in a flowing section of the Columbia River near the Canadian border Ambiguous Bonar, 2000
Gasterosteus aculeatus Shallow weedy areas [Freshwater and brackish water] No category Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Submerged areas No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Ponds and rivers Stagnant water Poulin and Fitzgerald, 1989
Gasterosteus aculeatus Shallow tidal Pools No category Fitzgerald, 1983
Gasterosteus aculeatus Anadromous populations may spawn in brackish or freshwater [Spawning in freshwater has been observed in two distinct habitat types within lakes, open-water areas, or in association with aquatic vegetation Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
Gasterosteus aculeatus Pools and rivers in the salt marshes, but most reproduce in pools whose salinity fluctuates between apprimatively 14 and 27 %o, but a considerable number reproduce in the freshwater section No category Belanger, 1987
Gasterosteus aculeatus Sheltered, current-free / areas along lake shore and in bays, creek mouths, and tributaries, usually close to shore Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius Shallow tidal Pools No category Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius Although ninespine stickleback have a relatively high salinity tolerance, they have only been reported to spawn in freshwater No category Bradbury, 1999
Pungitius pungitius Quiet areas in vegetated bays and creeks, 1-5 feet from shore, may also spawn along exposed shoreline but this is not as successful Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris Lake, near the shorline Stagnant water Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris Sheltered nearshore areas, including bays, harbors, lagoons, marshes, creek mouths, and lower reaches of tributaries, current-swept lake shoals and ledges, moderateswift water in streams, Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Lepomis gibbosus Lakes, reservoirs, ponds and creeks Stagnant water Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus Ponds, lakes or slow moving streams, near the shore Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus Near the shore Stagnant water Fishbase, 2006
Lepomis gibbosus Shallow water of ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams close to shore Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lepomis gibbosus Quiet nearshore areas, including bays, harbors, marshes, laggoons, backwaters, and creek mouths, also running waters of tributaries Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui From stream to lake, water with little current Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Lakes and rivers Stagnant water Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui Lakes and rivers, usually near the protection of rocks, logs, or more rarely, dense vegetation Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui Distance from the shore: 0-890 cm Stagnant water Iguchi, 2004
Micropterus dolomieui Shore of lake, or effluent canal Stagnant water Cooke, 2003
Micropterus dolomieui Mean distance from the shore 3.4 m Stagnant water McNeill, 1995
Micropterus dolomieui At a distance of 0.3-2.4 m from the leeward shore. Small lakes with controlled water levels may provide thermal and other environmental conditions suitable for natural reproduction Stagnant water Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Littoral zones of lakes and rivers Stagnant water Ridgway, 1989
Micropterus dolomieui Clear water in tributaries, river mouth, bays, harbors, lake shores or shoals Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui Reduced water velocity Flowing or turbulent water Knotek and Orth, 1998
Micropterus salmoides Nest may be constructed almost anywhere in a lake, but it is not unusal for them to be grouped on certain shorelines or in specific coves Stagnant water Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Calm waters No category Spillmann, 1961
Micropterus salmoides Waters of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, soughs of the Delta, creeks and some irrigation ditches [usually nests are built in areas without current or wave action] Ambiguous Internet, 2005
Micropterus salmoides Areas protected from wave action No category Mesing and Wickler, 1986
Micropterus salmoides Protected litoral areas in lakes or tributaries, including marshes, bays, harbors, sloughs, lagoons, and creek mouths Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Dicentrarchus labrax Coastal zones, at sea No category Billard, 1997
Dicentrarchus labrax Sea margin No category Secor, 2002
Morone americana Spawn in estuaries, rivers, lakes and marshes. Spawning is usually in freshwater, but may occur in brackish water at salinities up to 4.2 ppt. Preferred spawning habitats are waters that are tidal and nontidal, clear or turbid, fast or slow Stagnant water Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Tales place mainly in a variety of protected habitats, such as shallow flats, embayments, and tidal creeks No category Everly and Boreman, 1999
Morone americana In the headwaters of Chesapaekae Bay and its tributaries [In tidal fresh and brackish waters] No category North and Houde, 2001
Morone americana Spawn in tidal freshwater or slightly brackish water No category Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Tuburlent areas of rivers No category Internet, 2005
Morone chrysops Tributaries, but in any suitable shoreline structure in the absence of tributaries Stagnant water Kohler, 1997
Morone chrysops Clear, swift tributaries, if tributaries are not available, will spawn on current-swept lake shores or shoals or in bays Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Morone saxatilis Move into fresh or brackish water to spawn No category Fishbase, 2006
Morone saxatilis Areas with good flow and/or tidal action which provides increased agitation and aeration to the eggs and help keeps tehm in suspension No category Internet, 2005
Morone saxatilis Deltaic channels No category Will, 2002
Morone saxatilis With some current Flowing or turbulent water Rue, 2001
Morone saxatilis Current velocities averaging 0.49-0.55 m/s [Areas with rapids, boulders and strounfg currents, typically associated with the fall line] Flowing or turbulent water Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Morone saxatilis In the headwaters of Chesapaekae Bay and its tributaries No category North and Houde, 2001
Morone saxatilis In these rapids, where the muddy current is exceedingly strong and rendered very erratic by islands, boulders and rocks, the fish spaws. Spawn in low-lying flooded delta country adjacent to Suisun Bay, where the borders between brackish and purely fresh Flowing or turbulent water Merriman, 1937
Morone saxatilis Anadromous, spawning in tidal rivers and migrating to estuarine and marine coastal waters to feed and mature No category McLaren, 1981
Gymnocephalus cernuus Where the current is fairly rapid Flowing or turbulent water Craig, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning of Eurasian ruffe in the the Baka side-arm system of the River Danube, in the Orava Reservoir, Lipno reservoir No category Kovac, 1998
Perca flavescens In the shallows of lakes, and often into tributary, where they live in brackish water, they migrate into fresh water Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Upper reaches of many major tributaries No category Mansueti, 1964
Perca flavescens Tales place in tidal and non-tidal water No category Rue, 2001
Perca flavescens Lakes and tributary streams [Sites protected from high winds and fast currents are chosen] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca fluviatilis Lakes, they would spawn anywhere away from fast currents Ambiguous Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis Near the shore, most within 3 meters Stagnant water Smith, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Near the shore Stagnant water Dubois, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Ponds, lakes, rivers Stagnant water Gillet, 1995
Perca fluviatilis Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Sander lucioperca Shallow inlets and bays, bays sheltered by islands, river outlets No category Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca Slow-flowing current : < 1.5 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Sander lucioperca Water velocities of 0.1-0.2 m.s-1 Flowing or turbulent water Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca Water with current: 1.40-1.50 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
Sander lucioperca Moving water, in a current of 1.4-1.5 m/sec Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca Water with current 0.1-0.2 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca Occur mainly in sheltered archipelagoes and bays, with turbid waters. On contrats to lakes, where spawning takes place in the shallows of open lakes, Baltic pikeperch spawn entirely in estuaries, inlets and shallow bays. Stagnant water Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca In March, pikeperch were located in the parts of the canal where the bank vegetation was dominated by bushes. In April and May, pikeperch occured in shallow parts with trees (ot high vegetation) or without vegetation but with woody debris. During June and early July, they were frequently found in deeper parts in tributaries with bank vegetation of grass and reed Stagnant water Poulet, 2005
Sander lucioperca Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Sander vitreus Streams and lakes Stagnant water Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Inlet streams, flooded wetland vegetation No category Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Quiet border waters, slow-moving water No category Corbett and Powles, 1986
Sander vitreus White water below impassable falls and dams in rivers, lakes Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus Turbid streams and rivers, rocky wave-shaded shallows of lakes or flooded wetland vegetation Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus White water or shoals of lakes Stagnant water Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Coregonus lavaretus The spawning area is located below waterfall being 4.5 km upstream No category Skurdal, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Shore of lakes Stagnant water Billard, 1997
Coregonus lavaretus Shore of lakes Stagnant water Gerdeaux, 2001
Coregonus lavaretus Shallow areas and rivers No category Salojarvi, 1982
Coregonus albula Located at the either steep or gentle slopes of shore lines and islands, in the region of under-water wells or river mouths, and in rivers with strong current Ambiguous Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus albula Spawning areas are mainly situated in the sublitoral zone. No category Anwand, 1998
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning shoals of lakes Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Inshore areas, bays, ledges, shoals, reefs, often same sites used by lake trout Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis Unlike many other species, flowing water is not required for spawning Flowing or turbulent water Bradbury, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis Lakes, streams Stagnant water Willson, 1997
Hucho hucho Water velocities : 0.61 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hucho hucho Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Perrin, 2001
Hucho hucho Water with current: 0.6-1 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Migrate upstream into smaller and shallower streams No category Fishbase, 2006
Hucho hucho Rivers and larger streams on the region of the grayling No category Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
Hucho hucho Upper courses of highland rivers, where the stream runs fairly rapidly No category Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Velocities 30 to 140 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Channel part of the river [Velocity of flow is about 0.2-1.1 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Golobanov, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Rivers and tributary streams, with current Flowing or turbulent water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Usually in brush-choked streams in shoal area nearest stream mouth where there is a suitable substrate and water velocity of 0.75-3.25 Flowing or turbulent water Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Streams, intertidal No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus keta Prefer to spawn immediatly above turbulent areas, or where there is upwelling Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Summer races prefers sites influenced by intrasubstrate flow and fall races prefer outlets of groundwater No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus keta Near the head waters, current speeds of about 20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta Spawn in both small and large rivers, in the channel, and its tributaries of the first and second orders, and late O. keta spawn mainly in the middle and upper reaches of rivers No category Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Water velocities seclected by autumn chum salmon in Hokkaido were 10 to 20 cm/s [summer chum salmon in the My River spawned in velocities of 10 to 100 cm/sec] Flowing or turbulent water Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Streams, intertidal No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus keta The ability of chum salmon and rainbow trout to detect upwellling currents, and the reduction in digging variability associated with development of the nest, suggest that the current pattern around the nest provides important locative information for the females. Flowing or turbulent water Tautz and Groot, 1975
Oncorhynchus keta Maximum spawning density is seen at sites with the most intensive input of groundwater No category Leman, 1993
Oncorhynchus keta Habitat ranging from tidal areas, to small streams only a few kilometres in length, to the mainstreams of large rivers over 200 km from salt water No category Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus kisutch Numerous small coastal streams, in large rivers, and in remote tributaries [water velocities vary from 18 to 76 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch Avoid place with slow current and prefer spawning in the river channels in more rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Zorbidi, 1988
Oncorhynchus kisutch Outlets of groundwater No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus kisutch Swifter water of river tributaries No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus kisutch Prefers smaller fresh water streams with lower velocities than O. tshawytscha Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch Riffles, with water velocity of 0.25-2.5fps, in mid-reaches or headwaters of streams, also reported along shore in St. Lawrence River Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus kisutch Streams No category Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus kisutch Coastal streams No category Crone and Bond, 1976
Oncorhynchus mykiss Large tributaries of river system, some coastal creeks, smaller tributaries within the estuary No category Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning occurs in many small streams: cool, clear and well-oxygenated waters, with water velocities of 23-155 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss Smaller tributaries of their rivers, or inlet or outlet streams of their lakes [in a riffle above a pool] Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Permanent headwater tributaries with cool, cela water that is well oxygenated [Water velocities of 23 to 155 cm/m] Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss Upwelling does not appear to be important for spawning of rainbow trout No category Bradbury, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss Streams, lakes Stagnant water Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus mykiss The ability of chum salmon and rainbow trout to detect upwellling currents, and the reduction in digging variability associated with development of the nest, suggest that the current pattern around the nest provides important locative information for the females. Flowing or turbulent water Tautz and Groot, 1975
Oncorhynchus mykiss Headwater spring streams to large, lower-crouese streams No category Greeley, 1932
Oncorhynchus nerka Outlets of groundwater No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus nerka Inlet streams of the lake, along its shore Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka Rivers and bowls No category Parensky, 2002
Oncorhynchus nerka Mid-reaches and headwaters of tributaries in areas with water valocity of less than 2.2 fps, if access tributaries is denied spawning occurs along lake shore, suually on wave-swpet beaches or on bars near stream mouth Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus nerka Streams, lake shores Stagnant water Willson, 1997
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawn in the tributaries and around islands and mainland beaches of Iliamna Lake, Alaska. Stagnant water Hamon, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha From large river system to small tributaries 2 to 3 m wide No category Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Past, upper reaches of River, also in some tributaries No category Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Sites influenced by intrasubstrate flow [with a current not exceeding 2 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Vronskii and Leman, 1991
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Large tributaries, near riffles No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Larger mainstream and headwater tributaries [Where water velocities are not less than 0.3 m/s], most frequently at head of riffles Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Riffle areas with water velocity of 1-3 fps, in high gradient mid-reaches or headwaters of tributaries, spawning may also occur along lake shore or on shoals Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Streams No category Willson, 1997
Salmo salar Usually above or below a pool at the downstream end of riffles or upwellings of ground water No category Groot, 1996
Salmo salar In the upstream of river, near the shoreline (current speed of 40-50 cm/s) Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo salar Water current of about 44 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Dumas and Darolles, 1999
Salmo salar Middle and upper part of river, with current Flowing or turbulent water Porcher and Baglinière, 2001
Salmo salar Areas with appreciable current Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
Salmo salar Riffle area above or below a pool No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo salar Water velocities of 0.204-0.814 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Crisp, 1996
Salmo salar Most redds are situated at a site where the current is accelerating Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Streams No category Willson, 1997
Salmo salar Gravel-bottomed riffle sections of streams No category Bradbury, 1999
Salmo salar Redds are commonly located in pool-riffle transition zones. Such sites have comparitively high water velocities, down or upwelling flows and corase gravels Flowing or turbulent water de Gaudemar, 2000
Salmo salar Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar Spawn in freswater No category Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar Fast-water areas in clear, cold streams, with steep gradient, early runs usually spawn in the upper reaches, late runs in lower reaches, also on lake shoals which have seepage from springs Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Salmo salar Salmon spawned mostly in relatively deep, swift-velocity habitats (20-50 cm, 35-65 cm s-1) Flowing or turbulent water Louhi, 2008
Salmo trutta fario Rivers [Rapid current, 30 to 70/80 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Small streams at the head of riffle areas or on the downstream end of pools, where the gravel slopes upward [water freely flowing through the gravel and upwelling water, suitable velocities range from 15 to 90 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Water with current [Upper parts] Flowing or turbulent water Ombredane, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Streams, headwaters No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo trutta fario Water velocities of 0.204-0.814 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Crisp, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Riffles od sand and gravel beds No category Coad, 2006
Salmo trutta fario Spawn in clear headwaters of large rivers and streams or in tributaries of lakes, also known to spawn over shallow reefs and shoals alog lakes shores, stream spawning fishes use riggle areas Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Streams No category Landergren and Vallin, 1998
Salmo trutta fario Large chalk stream No category Acornley, 1999
Salmo trutta fario Spring streams, near sources of spring water No category Greeley, 1932
Salmo trutta fario Mot of the streams were first order streams running directly into the sea No category Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
Salmo trutta fario Rivers [Rapid current, 30 to 70/80 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Papala, 1998
Salmo trutta fario Fast water in headwaters or mid-reaches of cool, shaded streams, if denied access to tributaries, spawning occurs on shoals near stream mouths, or elsewhere along shore Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario Trout selected slightly shallower and slower flowing spawning site (15-45 cm, 20-55 cm s-1) Flowing or turbulent water Louhi, 2008
Salvelinus alpinus Current velocities range from 0.2 to 0.8 cm/sec Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Bottom of lakes with constant and strong current, sometimes in plein water Ambiguous Billard, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus Shoals in lakes, quiet pools in rivers Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus alpinus Both lakes and rivers [Water velocities of 0.2-0.7 m/s] Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Most spawning takes place in streams [May spawn either in streams or lakes in Labrador] Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Lakes, river pools Stagnant water Willson, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus Pools, or in association with large boulders downstream riffles [Water flow about 1 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Beddow, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Tyrolean lake Stagnant water Gruber and Wieser, 1983
Salvelinus fontinalis Near the shoreline (about 3 to 13 m) Stagnant water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis Shallows of headwaters of streams but may successfully accomplished in gravelly shallows of lakes if there is a spring upwelling and a moderate current Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Lakes ans streams Stagnant water Snucins, 1992
Salvelinus fontinalis Stream No category Curry, 1991
Salvelinus fontinalis Current: 24.2 ± 19.3 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
Salvelinus fontinalis Typically spawn in streams or in gravel surronding sprin-up-welling areas of lakes and ponds Stagnant water Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Streams and occasionally in lakes Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Streams No category Coad, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis Both lakes and streams, and are closely associated with upwellings or seepages of ground water Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Streams, shoreline reefs Stagnant water Willson, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis Spring streams, near sources of spring water No category Greeley, 1932
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawn directly over areas of upwelling groundwater or near spring-fed tributaries No category Carline, 1980
Salvelinus fontinalis Groundwater upwelling at redd sites No category Ridgway and Blanchfiled, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis Riffles or pools near headwaters of clear, well-shaded streams, in spring-fed areas with gradient not more than 2%, also along lake shores with moderately swift current, usually near sites of upwellings Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Salvelinus namaycush Inland lakes, rarely in rivers Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus namaycush Mounds No category Beauchamp, 1992
Salvelinus namaycush Spawn in shallow inshore areas of lakes, rarely in streams [Spawning areas are often exposed to prevaling winds that wave action and water currents keep the area free of sand, silt and detritus] Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Lakes, streams Stagnant water Willson, 1997
Salvelinus namaycush Areas with current, including shorelines, reefs, shoals, ledges, bars, channels, bays, river mouths, and rivers Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Stenodus leucichthys Wide areas No category Chereshnev, 2000
Stenodus leucichthys Usually in mid and inferior part of big streams No category Maitland, 1977
Stenodus leucichthys Streams No category Willson, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Strong current : 40 to 70 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Water velocities: about 20cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Poncin, 1996
Thymallus thymallus In small rivers, where water accelerates (40-60 cm/s) Flowing or turbulent water Persat, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Stream-dwelling, mean velocity 47.8 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Sempeski and Gaudin, 1995
Thymallus thymallus 40-70 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Nykänen and Huusko, 2002
Thymallus thymallus Mean velocities of 40-70 Flowing or turbulent water Nykänen, 2004
Thymallus thymallus Spawn up rivers and streams, most often small clean tributaries No category Witkowski and Kowalewski, 1988
Thymallus thymallus Upstream border of a shallow riffle, varied between 0.33-0.46 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Meyer, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Fast-flowing tributaries, streams [Water velocities range from 23 to 90 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus Mostly on the top of gravel riffles in water so shallow that the backs of the spawning fish broke the water surface No category Crisp, 1996
Thymallus thymallus European grayling are mainly a river fish, but those in slow flowing parts of rivers migrate to faster flowing tributaries near spawning time, and lae populations all depend on streams for spawning Flowing or turbulent water Northcote, 1993
Thymallus thymallus The coastal shoals, and offshore bars with gravel and gravel-boulder substrate serve as spawning grounds. As a rule, these parts have the most intensive circulation of water masses. Stagnant water Zaytsev, 1987
Thymallus thymallus Dans un courant rapide (0.75 m par seconde) Flowing or turbulent water Vivier, 1958
Thymallus arcticus Small tributaries, if not available spawning takes place in gravelly to rocky parts of the main river [Sometimes occurs in mud-bottomed vegetated poools below rapids] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus Tributaries No category Fishbase, 2006
Thymallus arcticus Use mainstream river tributaries and sidechannels, rarely in lakes [Flows of 0.5-1.0 m/s] Ambiguous Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus Mainstream river tributaries and side-channels, tributary streams, also in lakes Stagnant water Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus Spawning in lake Agnes occurs primarily in the largest inlet stream, with minor spawning activity in two smaller inlet streams an possibly along shawllow shoreline areas. Spawning in Deer Lake appears to occur only in the outlet stream Stagnant water Kaya, 1989
Thymallus arcticus The spawning area of Providence Creek was a depper part of the stream just below a riffle used as a feeding area, the current about 25 feet per second Flowing or turbulent water Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio Creek, stream No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio Tributaries, reaches with relatively steep river slope No category Abdoli, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus Prefer shallow weedy areas of streams and lakes, most spawning probably occur in nontidal freshwater Stagnant water Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus Usually around the shores of lakes, or in coves, bays or creek mouths Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus Near shoreline Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ameiurus nebulosus Marches in bays, harbors, coves, creek mouths, and lower reaches of creeks, also rivers with overhanging banks and abudant deadfall No category Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning takes place in seculed, semidark nests, they will not spawn in transparent ponds Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus Ponds Stagnant water Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus Nearshore areas, including wetlands, marshes, bays, harbors, and creek mouths, backwaters, pools, and shoals in rivers, especially areas of strong current Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
Silurus glanis Spawn in Amudar'ya River, its backwaters and lakes adjacent to the river Stagnant water Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
Silurus glanis Between plants, often near roots of trees No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus Enters rivers and spawns at high tide, some spawn near river mouths and do not ascend the rivers [Water velocity is about 0.3-2 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus In coastal streams, most smelt spawn above the tide. [Significant positive relationships between survival to the early-eyed stage and increasing water velocity (up to 60-80 cm/s)] Flowing or turbulent water Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus In freswater, near the tidal zone No category Billard, 1997
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning takes place in fresh water, usually, but not always, somewhere near the end of tide where there is a significant current Flowing or turbulent water Maitland, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus The fish usually congregate in the lower reaches of these rivers for a number of days prior to moving upstream to spawn [Spawning areas correspond to the maximum tidal influence on the river] No category Quigley, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus Lower reaches of streams, deeper parts of lakes Stagnant water Fishbase, 2006