Spawning conditions - Spawning temperature



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla 17 17.0 °C Coad, 2005
Anguilla anguilla About 20 20.0 °C Deelder, 1970
Anguilla anguilla 16-17 16.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Anguilla anguilla Water temperature ranged from 20 to 24°C 20.0 °C Amin, 1998
Anguilla anguilla Releasing hormone treated mature female adults tagged with radio transmitters in the Sargasso Sea demonstrated a preference for the upper zone of the ocean at depths of 18.7-18.8°C 18.75 °C Vincent, 2005
Alosa alosa Over 14 14.0 °C Acolas, 2004
Alosa alosa 22-24 [Optimum, but could start when the temperature reaches 14°C] 23.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Alosa alosa Always above 12°C, but mainly at 15-18 16.5 °C Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa alosa 15-24 19.5 °C Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa alosa Above 15 15.0 °C Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa alosa Mostly around 15°C 15.0 °C Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Between 12 and 25°C during the whole spawning season [But spawning starts above 16°C] 12.0 °C Boisneau, 1990
Alosa alosa Above 15, stops if below 15.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa alosa Over the study period, the temperatures observed during spawning period varied over the range 13.3-23°C. The minimum temperature below which reproduction activity seemed to be inhibited was between 13.9 and 14°C. 18.15 °C Acolas, 2006
Alosa fallax 15-20 17.5 °C Billard, 1997
Alosa fallax 18-22 20.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa fallax 16-18 17.0 °C Cassou-Leins, 2000
Alosa fallax >15 15.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax Water ranged from 21.7°C to 24.5°C 21.7 °C Lopez, 2007
Alosa sapidissima 8-26 [Max 15-20] 17.0 °C Internet, 2005
Alosa sapidissima Above 12 and will continue until temperaure do not drop below this point 12.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Alosa sapidissima Diffrente temperatures according to authors: 8-26, 12-17, 14-21, 17-24, 18.5, prefer 16.7-20.0 17.0 °C Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima Generally 12-21 [Range from 8-26°C] 16.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
Alosa sapidissima 12-21 16.5 °C Rue, 2001
Alosa sapidissima Beginning when water temperatures reach 13 to 15°C, and ending when they exceed 27°C 13.0 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Alosa sapidissima 13-20 16.5 °C Bradbury, 1999
Alosa sapidissima Mean water temperature was 11°C in May 1967 and 15°C in May 1968 11.0 °C Marcy, 1972
Aphanius iberus 25 25.0 °C Billard, 1997
Aphanius iberus 22-24 [In aquaria] 23.0 °C Oltra and Todoli, 2000
Valencia hispanica 20-25 22.5 °C Billard, 1997
Valencia hispanica 20-24 22.0 °C Keith, 2001
Barbatula barbatula 6°C in the morning, 9-10°C 9.5 °C Skryabin, 1993
Barbatula barbatula Spawning begins as the shore waters warm to about 8°C 8.0 °C Sauvonsaari, 1971
Cobitis taenia 16-18 17.0 °C Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia 18-28 23.0 °C Bohlen, 1999
Blicca bjoerkna 16-17 16.5 °C Rinchard, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna 16-25 20.5 °C Kestemont, 2001
Blicca bjoerkna 16-25 20.5 °C Mann, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna 16-25 20.5 °C Environment agency, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna 16-18°C 17.0 °C Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama 8-25 16.5 °C Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama 13-14 13.5 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Abramis brama 14-17.2 15.6 °C Diamond, 1985
Abramis brama Above 12°C 12.0 °C Billard, 1997
Abramis brama 13-20 16.5 °C Olivier, 2001
Abramis brama Most common is 16-18 [12-13 is the lowest temperature, highest being 27°C] 17.0 °C Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama 16-18, temperature observed for the peak of spawning 17.0 °C Shestopalova, 1978
Abramis brama 12-20 16.0 °C Mann, 1996
Abramis brama About 15 15.0 °C Kennedy, 1969
Abramis brama 12-20 16.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Abramis brama When temperatures are between 15°C and 18°C 15.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Abramis brama Our five years observations showed that the temperature during the spawning time (May and June) of bream fluctuated on spawning grounds between 13.5 and 26.5°C. On the other hand, when temperatures decreased below 20°C bream discontinuted spawning and left the spawning grounds. [...] Bream spawn at different temperatures depending on location: in the Volga River, spawning occurs between 10.0 and 13.5°C, in the Don River between 23 and 24°C, in Finland between 18 and 19°C, and in Masurian Lakes, Poland, bream spawn at about 17°C. In Kortowskie Lake, where spawners were caught, bream spawn at 20-21°C 20.5 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
Abramis brama Range of temperature is from 9 to 20.6°C, while during phase II and later from 13 to 27°C 9.0 °C Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama Above 13°C 13.0 °C Vetemaa, 2008
Abramis brama For bream, the typical range is 12-20°C, while extremes may reach 8 and 24°C […] The median water temperature measured in large lakes at the beginning of spawning in bream in rivers respective of lakes (correspondinglyn 12.9 and 13.3°C) was not significantly different [...] Spawning starts at water temperature of 13-14°C and reaches its peak at 16-19°C 16.0 °C Noges and Järvet, 2005
Abramis brama Our five years observations showed that the temperature during the spawning time (May and June) of bream fluctuated on spawning grounds between 13.5 and 26.5°C 13.5 °C Kucharczyk, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus 16-25 20.5 °C Yildirim, 1999
Alburnoides bipunctatus Above 12°C 12.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus 13-15.6 14.3 °C Coad, 2005
Alburnoides bipunctatus Above 12°C until 18°C 12.0 °C Persat, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus 19-24 21.5 °C Mann, 1996
Alburnoides bipunctatus Water temperatures of 15-17°C 16.0 °C Polacik and Kovac, 2006
Alburnus alburnus From 15 15.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Alburnus alburnus 15 15.0 °C Rinchard, 1996
Alburnus alburnus 15 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alburnus alburnus 15-28 21.5 °C Carrell and Olivier, 2001
Alburnus alburnus 17-28 22.5 °C Mann, 1996
Alburnus alburnus About 15-16°C or more 15.5 °C Coad, 2006
Alburnus alburnus 22-25°C 23.5 °C Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
Alburnus alburnus 14-28 21.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Aristichthys nobilis 21-25 23.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Aristichthys nobilis 18-20 19.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
Aristichthys nobilis 22 22.0 °C Verigin, 1979
Aristichthys nobilis Optimum teperature for spawning is 22-26°C, and water temperature must exceed 19°C to induce spawning activity 24.0 °C Schrank, 2001
Aristichthys nobilis From 26-30, also 18.3-23.5 28.0 °C Kolar, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis 19.2-29.0 24.1 °C Scholfield, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis Must be higher than 18°C, about 26-30°C 28.0 °C Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis Optimum temperature for spawning is 22-26°C, and must be greater than 18°C 24.0 °C Schrank, 1999
Aristichthys nobilis The water temperature stabilized for a relatively large period of time in the interval of 18°C to at least 22°C 18.0 °C Ciolac, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Aristichthys nobilis D'autre part pendant la journée l'eau stagnante du bassin, avait une température bien trop élevée (maximum 31°C, minimum 28°C) pour influencer favorablement la fraie 31.0 °C Lloze, 1967
Aspius aspius 8-10 9.0 °C Shikhshabekov, 1979
Aspius aspius Start with 4-6°C 5.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius 17-28 22.5 °C Mann, 1996
Aspius aspius The average water temperature in the river during asp spawning reached 7-8°C 7.5 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Aspius aspius 5-12 8.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Barbus barbus Start at 13.5, but main activity at 15-20 17.5 °C Baras, 1995
Barbus barbus 14-18 16.0 °C Philippart, 1989
Barbus barbus Starts at 13.5 13.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus 14-18 16.0 °C Philippart, 1987
Barbus barbus 13.5 13.5 °C Hancock, 1976
Barbus barbus 16-20 18.0 °C Mann, 1996
Barbus barbus 14-20 17.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Barbus barbus Starts at > 13.5, between 14-19 [In each year, barbel started spawning under increasing temperatures] 16.5 °C Baras and Philippart, 1999
Barbus barbus 14-16 15.0 °C Poncin, 1987
Barbus barbus Starts at about 15°C 15.0 °C Poncin, 1984
Barbus barbus 15-18 16.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Carassius auratus 20-25 [In fish farm] 22.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
Carassius auratus Around 15°C [Garden ponds] 15.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Carassius auratus 15-23 [but also 18-29.5] 19.0 °C Internet, 2005
Carassius auratus 16-17 16.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius auratus 20-25 22.5 °C Persat, 2001
Carassius auratus Above 16 16.0 °C Scholfield, 2005
Carassius auratus 15 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 15.0 °C Olden, 2006
Carassius auratus >17 17.0 °C Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Carassius auratus About 20°C 20.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Carassius auratus Beginning at about 55°F, spawning may continue throughout the summer if water temperature remains above 60°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Carassius carassius 17-20 18.5 °C Holopainen, 1997
Carassius carassius 15-20 17.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius carassius >16 16.0 °C Persat, 2001
Carassius carassius 14-22 18.0 °C Mann, 1996
Carassius carassius Above 18 18.0 °C Scholfield, 2005
Carassius carassius Spawning is not likely to occur until the water temperature reaches 17-20°C, especially in harsh climatic conditions as those in Finland 18.5 °C Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Carassius carassius Although the spawning season begins at different times, water temperature requirements are identical, at least 20°C 20.0 °C Naca, 1989
Carassius carassius Spawning begins at temperature > 14°C 14.0 °C Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius carassius The spawning of this species takes place at high temperatures (> 17°C) 17.0 °C Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus Above 11 11.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Chondrostoma nasus 8-9 up to 11 8.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus 8-12 10.0 °C Heckeis, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus 8-11 9.5 °C Nelva, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus 7.9-8.7 8.3 °C Prokes and Penaz, 1978
Chondrostoma nasus 8-12 10.0 °C Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus 8-16 12.0 °C Mann, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus 2-12 7.0 °C Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus Mean of 9.5 9.5 °C Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus 8-12 10.0 °C Kamler, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus The spawning temperature (7-years of observation) was 9.0 ± 1.7°C 9.0 °C Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus 8-12 10.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus When water reach 8-12°C 10.0 °C Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Chondrostoma nasus 6-8 [In Moselle, France], 8 [Dunajec], 12 [Vistula], 15 [Vistula], according to various authors 7.0 °C Prawochenski, 1964
Chondrostoma nasus Potential spawning time was designated as the time period where the temperature reached 8°C and do not exceed 12°C 8.0 °C Winkler, 1997
Chondrostoma toxostoma 13 13.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Chondrostoma toxostoma 9-11 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma 11-13 [South-est of France], 15-16 [South-west of France] 12.0 °C Gozlan and Chappaz, 2001
Chondrostoma toxostoma 11-13 12.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Chondrostoma toxostoma 11-13 12.0 °C Internet
Ctenopharyngodon idella 21-25 23.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Ctenopharyngodon idella 20-25 22.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Ctenopharyngodon idella 20-30 [Optimal temperature] 25.0 °C Le Houarn, 2001
Ctenopharyngodon idella 18-20 19.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella Begins above 17°C, 21-26 is assumed to be the optimal temperature for spawning 23.5 °C Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Ctenopharyngodon idella Optimum spawning temperature is generally thought to be between 20 and 22°C, but others reported water temperatures 26-30°C in China 28.0 °C Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Between 17-26, with peak spawning at 21-26°C 21.5 °C Scholfield, 2005
Ctenopharyngodon idella 19 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 19.0 °C Olden, 2006
Ctenopharyngodon idella When water temperatures is at least 19°C or, more usually, four to five degrees higher [From 19-21 to 26-30] 20.0 °C Scott and Cross, 1973
Ctenopharyngodon idella The water temperature stabilized for a relatively large period of time in the interval of 18°C to at least 22°C 18.0 °C Ciolac, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella In the native range, reproduction occurs during the monsoon season, when water levels rise quickly, temperatures range between 20 and 30°C. A minimum temperature of 18°C has been reported for wuccessful spawning in most acclimatized populations 20.0 °C Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio 18-22 is the optimum [Peaking at 22-26, but from 15-28°] 20.0 °C Internet, 2005
Cyprinus carpio 16-22 19.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Cyprinus carpio 20-22 21.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio 18 18.0 °C Bieniarz, 1978
Cyprinus carpio Above 18 18.0 °C Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
Cyprinus carpio Spawning does not commence in earnest until temperatures reach a level of at least 62.6°F (17°C) and may continue for several weeks. Spawning activities begin to decline when temperatures reach 78.8°F (26°C) and cease altogether at 82.4°F (28°C). In lake St. Lawrence, it was observed that spawning may be interrupted if cooler wheather prevails and the temperature drops below 62.6°F (17°C), but will recommence when the water warms up again 62.6 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Cyprinus carpio 15-20 17.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
Cyprinus carpio 16-22 19.0 °C Mann, 1996
Cyprinus carpio 16-22 19.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Cyprinus carpio 16-22 19.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Cyprinus carpio 17 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 17.0 °C Olden, 2006
Cyprinus carpio 18-20 19.0 °C Kamler, 1996
Cyprinus carpio The water temperature of 18°C to 20°C is the optimum for spawning 18.0 °C Ciolac, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Begins when water temperature reaches 18°C, although cases are reported of females spawning at lower temperature e.g., 14°C 18.0 °C Bieniarz, 1979
Cyprinus carpio A temperature around15-16°C 15.5 °C Crivelli, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Although the spawning season begins at different times, water temperature requirements are identical, at least 18°C 18.0 °C Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio Spawning is low from 15-18°C, optimum 18-23°C, and ceases at 28°C 16.5 °C Smith, 2004
Gobio gobio 14-17 [But sometimes 12°C] 15.5 °C Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio Ovulation requires a temperature of 16-17 [Optimum 20°C] 16.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio 14-17 15.5 °C Rinchard, 1996
Gobio gobio 16-17 is the minimum required 16.5 °C Kestemont, 1987
Gobio gobio Above about 15°C 15.0 °C Rosechhi and Kestemont, 2001
Gobio gobio 12-17 14.5 °C Mann, 1996
Gobio gobio 17 and more 17.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Gobio gobio Spawning occured at daily mean temperature of 13.6 to 16.5°C. Based on all studies, it could be concluded that spawning occurs most frequently in May and June at water temperatures between 15 and 18°C 13.6 °C Penaz and Prokes, 1978
Gobio gobio 12-17 14.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Gobio gobio La température de l'eau était comprise entre 22 et 24°C et la photopériode fixée à 16L/8N 22.0 °C Poncin, 1997
Gobio gobio La date des premières pontes annuelles est essentiellement dépendante de la température de l'eau (+ 16 à + 17°C), 16.0 °C Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 21-25 23.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 25 25.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 17-25 21.0 °C Billard, 1997
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 21-26 23.5 °C Barbier, 2001
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 18-20 19.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Begins above 17°C, 21-26 is assumed to be the optimal temperature for spawning 23.5 °C Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 18-19 but also 22-26 18.5 °C Kolar, 2005
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 19.2-29.0 24.1 °C Scholfield, 2005
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The water temperature stabilized for a relatively large period of time in the interval of 18°C to at least 22°C 18.0 °C Ciolac, 2004
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
Leucaspius delineatus 18 is the miminum temperature required for reproduction 18.0 °C Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus 15-24 19.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leucaspius delineatus 15-20 17.5 °C Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
Leucaspius delineatus 16.0-20.4 18.2 °C Gozlan, 2003
Leucaspius delineatus Commnenced spawning at water temperature fo 15°C 15.0 °C Bonislawska, 1999
Leuciscus cephalus Close to 15°C 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Really high temperature from 28-32°C 30.0 °C Guerriero, 2005
Leuciscus cephalus 15-23°C 19.0 °C Unlu and Balci, 1993
Leuciscus cephalus Above 15°C 15.0 °C Billard, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus Above 15°C 15.0 °C Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus > 12 12.0 °C Mann, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus 18-20 19.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Between 13.5-20.6°C 17.05 °C Sasi, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus 14-16 15.0 °C Poncin, 1987
Leuciscus cephalus In 1995, spawning took place in a rapid increase of water temprature from 13 to 21°C. In 1995, the temperature remained constant at 11-14°c during the first spawning 12.5 °C Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus >18 18.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus cephalus Usually > 18°C 18.0 °C Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus Between 15 and 22°C 15.0 °C Erdogan, 2002
Leuciscus cephalus In various areas: 12-28°C (Müceldi Stream), 15-23°C (Savur Stream), 16-23°C (Aras River), 14-19°C (Oltu Stream) and 16-18°C (Ikizcetepeler Dam Lake) 20.0 °C Koc, 2007
Leuciscus idus 4-15, but rarely above 12-13°C 9.5 °C Kestemont, 2001
Leuciscus idus 4-15 9.5 °C Mann, 1996
Leuciscus idus 6-10 8.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus idus Spawning begins when water temperature increases up to 5.5°C. During spawning mean temperatures of water are 6-10°C, extreme temperatures are 3 and 15°C. 8.0 °C Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus idus When temperature reaches 13°C 13.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus leuciscus 11-12 11.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus From 10°C 10.0 °C Persat, 2001
Leuciscus leuciscus 5-12 8.5 °C Mann, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus About 10 10.0 °C Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus 9-10 9.5 °C Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus > 8 8.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Leuciscus leuciscus About 6 [In Siberia] 6.0 °C Lobon-cervia, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus 6-13 9.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus leuciscus >13°C 13.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus leuciscus NO INFORMATIONS No data Smith, 2004
Mylopharyngodon piceus 26-30 28.0 °C Crosier, 2005
Mylopharyngodon piceus 19.2-29.0 24.1 °C Scholfield, 2005
Phoxinus phoxinus 10-12 11.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Phoxinus phoxinus 17-20 18.5 °C Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus 11-22 16.5 °C Mann, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus 7-12 9.5 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Phoxinus phoxinus Ripe males first appear in the spawning grounds in early May at a water temperature about 10°C, and ripe females at a temperature of 11-12°C 11.5 °C Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus Temperature of 58°F, i.e. 14.5°C 58.0 °C Frost, 1943
Phoxinus phoxinus 11-22 16.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus A minimum temperature of 12-14°C is required in natural conditions to observe spawning 13.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Pimephales promelas 15.6-28.9 [The critical temperature at which spawning starts seems around 16°C] 22.25 °C Gale and Buynak, 1982
Pimephales promelas Begins spawning when water temperature approach 18°C and continues until it drops below 18°C 18.0 °C Duffy, 1998
Pimephales promelas 15-18, 14.4-18.3, 15.6-28.9 16.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Pimephales promelas [60-85°F], 15.5-29°C 72.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Pimephales promelas Water temperature was 64°F, i.e. 17.8°C 64.0 °C Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva 16-18 17.0 °C Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva 19.5-20°C 19.75 °C Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva In the Amur basin the spawning starts when the temperature of 15-19°C 17.0 °C Witkowski, 2006
Pseudorasbora parva The stock tanks were maintained on a constant photoperiod of 14 h light (from 07:00 to 21:00) and 10 h of dark at 20°C 14.0 °C Konishi and Takata, 2004
Pseudorasbora parva Water temperatures ranged from 11.8 to 27°C during experiments, which was similar to the range of water temperature (from 13.6 to 26°C) when minnow spawned in the reservoir 11.8 °C Katano and Maekawa, 1997
Rhodeus sericeus 15-21 18.0 °C Oliver and Carrel, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus 22 [Rerared conditions] 22.0 °C Mills and Reynolds, 2002
Rhodeus sericeus 15-21 for amarus 18.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Above 15 15.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Rutilus rutilus 12-15 13.5 °C Rinchard, 1996
Rutilus rutilus 14-17.2°C in the Lake and 16.2°C and 17.4°C in the canal 15.6 °C Diamond, 1985
Rutilus rutilus The threshold of water temperature is 14°C 14.0 °C Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Rutilus rutilus 16-20°C 18.0 °C Dubois and Gillet, 2003
Rutilus rutilus 7.4-10.5 8.95 °C Vollestad, 1987
Rutilus rutilus Spawning after the water has reached 10°C 10.0 °C Papageorgiou, 1979
Rutilus rutilus 7-19 13.0 °C Mann, 1996
Rutilus rutilus 8-14 11.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Rutilus rutilus From early April (13°C) to late May (18°C) [review from other populations: 10, 8-10, 11-19, 12, 16-17.8, 14, 14, and 6-10] 9.0 °C Tarkan, 2006
Rutilus rutilus 14-16 15.0 °C Libovarsky, 1985
Rutilus rutilus 18-20, also described as 18-20, 16, 12, and 10 19.0 °C Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Rutilus rutilus 13-14 13.5 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Rutilus rutilus The onset of spawning is synchronized by photoperiod, and water temperature is important in regulating the intensity and duration of spawning. Spawning usually takes place in water temperature 8 and 17°C. Also found to spawner at a lower temperature (7.4°C) which coule be an adaptation to the colder climatein Norway. The onset temperature vary from differente sources from 7.8 to 18, mostly 10-14°C 12.0 °C Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
Rutilus rutilus The temperature ranged from 12 to 16°C was the longest prevailling one in natural roach spawning grounds in Uchinskoye reservoir near Moscow 12.0 °C Horoszewicz, 1971
Rutilus rutilus The temperature of water during spawning in seperate years amounted to 19.4 and 18.7°C 19.4 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
Rutilus rutilus Roach spawns most typically at temperatures between 8 and 19.4°C with extremes reaching to 5 and 22°C […] Spawned spontaneously in the laboratory when the temperature reached 18-20°C […] Spawning started in lakes when the median water temperature measured at four stations in large lakes reached 8.7°C. During roach spawning in rivers, the lake temperature was almost one degree lower [...] In lake Peipse roach starts to spawn at water temperature of 8-10°C, and mass spawning takes place at 10-13°C 19.0 °C Noges and Järvet, 2005
Rutilus rutilus In the laboratory, the fish were maintained at 11°C in single-sex groups in circular 1500 l tanks to keep their spawning stage stable prior to ehavioural tests […] The water temperature in the stream tank was kept between 18 and 20°C 11.0 °C Kortet, 2004b
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 18-27 22.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Not less than 18-20 19.0 °C Shikhshabekov, 1979
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 18-27 22.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 14-20 17.0 °C Mann, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus About 15 15.0 °C Kennedy, 1969
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 14-20 17.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 14-20 17.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Scardinius erythrophthalmus From early May (17.5°C) to late June (23.5°C) [review from other populations: 17.5-23.5, 21.9-24.4, 10, 18-20 and 18-25] 20.5 °C Tarkan, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Depending on the place of occurrence, the species begin to spawn when the water temperature reaches 14°C 14.0 °C Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Water exceeds 18 18.0 °C Hicks, 2003
Tinca tinca 22-24 23.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Tinca tinca 18-26 22.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Tinca tinca 20-22 (Spawning never occured below 20°C) 21.0 °C Breton, 1980
Tinca tinca 21-25 [But 18 in England] 23.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca From 18 18.0 °C Feunteun, 2001
Tinca tinca Generally spawning starts at 19-20 19.5 °C Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca 16-26 21.0 °C Mann, 1996
Tinca tinca 20-21 20.5 °C Kennedy, 1969
Tinca tinca 20-24 22.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Tinca tinca 16-22 19.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Tinca tinca Mean temperaturewas 16.1 ±2°C and 19.2 ± 2°C in June and July, respectively 16.1 °C Alas and Solak, 2004
Tinca tinca 21-23 22.0 °C Kamler, 1996
Tinca tinca 20-22 21.0 °C Poncin, 1987
Tinca tinca >18 18.0 °C Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Tinca tinca Begin spawning when the water reaches 19-20. In their study, the lowest temperature releasing spawning was 19°C, and the highest temperature at spawning was 29°C, mean temperature in the controls between the three years ranged from 20.6 to 23.9°C 19.5 °C Morawska, 1984
Tinca tinca The temperature of water during spawning in seperate years amounted to 22 and 19 22.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
Tinca tinca Spawning is initiated at the water temperatures >19°C, optimum spawning temepratures ranges from 21 to 23°C 19.0 °C Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba 16-17, mostly between 1-20 16.5 °C Shikhshabekov, 1979
Vimba vimba 16-20°C 18.0 °C Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba 14-23 18.5 °C Mann, 1996
Vimba vimba At temperatures ranging from 14°C to 18°C 14.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
Vimba vimba Water temperature of 17-18°C for the first spawning 17.5 °C Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba 18-20°C 19.0 °C Kuliev, 1988
Vimba vimba 14-18 16.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Vimba vimba Conditions during the spawning: 19.1-20°C [Somewhat cloudy, in 1-3 June 1993], 19.3-19.8 [Sunshine, 2-3 June 1994], 19.0-20.2°C [Overcast, 28-30 May 1995], 19.8 [Overcast, 1-2 June 1996], 20.2 [Somewaht cloudy, 3-4 June 1997] 19.55 °C Lusk, 2005
Vimba vimba The spawning itself begins most often in the early morning, when the water temperature is 16-18°C 17.0 °C Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
Gambusia affinis 15.5 up to 30 15.5 °C Internet, 2005
Gambusia affinis 17-21 19.0 °C Koya, 1998
Gambusia affinis 25-30 for the release of neonates 27.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gambusia affinis 16 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 16.0 °C Olden, 2006
Gambusia affinis Mosquitofish need more than 18°C temperature and 12.5 h daylength for their reproduction, and that brood interval is kept almost constant if the water temperature and photoperiod are constant. 18.0 °C Koya, 2000
Gambusia affinis Critical temperature sould be near 15.56°C 15.56 °C Medlen, 1951
Gambusia affinis 25-30°C was an optimal range for reproduction in California mosquitofish 27.5 °C Cech, 1992
Esox masquinongy 7.5-15 11.25 °C Farrell, 1996
Esox masquinongy 9.4-15 [Optimum is 12.8°C] 12.2 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox masquinongy 9.5-15 12.25 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Esox masquinongy 9.4-15, other authors: 8-10.5°C, 7.8-13°C, 12.8 optimal 12.2 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox masquinongy At 46-65°F, 8-18°C 55.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Esox masquinongy In high 50 to 60 °F, i.e. 10-15.5°C 12.75 °C Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox masquinongy Between 49 and 59°F, i.e. 9.5-15°C 12.25 °C Wynne, 2006
Esox masquinongy Spawning generally occurs at 9 to 15°C 9.0 °C Miller and Menzel, 1986
Esox masquinongy Water temperatures ranged from 7 to 17°C, and spawning peaked at 10-13°C 11.5 °C Farrell, 2005
Esox masquinongy When water temperature warm to 50 degrees Farhenheit and remain that warm for several days 50.0 °C Clemmons and Newman, 1997
Esox niger 2-22 (when ice melts) 12.0 °C Coffie, 1998
Esox niger 8.3-11.1 9.7 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox niger 8-11 9.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Esox niger In the high 40s to low 50s °F 40.0 °C Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox niger 8.3-11.1 9.7 °C Anonymous, 2006
Esox niger Water temperatures ranged from a low of 36° to a high 73°F during the peirod from April 10 to April 25 36.0 °C Armbruster, 1959
Esox lucius 6-7 [But from 5-13] 6.5 °C Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius 7-10 8.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
Esox lucius 5-13 [7-12 peak deposition] 9.0 °C Farrell, 1996
Esox lucius 7-11 9.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius 6-12 9.0 °C Hovarth, 1992
Esox lucius 6 and over, between 6-8 7.0 °C Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius 4.4-11.1 7.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Esox lucius 8-10 9.0 °C Lucas, 1992
Esox lucius 5.5-9.8 7.65 °C Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
Esox lucius 6-14 10.0 °C Mann, 1996
Esox lucius 4-11 7.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Esox lucius Rise in temperature 6-10°C 8.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Esox lucius 4.4-12°C, but generally 9°C [The start of spawning period usually coincides with the period of peak run-off when water temperatures are approximately 4.4°C, the spawning period ends when water temperature reach 13°C) 8.2 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius 40 to 52°F 40.0 °C Wynne, 2006
Esox lucius 5 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 5.0 °C Olden, 2006
Esox lucius 6 to 14°C 6.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
Esox lucius Spawning started at 6°C (in 1949) and 6.5°C (1948) and ended when temperature reach 8°C (in 1949) and 9.5°C (1948). Spawning stopped if water decreased below 6°C 6.0 °C Chimits, 1951
Esox lucius In the present study, ripe pike were first caught at temperatures of 6.3°C in 1986 and 6.9°C in 1987 6.3 °C Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
Esox lucius Usually late March-late April at 40-50°F 45.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Esox lucius Warmed to 8-12°C […] when the water temperature reaches 10°C 10.0 °C Lappalainen, 2008
Lota lota 5-10 7.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
Lota lota 0.5-4 2.25 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lota lota 0.5-4 2.25 °C Van Houdt, 2003
Lota lota 1 1.0 °C Billard, 1997
Lota lota <5°C 5.0 °C Persat, 2001
Lota lota Usually 0.6-1.7°C 1.15 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lota lota < 4 4.0 °C Mann, 1996
Lota lota 0.5-4.0 2.25 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Lota lota Burbot spawn in winter time at a temperature of 1-4°C 2.5 °C Harzevili, 2004
Lota lota 33-50°F 41.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus 15.8-18.5 17.15 °C Internet, 2005
Gasterosteus aculeatus Above 10°C 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus >15°C [Little courtship occur when water temperature often exceed 25°C] 15.0 °C Fitzgerald, 1983
Gasterosteus aculeatus In out study, some sticklebacks completed spawning and started a new gametogenetic cycle in June-July. Temperatures as high as 20°C probably limited breeding in the populations examined and a further increase of temperature could have been the reason why the initial phase of gamatogenesis in both sexes was disturbed 20.0 °C Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
Gasterosteus aculeatus At 50-73°F 61.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius >15°C [Little courtship occur when water temperature often exceed 25°C] 15.0 °C Fitzgerald, 1983
Pungitius pungitius At 49-62°F, peak spawning occurs at 52-54°F 55.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris 15-27 21.0 °C Carrel, 2001
Ambloplites rupestris 15.6-21.1 18.35 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ambloplites rupestris Breeding starts when water temperature reach 20-23 21.5 °C Gross and Nowell, 1980
Ambloplites rupestris 16-21 18.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Ambloplites rupestris 16-21, 15.6, 15.6-21.1 and 20.6-23.3 18.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ambloplites rupestris At 57-75°F, i.e., 14-24°C 66.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris 16 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 16.0 °C Olden, 2006
Ambloplites rupestris Nesting began at water temperature lower than in lakes, where they span 20 to 23°C 20.0 °C Noltie and Keenleyside, 1987
Lepomis gibbosus 20-24 is the optimum temperature [Also 17.5-20°C] 22.0 °C Internet, 2005
Lepomis gibbosus 19-20 19.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus 15-30 22.5 °C Carrel, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus 20-27.8 [For nest building] 23.9 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Lepomis gibbosus 20-25 22.5 °C Copp, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus 20, 18.9-21.1 20.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lepomis gibbosus 13-28°C, optimum being 21-24 20.5 °C Rue, 2001
Lepomis gibbosus 13 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 13.0 °C Olden, 2006
Lepomis gibbosus Beginning at 55°F, occurs at water temperatures as high as 84°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus dolomieui 16.1-18.3 are the optimal temperature [13-16°C] 17.2 °C Internet, 2005
Micropterus dolomieui Nest building and spawning (in some areas) commences over a range of 12.8-20°C [Egg deposition takes place mostly at 16.1-18.3°C] 16.4 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus dolomieui 15.9-17.4 at noon 16.65 °C Iguchi, 2004
Micropterus dolomieui About 15, peak spawning at 16 15.0 °C Cooke, 2003
Micropterus dolomieui 16-18 17.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Micropterus dolomieui 18-27 22.5 °C Rue, 2001
Micropterus dolomieui Varies: 15-18, 12.5-23.5, 12.8-20.0 16.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui Nest building starts at 16°C 16.0 °C McNeill, 1995
Micropterus dolomieui 13 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 13.0 °C Olden, 2006
Micropterus dolomieui Nest building started when water temperatures was 15-18°C 16.5 °C Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning season generally begins in late May when water temperature reaches 15°C 15.0 °C Gillooly and Baylis, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui At 51-70°F, nest building may begin at water temperatures below 60°F, but spawning usually does not begin until the water temperature reaches about 62°F 60.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides 16-18 17.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Micropterus salmoides 15.5-20 (the last most successful or ideal temperature) 17.75 °C Newburg, 1975
Micropterus salmoides 15 (Observation of the first spawning) 15.0 °C Rosenblum, 1994
Micropterus salmoides 14-16 (begin of spawning) 15.0 °C Williamson, 1993
Micropterus salmoides 14-16 [start and up to 24°C] 15.0 °C Internet, 2005
Micropterus salmoides 16-18 but 23°C in USA 17.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides 15-25 20.0 °C Carrel and Schlumberger, 2001
Micropterus salmoides Wen temperature reach 15 15.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Micropterus salmoides Nest building starts at about 15.6, but spawning usually takes place at 16.7-18.3 17.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Micropterus salmoides 15-18 16.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Micropterus salmoides Between 15-24, also 16.7-18.3, the optimum being 21°C 19.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides 14 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 14.0 °C Olden, 2006
Micropterus salmoides At 58-70°F 64.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides At the water temperature of 19 ± 2°C 19.0 °C Roncarati, 2005
Dicentrarchus labrax 9-12 10.5 °C Zohar, in Barnabé et Billard ed. L'aquaculture du Bar et des Sparidés, INRA Publ., Paris, 1984, 3-24
Dicentrarchus labrax At about 14.6°C 14.6 °C Abdel, 2004
Dicentrarchus labrax Vary between 10.6-12.6 11.6 °C Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax Spawning occured for control fish between 11.9-13.8 12.85 °C Carillo, 1989
Dicentrarchus labrax The spawning begun at the time of the lowest water temperature of the year (12-13°C) and a short but inreasing daylength 12.5 °C Mananos, 1997
Dicentrarchus labrax On the south-east coast of Spain, under natural conditions, spawning occurs during winter months, under low temperatures (12-14°C) and short and/or increasing daylengths 13.0 °C Rodriguez, 2001
Morone americana 11-15 13.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone americana 11-15 13.0 °C Sheri and Power, 1968
Morone americana 11-15 13.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Morone americana Rising temperature stimulate spawning No data Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana Peak spawning occur at 10-16°C 13.0 °C Rue, 2001
Morone americana Spawning temperatures of with perch range falls from 10 to 25.0°C, generally starts at 14.4°C, peaks at 15.6 to 19.4°C, and ends at 21.1 to 22.2°C 10.0 °C Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
Morone americana Between 10-15 12.5 °C Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops 17-23 20.0 °C Internet, 2005
Morone chrysops 14.4-21.1 17.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone chrysops Mean: 16.3 [Range 13.4-20.2] 16.8 °C Ruelle, 1977
Morone chrysops Typically 14.4-18.3 16.35 °C Kohler, 1997
Morone chrysops 14-21 17.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Morone chrysops 13 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 13.0 °C Olden, 2006
Morone chrysops 55-79°F 67.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Morone saxatilis Starts at 14-15, bulk of spawn 16-18°C 14.5 °C Internet, 2005
Morone saxatilis About 18 18.0 °C Carmichael, 1998
Morone saxatilis Around 16-17 16.5 °C Sullivan, 1997
Morone saxatilis Between 14.4-21.2, with peak spawning between 17.8-20.0 17.8 °C Rue, 2001
Morone saxatilis 14 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 14.0 °C Olden, 2006
Morone saxatilis Spawning activity start not until water temperatures reached 18°C, with 70 percent of spawning occuring between 20.0 and 23.9°C [Also start at 14.4, and peak at 15.6-19.4°C] 17.5 °C Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Morone saxatilis In the Chesapeeke Bay, females undergoing FOM can be found at temperatures as low as 13°C, whereas spawning takes place at water temperatures of 16-20°C 18.0 °C Mylonas, 1997
Gymnocephalus cernuus 6-18 12.0 °C Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 5-18 [mainly between 12-14] 11.5 °C Brown, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 10-15 12.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning begins when temperature reach 6°C 6.0 °C Crosier, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus 11.6-18.0 is the normal range but could start at 6-8 14.8 °C Craig, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus 7.1-20.2 13.65 °C Kovac, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 12-18 15.0 °C Crivelli and Rosecchi, 2001
Gymnocephalus cernuus 11.6-18 14.8 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
Gymnocephalus cernuus 6-12 9.0 °C Mann, 1996
Perca flavescens 7-20°C [But optimal temperature at 10-13°C] 13.5 °C Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens 2.8-19.9°C [But optimum at 7.8-11.1°C] 11.35 °C Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens 8.0-12.0°C 10.0 °C Kayes and Calbert, 1979
Perca flavescens 8.9-12.2 10.55 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens 7.8-11.1 9.45 °C Goubier, 1990
Perca flavescens Ranging from 7 to 20°C [Usually 10-13°C] 11.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Perca flavescens 6-14 10.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Perca flavescens Range from 5.0-12.8, with peak spawning between 8.5-11.0 8.9 °C Rue, 2001
Perca flavescens Varies between authors: 5-14, 9-12, 7-11, 6.1-8.9 9.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens 6.7-12.2°C 9.45 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Perca flavescens 7 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 7.0 °C Olden, 2006
Perca flavescens Mean of 9.2°C 9.2 °C June, 1977
Perca flavescens At water temperatures less than 17°C 17.0 °C Isermann and Willis, 2008
Perca fluviatilis 12-14 but 7°C in deep water of lakes 13.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis 13-14 13.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
Perca fluviatilis 10-11 [Scotland] 10.5 °C Treasurer, 1983
Perca fluviatilis Stars at 7 and ends at 20°C, but for other areas 12-14 until 24°C 13.0 °C Sandström, 1997
Perca fluviatilis Above 7°C, between 8-16°C 12.0 °C Goubier, 1990
Perca fluviatilis Ranging from 7 to 20°C [Usually 10-13°C] 11.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Perca fluviatilis 8-10 9.0 °C Dubois, 2001
Perca fluviatilis 6-15 10.5 °C Mann, 1996
Perca fluviatilis 5-11 8.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Perca fluviatilis 8.5-13.5 11.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Range 8-16 12.0 °C Gillet, 1995
Perca fluviatilis 12-14°C 13.0 °C Urho, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Spawning activity culminated when the water temperature reached 8-12 10.0 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
Perca fluviatilis Rapid 2-week increase in water temeprature from 4-6°C to 10-13°C 5.0 °C Noaksson, 2004
Sander lucioperca 10-12 11.0 °C Hovarth, 1992
Sander lucioperca Possible at 8°C but normally 12°C 8.0 °C Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca Most at 8-16°C [But could start at 3-4°C and last until 24°C] 12.0 °C Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca 14-16 but as low as 11 in nothern region 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Sander lucioperca About 15 15.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Sander lucioperca 14-16 15.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
Sander lucioperca 8-10 [Nothern part], to 10-14 [Southern part] 9.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander lucioperca About 11°C 11.0 °C Billard, 1997
Sander lucioperca Around 11 11.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca Begins in most waters at 12°C [Sometines at 8-9] 8.5 °C Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca 8-22 15.0 °C Mann, 1996
Sander lucioperca 12-14 13.0 °C Poulet, 2004
Sander lucioperca 6-12 9.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Sander lucioperca 8-12 10.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
Sander lucioperca 12°C 12.0 °C Laurent, 1973
Sander lucioperca Starts either at 10°C, or in other areas only at 12-14°C 13.0 °C Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca Vary according to the area studied between 4-5, to 14-15 4.5 °C Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
Sander lucioperca 14-15 14.5 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander lucioperca When water temperature reaches 10-14°C depending on latitude 12.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander lucioperca Generally when temperature reaches 14-15°C 14.5 °C Wang, 2009
Sander vitreus 6.7-8.9°C [Range of 5.6-11.1] 7.8 °C Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Peak spawning at 5.6-10°C 7.8 °C Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Water warms to 4-7°C 5.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander vitreus 6.7-8.9 [Shortly after ice breaks up] 7.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus 6-11 8.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Sander vitreus Generally begins at 5-10°C, with peak activity in the 7-8°C range 7.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus 5.6-11.1°C 8.35 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Sander vitreus 4 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 4.0 °C Olden, 2006
Sander vitreus Many authors have reported that walleye spawning occurs at 6-12°C 9.0 °C Koenst and Smith, 1976
Coregonus lavaretus 3-3.5 3.25 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Coregonus lavaretus Lower than 6 6.0 °C Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus lavaretus 0.4-0.5 0.45 °C Salojarvi, 1982
Coregonus lavaretus 2.5-6 4.25 °C Kamler, 1996
Coregonus lavaretus 2-6 4.0 °C Mack and Billard, 1984
Coregonus albula 3.3-3.4 3.35 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Coregonus albula Starts at 6.7-7.7 7.2 °C Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
Coregonus albula 0.4-8 is the full range, mainly 2-5 4.2 °C Zuromska, 1982
Coregonus albula 3-8 5.5 °C Kamler, 1996
Coregonus albula When the water temperature was about 4°C 4.0 °C Sarvala, 1992
Coregonus clupeaformis Dropped below about 7.8 7.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Coregonus clupeaformis 4.4-10.0°C, even 3-4°C, most at less than 7-8°C [Most successful spawning occurs at temperatures <6.1°C] 7.2 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis About 53-33°F (i.e. 0.5-11.5°C), spawning at temperatures above 43°F (6°C) probably not successfull 43.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Coregonus clupeaformis >8°C 8.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
Hucho hucho 6-10 8.0 °C Barton, 1996
Hucho hucho 8-10 9.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hucho hucho 5-10 7.5 °C Holcik, 1990
Hucho hucho 8-10 9.0 °C Perrin, 2001
Hucho hucho 8-10 9.0 °C Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Species starts spawning at 6-10°C 8.0 °C Witkowski, 1988
Hucho hucho The earliest spawning was noted at water temperature of 3.6°C and last spawning was observed at water temperature of 9.2°C. The most intense spawning usually occurs at water temperature of about 7°C 3.6 °C Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
Hucho hucho 5-10, mainly 5-6°C 7.5 °C Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho When the water temperature, at least during the day, exceeds 8°C 8.0 °C Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Most spawning at 10-12°C [Range 7-19°C] 11.0 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The five stocks studied spawned when surface water temperature was near 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 8-14 11.0 °C Golobanov, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha As high as 16, but spawning lof later runs peak at 10 16.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha At 60°F, i.e., 15.5°C 60.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 6-12°C during the study 9.0 °C Keenleyside and Dupuis, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta 7.2-12.8 10.0 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta 8-10°C 9.0 °C Leman, 1993
Oncorhynchus keta 4-11°C 7.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus keta 9.8-14.0°C for early spawners and 4-9°C for late spawner 11.9 °C Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Generally select areas with upwelling springs where winter temperatures exceed 4°C, thus protecting the eggs from freezing 4.0 °C Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus kisutch 4.4-9.4 or 7-13 6.9 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch Usually between 6-12 [Ranging from 0.8-7.7 in Kamchatka and 5.6-13.3 in California] 9.0 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus kisutch 0.8-14.4 7.6 °C Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus kisutch Between 1-10°C, mostly 7.8-11.1 5.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus kisutch Falling from 57-40°F, i.e., 4.5-14°C 48.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus mykiss 10-15.5 12.75 °C Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus mykiss 4-19 [6-8 or 10-13] 11.5 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss From 4 to 13°C with a peak at 8°C 4.0 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus mykiss 10-13 [Optimum temperature] 11.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Oncorhynchus mykiss Usually between 10.0-15.5 12.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Usually exceeds 10, but may be 5-13°C 9.0 °C Coad, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss Basically at 3.9-9.4°C, but also described at 10-15°C 6.65 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss 6 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 6.0 °C Olden, 2006
Oncorhynchus mykiss 4-11 7.5 °C Kamler, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka 20 [Upper limit, above which spawning will not occur] 20.0 °C Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus nerka 5.0-10.5 7.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus nerka Falling from 61 to 41°F, 5-16°C 10.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus nerka 6 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 6.0 °C Olden, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 10-15 12.5 °C Internet, 2005
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 4.4-18 and 5.6-13.9 11.2 °C Barton, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Fluctuates between 5.6-13.9°C, the optimum temperatures are 8.0-9.8°C 9.75 °C Chebanov and Riddell, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 50-37°F 43.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
Salmo salar 0-10 [0-8, 1-6, 6-10] 5.0 °C Barton, 1996
Salmo salar 4.4-5.6 [Preferred temperature] 5.0 °C Groot, 1996
Salmo salar 4.2-5.6 [Nothern Region] and 7-12°C [Southern Region] 4.9 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo salar Below 12°C 12.0 °C Dumas and Darolles, 1999
Salmo salar Decrease from 9 to 6°C during the spawning season 9.0 °C Baglinière, 1990
Salmo salar 6-10 8.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Water temperature at spawning time was 4.5°C 4.5 °C Eskelinen, 1989
Salmo salar 44°F 44.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario 1-10, 2-6, 7-9, 9-13 5.5 °C Barton, 1996
Salmo trutta fario Below 12°C, the optimum is 5-6°C 5.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo trutta fario 6-9 but may as high as 12.8 7.5 °C Groot, 1996
Salmo trutta fario 6.7-8.9 7.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salmo trutta fario 6-9 7.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Salmo trutta fario 6-9°C 7.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo trutta fario 4 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 4.0 °C Olden, 2006
Salmo trutta fario 8-10 9.0 °C Kamler, 1996
Salmo trutta fario When the temperature is falling from 55 to 44°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Salvelinus alpinus 0.5-7, 3-15 3.75 °C Barton, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus 2-7 4.5 °C Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Ovulation occurs at 5-8°C but is inhibited at 10-11°C 6.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus alpinus From 11.2 to 8.6 11.2 °C Pavlov, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus Around 4 4.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus alpinus 0.5-1.5 1.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Between 2-7, 5-6 or at 4°C 4.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus 0.5-1.5 1.0 °C Mittlebach and Persson, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus 1-3 2.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning was believed to have occured during late September and in the first week of October, when temperature dropped below 7°C 7.0 °C Beddow, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Wild spawning takes place at 2°C 2.0 °C Papst and Hopky, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning may be inhibited at temperatures over 10°C, the timing of ovulation may be delayed at 8°C compared to lower temperatures, and the process of egg over-ripening is greatly accelerated at temperatures above 5°C 10.0 °C Jobling,1998
Salvelinus fontinalis 2 (A voir ?) 2.0 °C Pennel and Barrington (79), 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis 10-16 13.0 °C Hokanson, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Starts at 11.6 and finished at 2.9 11.6 °C Snucins, 1992
Salvelinus fontinalis Declined to less than 12°C 12.0 °C Curry, 1991
Salvelinus fontinalis 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 °C Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
Salvelinus fontinalis Preferred temperature is from 4.5 to 10, and spawning does not occur above 16°C 4.5 °C Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning activity and success occurs at below 9°C [4.5-10°C] 7.25 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis 4 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 4.0 °C Olden, 2006
Salvelinus fontinalis During peak spawning periods, water temperature in the spawning area decreased from 11.3 to 8.8°C in 1994 and from 10.3 to 5.9°C in 1995 11.3 °C Blanchfield and Ridgway, 1997
Salvelinus fontinalis When the temperature is falling from 55 to 36°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Salvelinus namaycush 4.5-14 9.25 °C Pennel and Barrington (79), 1996
Salvelinus namaycush < 10 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus namaycush Starts when temperature below 10°C 10.0 °C Perrin, 2001
Salvelinus namaycush From 8-9 to 10.6-13.9°C 8.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus namaycush 8-11 9.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Salvelinus namaycush 9-13 [Onset of spawning appears to be stimulated by heavy winds when water temperatures drop to near 10°C, Increase and prolonged cloud cover can also advance the spawning period] 11.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush 8 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 8.0 °C Olden, 2006
Stenodus leucichthys Falls to 6°C 6.0 °C Belyaeva, 2005
Stenodus leucichthys 3-6°C 4.5 °C Chereshnev, 2000
Stenodus leucichthys 0.2-6°C 3.1 °C Coad, 2006
Stenodus leucichthys Spawning which occurred at the water temperature of 0.2-6.0°C 3.1 °C Dyubin, 2007
Thymallus thymallus 7-12 9.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Thymallus thymallus 8 8.0 °C Poncin, 1996
Thymallus thymallus 7-11 9.0 °C Ovidio, 2004
Thymallus thymallus 11 [Spawning behavior were observed on 28 March and lasted until 8 April] 11.0 °C Parkinson, 1999
Thymallus thymallus 4-7, but sometimes up to nearly 15 5.5 °C Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus 4 to 7, but sometimes up to 15 4.0 °C Northcote, 1993
Thymallus thymallus The maximum water temperature at which spawning takes place is 8-9°C, further increase in temperature leads to resorption of the sex products 8.5 °C Zaytsev, 1987
Thymallus thymallus Average temperature of 8.8°C 8.8 °C Darchambeau and Poncin, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Optimal temperature of 6-10 8.0 °C Maisse, 1987
Thymallus thymallus Lorsque la tempéature de l'eau passe de 4-5°C à 8-9°C. Une chute brutale de la température de l'eau en-dessous de 5°C après le 15 mars s'accompagne d'un ralentissement de la maturation et du blocage des ovulations chez certaines femelles 4.5 °C Carmie, 1985
Thymallus arcticus 7-10 8.5 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Thymallus arcticus 5-9 7.0 °C Northcote, 1995
Thymallus arcticus 5-9 7.0 °C Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus 7 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 7.0 °C Olden, 2006
Thymallus arcticus Most of the spawning took place in a water at a temperature of about 10°C 10.0 °C Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio 3-6 4.5 °C Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio 7-8 [5-12] 7.5 °C Abdoli, 2005
Cottus gobio 7.5-13.5 10.5 °C Fox, 1978
Ameiurus nebulosus 21-25 [Temperature reaching 21°C] 23.0 °C Internet, 2005
Ameiurus nebulosus 20 20.0 °C Burke and Leatherland, 1984
Ameiurus nebulosus 21.1 21.1 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ameiurus nebulosus 21 [Also when water reaches 27°C] 21.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ameiurus nebulosus 21-25 23.0 °C Rue, 2001
Ameiurus nebulosus 62-72°F 67.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Ameiurus nebulosus 21 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 21.0 °C Olden, 2006
Ameiurus nebulosus Range from 14 to 29°C 14.0 °C Internet, 2001
Ictalurus punctatus 21-29 [But optimum around 27-28°C] 25.0 °C Internet, 2005
Ictalurus punctatus 23.9-29.5, with 26.7 the apparent optimum 26.7 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Ictalurus punctatus Begin to spawn when the minimu water temperature exceeds 21°C for several days, normal spawning temperature is from 21 to 29 with 26 considered to be optimal 21.0 °C Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus 22-29 25.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Ictalurus punctatus 21-23.3 up to 29.5 22.15 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Ictalurus punctatus 21-29, with 27 being the optimum 25.0 °C Rue, 2001
Ictalurus punctatus 65-85°F 75.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
Ictalurus punctatus 24-29°C 26.5 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Ictalurus punctatus 21 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 21.0 °C Olden, 2006
Ictalurus punctatus Begin to spawn when the minimum water temperature exceeds 21°C for several days, normal spawning temperature is from 21 to 29 with 26 considered to be optimal 21.0 °C Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Ambient water temperature in all culture facilities ranged from 23 to 27°C. Warm (30°C) water was added if possible to attempt to maintain water temperatures within the defined spawning range 23.0 °C Lang and Tiersch, 2007
Ictalurus punctatus 25-27°C optimal spawning temperature 26.0 °C Sink and Lochman, 2008
Silurus glanis Reared at 23-24°C 23.5 °C Horvath, 1977
Silurus glanis 18-19°C 18.5 °C Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
Silurus glanis 22-24 23.0 °C Hovarth, 1992
Silurus glanis Spawning can be started as soon as the pond water temperature reaches 20-22°C 21.0 °C Legendre, 1997
Silurus glanis 20 20.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
Silurus glanis 20 [Optimal temperature = 22-25] 23.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Silurus glanis Exceed 18 18.0 °C Ulikowski, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus Begins about 4, peak occurs at 6-9 [Sometimes start at 1-2°C lower or higher than 4], avoid temperatures lower than 4°C and higher than 12°C 7.5 °C Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Along the coast, smelt spawn at water temperatures of 4.0 to 9.0°C 4.0 °C Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning only occured when temperatures measured in the River Cree were >6°C. However, in 1995 first spawing took place at a temperature below 6°C 6.0 °C Lyle and Maitland, 1997
Osmerus eperlanus Water has reached at least 5°C [Timing of spawning seems to be dictated by temperatures and tides and may vary from estuary to estuary, especially from North to South] 5.0 °C Maitland, 2003
Osmerus eperlanus Various researchers have found that the spawning initiating temperature ranges from 4-7, 8-9, 4.4-5.5, 4-6, and >4°C 5.5 °C Quigley, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus It is known that smalt spawn at a temperature of 4-6°C 5.0 °C Ziliukine, 2002