Spawning conditions - Spawning migration distance

Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Distance of 5000-6000 km is covered by mature adult 5500.0 km Fishbase, 2006
Anguilla anguilla Spawning phase to reach the Sargasso Sea 7000 km from Europe 7000.0 km Coad, 2005
Anguilla anguilla 6000-8000 km 7000.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Up tp 650 km from the sea 650.0 km Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa alosa Up to 700 km 700.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa It originally migrated over 100 km upstream 100.0 km Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa alosa In some of the larger European rivers, allis shad habe been known to ascend upstream for several hundred kilometres-for exemple, more than 500 km in the river Loire 500.0 km Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa 575 km from the Ocean 575.0 km Boisneau, 1990
Alosa fallax Up to 250 km from sea (Vienne) and to 500 km (Saône), but also in estuary 250.0 km Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax Depend but could be short, i.e. 60 km 60.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa fallax May spawn in, or just above, the tidal reaches of rivers, but many stocks spawn in freshwater upstrezam of this. Some fish travel over 190 km to reach their spawning grounds 190.0 km Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa sapidissima As maturing fish migrate 100 km up the estuary to the freswater spawnig grounds 100.0 km Olney, 2001
Alosa sapidissima Some shad spawn immediately on entering fresh water while others may undertake fairly long journeys, as musch as 630 km upstream, to their favored spawning grounds 630.0 km Fishbase, 2006
Alosa sapidissima During spawning season, they move to shallower inshore waters to spawn No data Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Alosa sapidissima York River fish segregate from mixed-stock assemblages and migrate at least 130 river kilometers (rKm) up the estuary to freshwater 130.0 km Olney, 2006
Alosa sapidissima In the Hudson River in New York state, spawning of American shad takes place more than 160 kmfrom the river mouth, and most of the eggs are found above 200 km 160.0 km Limburg and Ross, 1995
Barbatula barbatula The stone loach spawns in the same places where it lives No data Sauvonsaari, 1971
Barbatula barbatula Limited home range No data Environment agency, 1996
Cobitis taenia Short-distance migrations prior to spawning have been suggested for some Japanese loaches but not for European populations No data Bolhen and Ritterbusch, 2000
Blicca bjoerkna Limited home range, localised spawning No data Environment agency, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Holobiotique migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Abramis brama Make migrations No data Olivier, 2001
Abramis brama Most of the population does not migrate for long distances No data Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Localised migrations to spawning areas No data Environment agency, 1996
Abramis brama Migrations of tagged A. brama have been observed in a number of freshwater bodies and brackish coastal waters. The longest recorded distance covered by tagged bream was 200 km from the place of release. 200.0 km Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama Holobiotique migrations No data Agence de l'eau,
Alburnoides bipunctatus Holobiotique migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Alburnus alburnus Spawning migration present No data Environment agency, 1996
Alburnus alburnus No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Aristichthys nobilis About 125-260 km 192.5 km Abdusamadov, 1986
Aristichthys nobilis Often migrate upstream to spawn No data Schrank, 2001
Aristichthys nobilis Sometimes exceeding 80 km 80.0 km Kolar, 2005
Aspius aspius Anadromous migrations, short No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Aspius aspius The migratory behaviour of asp was highly variable, 34 asp observed for more than 1 year lived in home ranges of 1 to > 100 stream kilometres mostly near their capture site. Longest observed migratrion from summer habitat in the Tidal Elbe back to the spawning ground in the middle of Elbe was 166 skm [To date, long upstream migrations (>50 km) from the lower river section are seldom observed] 34.0 km Fredrich, 2003
Aspius aspius Anadromos migrations in shoals No data Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Barbus barbus Both sedentary and non-sedentary populations, for which a spawning migration occur : >10km per day 10.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus Migration is present: sometimes 303 km in 37 days 303.0 km Spillmann, 1961
Barbus barbus Home range 2-20 km 11.0 km Environment agency, 1996
Barbus barbus Holobiotique migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Carassius auratus No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Carassius auratus Move inshore short distances into littoral areas or tributaries beginning at about 45°F 45.0 km Goodyear, 1982
Carassius carassius Localised spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
Carassius carassius No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Carassius carassius Crucian carp are considered to be non-migratory fish. In spring, they move from deeper part of water bodies toshallower parts which are warmer and better endowed with oxygen. Crucian carp move slowly. In autumn they return to deeper waters No data Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Small distances from the main river to tributaries No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Migrate to spawing grounds No data Nelva, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Migrates upstream and enters small tributaries No data Fishbase, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus Huge spawning shoals migrate from the main stream into tributaries to their spawning sites No data Keckeis, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Migrate 4 km upstream to the spawning ground 4.0 km Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Chondrostoma nasus Holobiotique migration, small distances from the main stream to small tributaries No data Agence de l'eau,
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning migrations are of short distance. Recaptured four tagged nase spawners. Two of them did not migrate at all, one migrated 8 km (it covered 2 km/day on average), the fourth spawned 14 km (0.7 km/day) 8.0 km Prawochenski, 1964
Ctenopharyngodon idella About 125-260 km 192.5 km Abdusamadov, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella Very long migrations: thousands kms No data Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Ctenopharyngodon idella Most of the reproducing white amur and silver carp complete a short post-spawning migration of some 100 km 100.0 km Gorbach and Kryhtin, 1988
Cyprinus carpio Localised spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
Cyprinus carpio Move from littoral waters into marshes beginning in April or early May at about 45°F, also ascend tributaries, usually only short distances, but sometimes as far as 10-15 mi 12.5 km Goodyear, 1982
Gobio gobio Limited home range No data Environment agency, 1996
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix About 125-260 km 192.5 km Abdusamadov, 1986
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Very long migrations: thousands kms No data Krykhtin and Gorbach, 1982
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Most of the reproducing white amur and silver carp complete a short post-spawning migration of some 100 km 100.0 km Gorbach and Kryhtin, 1988
Leucaspius delineatus No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Leuciscus cephalus Adults ascends the stream to spawn, often having to cross barriers and lead up waterfalls, population of adults can remain in the stream troughout the year No data Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus From the nutrition ground to spawning ground No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus From deeper to shallower waters No data Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
Leuciscus cephalus Home range 4km, localised spawning 4.0 km Environment agency, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus The distance of spawning migration varied between c. 100m and 16 km 100.0 km Fredrich, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Usually it displays no spawning migration No data Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus idus Maximally 2.5 km 2.5 km Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus idus Potamodromous with a prevailing upstream migration No data Kuliskova, 2009
Leuciscus leuciscus Short migration No data Spillmann, 1961
Leuciscus leuciscus Large home range No data Environment agency, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus Tend to remain in localized areas for extended period in the wild No data Kennedy and Pitcher, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus Short migrations No data Spillmann, 1961
Phoxinus phoxinus Localised spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
Pseudorasbora parva No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Rhodeus sericeus No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Rutilus rutilus Limited home range, spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
Rutilus rutilus Roach migrate towards deeper water (25-35 m) in winter when water temperature is constant through the water column in deep lakes. Roach migrate towards warmer waters near the surface when a temperature gradient begins to appear again in the spring 30.0 km Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Limited home range, move to deeper water in autumn No data Environment agency, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawning adults move inshore No data Hicks, 2003
Tinca tinca Limited home range, localised spawning No data Environment agency, 1996
Vimba vimba Anadromous migration: sometimes up to 870 km 870.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Vimba vimba Long migrations No data Keith and Allardi, 2001
Vimba vimba Anadromous, but this population is stationary and non-migratory No data Hliwa and Martyniak, 2002
Vimba vimba Semimigrating anadomic. For reproduction they migrate up the rivers. Migrating along the River Vistula, Vimba vimba reached even the River Raba about 800 km. Distant from the coast. Vimba vimba also develops local forms living only in fresh flowing waters, expecially in places where rivers have been artifically dammed. In these cases the existence of V. vimba in the dam reservoir is conditioned by the possibility of undertaking short spawning migrations to the non-damned part of the river as isthe case in natural conditions 800.0 km Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba Until Kaunas hydroelectric power station was built, vimba used to migrate along the Nemunas to Stolbcai town (Belarus), which made 850 km from the river mouth. After Kaunas HPS dam was built and when transferring and marking of vimba reproducers was started, it was determined that the furthest distance of their migration reached 500 km, which was a bit shorter than before the dam building 850.0 km Kesminas, 1999
Vimba vimba While migrating from the sea to the Trzebiatow spawning ground, the vimbs cover the distance of about 20 km 20.0 km Trzebiatowski and Narozanski, 1973
Vimba vimba The fish engage in short-distance anadromous migration, moving to spawn upstream in barbel or grayling regions. No data Luszczek, 2008
Esox masquinongy Relatively long-distance spawning migrations have been documented No data Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox niger They don't travel far from their selected home areas, and they tolerate a wide temperature range No data Pennslylvania fishes, 2006
Esox lucius Migrations variables up to 15 to 78 km but rare, usually much shorter 15.0 km Souchon, 1983
Esox lucius Quite short No data Frost and Kipling, 1967
Esox lucius Seasonal spawning migrations up to 10 km 10.0 km Environment agency, 1996
Esox lucius Considered maily a sedentary species No data Bradbury, 1999
Lota lota Spawning is often preceed by a spawning migration over long distances: sometimes up to 400 km [but could be less than 10 km] 400.0 km Van Houdt, 2003
Lota lota About 60-70 km 65.0 km Vedeneev, 2003
Lota lota If possible lacustrine populations migrate to rivers for spawning. Burbot from Baikal Lake migrate several hundreds km to spawning grounds in rivers No data Kujawa, 2002
Gasterosteus aculeatus Limited home range No data Environment agency, 1996
Gasterosteus aculeatus Move from deeper water to neashore areas, creek mounths, and bays, and often ascend tributaries No data Goodyear, 1982
Pungitius pungitius No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Pungitius pungitius Move inshore to shoals and harbors or upstream into creeks No data Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris Often move many males along shore to rech bays and creek mouths, stream residents congregate in pools just before spawning No data Goodyear, 1982
Ambloplites rupestris Move inshore within the same lake No data Gross and Nowell, 1980
Lepomis gibbosus No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Lepomis gibbosus Move short distances inshore and enter creeks No data Goodyear, 1982
Micropterus salmoides Move into the shallower water to spawn and the entire population is on the shoreline, large numbers move out of lakes over weirs and spillways No data Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Nonmigratory species No data Everly and Boreman, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Movements of largemouth bass of all ages appear somewhat limited, range from 1.1 to 25.6 km 1.1 km Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Two of five largemouth bass in Lake Yale migrated 2.5 and 2.8 km, respectively, to calm cove and calm areas of the lake in February 1980, when surface water temperature was approximatively 13°C. Five of six largemouth bass in lake Eustis migrated up to 3 km from their respective home ranges to canals after mean dialy water temperature increased from 11.4 to 14.5°C during 25-30 January 1981. 27.5 km Mesing and Wickler, 1986
Micropterus salmoides May move short distances inshore or into marshes No data Goodyear, 1982
Dicentrarchus labrax Not true migrations but rather small movements between feeding and spawning areas No data Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana Migration up to 90 km were recorded, and also 104 km 90.0 km Stanley and Danie, 1983
Morone americana The mean distance in miles traveled by all white perch tagged during spring months was 15.6, with upper ranges of 45 miles or more 15.6 km Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Move inshore from deep water and enter tributaries, beginning in April at about 55°F, often move many miles upstream 55.0 km Goodyear, 1982
Morone saxatilis Prespawning may travel long distances upriver, in fresh water No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
Morone saxatilis The 165-km upriver migration took about a week 165.0 km Carmichael, 1998
Morone saxatilis Spawning occurs in several deltaic channels c. 16-50 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean in the freshwater portion 33.0 km Will, 2002
Morone saxatilis Can migrate as far inland as 320 km to find suitable spawning habitat 320.0 km Burdick and Hightower, 2005
Morone saxatilis Local fishermen catch adult striped bass more than 300 km upstream in the Savannah River from May to September and catch fish in the extreme dowstream tidal reaches of the river during the winter. The major spawning area for striped bass in the Savannah River is in the tidally influenced area 30 to 40 km upstream from the river mouth 300.0 km Dudley, 1977
Morone saxatilis Following spawning, most striped bass leave the Hudson River and move generally northeast-ward in Long island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, but the majority are restricted to within 50 km of the river mouth 50.0 km McLaren, 1981
Gymnocephalus cernuus Ruffe do not make long migrations, however short diurnal and seasonal movements are common No data Kovac, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Limited home range No data Environment agency, 1996
Perca flavescens Spawning migrations are usually short-ranged [On lalke system this involves movment from deep water, where the fish over-wintered, to shallow water spawning areas] No data Craig, 2000
Perca flavescens Adults migrate shoreward into the shallows of lakes, and often into tributary rivers to spawn No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Perch do not move extensively [Winter migrations take perch into deep water where maximum water temperatures are approximatively 4°C. in the spring fish begin to migrate to the shallow water spawning areas] 4.0 km Kerr and Grant, 1999
Perca flavescens Move to shallower water to spawn No data Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Perca fluviatilis Movement from the deep water, where the fish have over-wintered, to shallow water spawning areas No data Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Usually migrations are really short No data Thorpe, 1977
Perca fluviatilis Can migrate large distances No data Environment agency, 1996
Sander lucioperca Distances in spawning migrations are relatively short, less than 35 km (but sometimes 250 km in brackish waters) 35.0 km Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca May migrate several tens of kms to find an appropriate spawning ground No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Sander lucioperca Limited home range around 1 km 1.0 km Environment agency, 1996
Sander lucioperca The distance between wintering and spawning areas is usually less than 30 km but may in some cases be even > 200 km 30.0 km Lehtonen, 1996
Sander vitreus The majority of a spawning population, in most waters. migrates less than 16 km from its spawning grounds, even in large bodies of waters, most do not migrate further than 5 km, other study showed migrations of 20.5 (11 to 58) 16.0 km Colby, 1979
Hucho hucho Low ampliture about 5-15 km 10.0 km Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hucho hucho Move upstream to spawning sites, but these migrations are short, not exceeding 10-25 km 17.5 km Holcik, 1990
Hucho hucho Migration during night of about 5-20 km 12.5 km Perrin, 2001
Hucho hucho Short migrations: from 5 to 10-25 km 17.5 km Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho Does not undertake large migrations. Unless disturbed, it makes only local migrations in seach of spawning places No data Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning grounds can be as far as 700 km, but generally are within 100 km of the coast 700.0 km Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha This stock of pink salmon takes approximatively 2 weeks to migrate the 333 km upstream to the spawning grounds 2.0 km Dye, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Usually move only about 40 miles upstream but may move as much as 300 miles in large rivers, or may spawn in the lower tidal areas in other rivers 40.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Upstream migration usually less than 0.5 miles but a migration of 40-50 miles has been reported on Lake Superiori tributary 45.0 km Goodyear, 1982
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Although spawning generally takes place in freshwater close to the sea or in interdital zones, some pink salmon may sapwn in streams several kilometers upstream from slatwater No data Bradbury, 1999
Oncorhynchus keta Migrations are generally short because the main spawning grounds are mostly in coastal streams not far from sea [However, in some systems, spawning has been observed as far as 2000 to 3000 km from the sea] 2000.0 km Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta Rarely penetrate rivers more than 100 miles, albeit some ascends over 1200 miles 100.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta Most chum salmon spawn above the saltwater zone but within 200 km of the sea, although some chum salmon have been reported to migrate up to 322 k upstream to spawn 200.0 km Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta Spawn in streams ranging from short coastal streams, where the adults may spawn within the tidal zone, to large river systems, such as the Amur River in the U.S.S.R. and the Yukon River in Alaska, where adults are known to migrate upstream over 2,500 km 2.0 km Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Habitat ranging from tidal areas, to small streams only a few kilometres in length, to the mainstreams of large rivers over 200 km from salt water 200.0 km Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus kisutch Mostly do not travel more than 150 miles from the sea in large rivers 150.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Amphibiotique migration in its country of origin No data Agence de l'eau,
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning areas are 842 and 986 km from the mouth of the Columbia River 842.0 km Quinn, 1997
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 494-km spawning migration 494.0 km Slater, 1994
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha From the tidal limit to locations over 1000 km 1000.0 km Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The adults proceed up river as short a distance as the point just above tidal influence, or as much as 600 miles and over 1200 miles 600.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Adults migrates up to 4,827 km upstream to spawn 4.0 km Fishbase, 2006
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha We estimated that 10 fish spawned from river km 236.7 to 326.0, four fish spawned from river km 201.7 to 203.7 and five fish spawned from tiver km 172.8 to 187.1 10.0 km Berman and Quinn, 1991
Salmo salar From 3.5 to 49.2 in various rivers 3.5 km Baglinière, 1990
Salmo salar Long migrations No data Billard, 1997
Salmo salar Could migrate up to several thousands km No data Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar The fish distributed to the spawning areas between 36 and 250 km from the river mouth 36.0 km Okland, 2001
Salmo salar Migrate long distances from lakes to tributaries and also into lake outlets No data Goodyear, 1982
Salmo trutta fario The distance (km), which varies from 0.2 to 45 km, was measured from the mouth of the river to the spawning ground where the fish were caught 0.2 km Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
Salmo trutta fario The natural spawning grounds under study are in Själsöan, a stream located 7 km north of Visby, with a river basin are of 35 km² 7.0 km Rubin,2004
Salvelinus alpinus Most fish travelled less than 25 km from their stream of origin, but some travel 100, 400, 500 and 940 away 25.0 km Groot, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus Nearly all recaptures of fish in the sea were from local coastal areas, about 80% of the recaptures were made within 30 km of the River 80.0 km Finstad and Heggberget, 1993
Salvelinus alpinus Remained within 100 km of where they were originally released 100.0 km Bradbury, 1999
Salvelinus alpinus The maximum distance anadromous char moved from saltwater was 40 km 40.0 km Moore, 1975
Salvelinus fontinalis Mature fish may travel many miles upstream to reach the spawning grounds No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Only make a few habitat changes during their life history [Do not migrate far from spawning grounds] No data Groot, 1996
Stenodus leucichthys Up to 3000 km 3000.0 km Belyaeva, 2005
Thymallus thymallus Spawning migrations ranged from 70 to 4980 m 70.0 km Ovidio, 2004
Thymallus thymallus Range from 230 to 4980 m 230.0 km Parkinson, 1999
Thymallus thymallus Mean distances betwen winter site and spawning season site was 2744±1989 (range 130-5970 m ) 2744.0 km Nykänen, 2004
Thymallus thymallus The maximum length of river sections used by the individual grayling ranged from 4.18-11.28 km 7.73 km Meyer, 2001
Thymallus thymallus Grayling tagged in the autumn were recaptured in the spawning periods in crekks up to 27 km away from the tagging site 27.0 km Kristiansen and Doving, 1996
Thymallus thymallus Comme tous les Salmonidés, il effectue des migrations, mais celles-ci sont de courtes amplitudes […] Les migrations de l'Ombre du Svartbäcken, un petit affleunt du Lac Stosjo en Suède, a constacté que, sur 147 sujets marqués, 33 ont été retrouvés au cours de l'année dans un rayon de 4 kilomètres, 2 mâles seulement au moment du frai s'étaient éloignés de 12 kilomètres 147.0 km Vivier, 1958
Thymallus arcticus Grayling made a post-spawning migration extending a 65 km stretch of the mainstream river 65.0 km Northcote, 1993
Thymallus arcticus Apparently grayling migrate from the lakes and larger streams to the smaller tributaries, which are the first to become free of ice No data Bishop, 1971
Cottus gobio As bullhead are well known to be territorial fish with reduced migratory activity No data Abdoli, 2005
Cottus gobio No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Cottus gobio During the spawning season, the proportion of fish that movedand the distances travelled(SPB: between 10 and 90, mean 26 +/- 3m, LB: between 30 and 260 m,mean 133 +/-3 m) were significantly larger 26.0 km Knaepkens, 2004
Silurus glanis No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
Osmerus eperlanus Greatly varies, from 2-3, up to 1000 km, average 50-200 2.5 km Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Smelt have never been reported more than 2 km from shore or in water depths greater than 6 m 2.0 km Buckley, 1989
Osmerus eperlanus Smelt are relatively weak swimmers compared with many other migratory fish, and whithin the full spawning area there are major riffles which can be effective barriers to smelt migration without the benefit of a tidal lift No data Lyle and Maitland, 1997