Female - Maximum GSI value



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Maximum GSI obtained in different studies: 12.6 only, 40 in other previous experiment and 60.7. 12.6 percent Boetius and Boetius, 1980
Anguilla anguilla Reach 43.8-57.9 before spawning 50.85 percent Bezdenezhinykh and Petukhov, 1982
Anguilla anguilla About 50% in artificial conditions 50.0 percent Vollestad and Jonsson, 1986
Anguilla anguilla Up to 32 to 60% in artificial conditions ! 32.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Anguilla anguilla 31.8 in artificial conditions 31.8 percent Pedersen, 2003
Anguilla anguilla GSI of 44.8 ± 6.5 (range 36.3-60.0) in artificial conditions 44.8 percent Palstra, 2005
Anguilla anguilla GSI of 68.4% 68.4 percent Amin, 1998
Anguilla anguilla GSI equalled from 35.1 to 42.3 35.1 percent Epler, 1981
Alosa alosa 16-27% [Not precised] 21.5 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Max 21.63 21.63 percent Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa alosa Calculated based on Table 1. Around 18-20% in April-May 19.0 percent Collares-Pereira, 1999
Alosa fallax 23.31 23.31 percent Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa fallax 18.8 ± 7.5% 18.8 percent Doherty, 2004
Alosa fallax Mean of 8.30 ± 0.83 [Between May and July] 8.3 percent Lopez, 2007
Alosa sapidissima Mean 20.5, up to 35.4 20.5 percent Olney, 2001
Alosa sapidissima 14-19 [Calculated from values given by the authors] 16.5 percent Olney and McBride, 2003
Aphanius iberus Mean of 14 [Up to 17.5] in July 14.0 percent Vargas and De Sostoa, 1997
Aphanius iberus Two maxima: one in April [mean of 13, up to 14.5] and a second in August-September [mean of 3, up to 4]. Each maximum represented females of different ages 13.0 percent Fernandez-Delgado, 1988
Valencia hispanica A mean of 12% [Up to 14%] in April 12.0 percent Caiola, 2001
Barbatula barbatula 30-32 [Before spawning in May] 31.0 percent Skryabin, 1993
Barbatula barbatula 7.5-23.9 [November-December] and 16.3-24.6 [May] 15.7 percent Saat, 2003
Barbatula barbatula From March to June, with a few small fish excepted, GSI lies on or above 10%, in a few instances reaching the high figures of 35%. From July to August, the ratio ranges between 3 and 20%, the higher values being largely late-spawners or non-spawners 10.0 percent Smyly, 1955
Cobitis taenia Mean of 0.28, range 0.24-0.30 [Mid June but for GSR, which is the gonad weight/total weight minus gonad weight] 0.27 percent Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis taenia 13-24 [Late June and early July, GSI depending on the fish length] 18.5 percent Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis paludica 11.46 [April-June] 11.46 percent Oliva-Paterna, 2002
Blicca bjoerkna 14.5 [Mid-June, prior to spawning] 14.5 percent Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Blicca bjoerkna Mean of 8, but up to 12% [Mid-May] 8.0 percent Hansen, 1980
Blicca bjoerkna 7.07 ± 1.00 [In April] 7.07 percent Lefler, 2006
Blicca bjoerkna Ovary weight gradually increases during the spring months and peaks at the beginning of May (15.56%) 15.56 percent Lefler, 2008
Abramis brama Mean of 16.8-21 [Up to 23.8] 18.9 percent Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama Up to 23.3 [Calculated without viscera] 23.3 percent Sokolova, 1990
Abramis brama GSI observed in different areas: 16.3 [Drukshya], 33-43 [Kama], 8.3-18.5 [Volga], 5.5-28.4 [Goczalkowice] 38.0 percent Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama The lowest and highest mean coefficients in males were 2.141 (June 1976, Lake Dabie) and 24.532 (late May, 1976, Regalicia) 2.141 percent Kompowski, 1982
Abramis brama In spring, the ovaries accouned for 0.2-24.7% of the total body weight 12.45 percent Neja and Kompowski, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus 20.5 ± 0.9 [n=24] in May, 25 20.5 percent Yildirim, 1999
Alburnoides bipunctatus GSI ranged from 1.6 to 36.4 1.6 percent Polacik and Kovac, 2006
Alburnus alburnus 17.1 (June, prior to spawning) 17.1 percent Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Aristichthys nobilis 17-20% 18.5 percent Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis Average maturity rate 13.6% 13.6 percent Naca, 1989
Aristichthys nobilis Max=14.7 [Up to 20% in China] in May 14.7 percent Schrank and Guy, 2002
Aristichthys nobilis In Fish from Moldova ponds maturation indexes comprised only 6-9%, on other coolers of Ukraine 10-12%. By our observations in ponds in Turmenistan and Uzbekistan this index comprises 11-13% 7.5 percent Makeyeva, 1996
Aspius aspius The highest average values of this index among females 12.07 occurred at the end of March. This is also when the maximum individual value of this index was observed 20.73 (range 0.22-20.73) 10.475 percent Kompowski et Neja, 2004
Aspius aspius 8.6-15.3 (mean 11.6) 11.95 percent Shikhshabekov, 1979
Barbus barbus About 11%, up to 12 [In beginning of June] 11.0 percent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
Barbus barbus 6.15 ± 2.14 [In April] 6.15 percent Lefler, 2006
Barbus barbus GSI reaches its maximim value at the beginning of May (11.00%) 11.0 percent Lefler, 2008
Carassius auratus 18.7 ± 0.8 (April 30) 18.7 percent Kagawa, 1983
Carassius auratus 10.5 ± 1.2 (May) 10.5 percent Kobayashi, 1986
Carassius auratus 30 30.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius carassius About 20% 20.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Carassius carassius GSI range from an average of 5.51 ± 1.36 (range 3.92-7.91), to 8.59 ± 1.80 (range 5.60-11.8), and 11.56 ± 5.78 (range 3.63-20.98) in three fifferent regions in May 5.51 percent Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Carassius carassius Total mass of eggs related to body mass ranged from 11.7-20.3%, which is much higher than the data of other authors (0.9-12.8%) 16.0 percent Sczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus 20.15 ± 3.12 [In April] 20.15 percent Lefler, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus GSI = 20.63% in April 11 (n = 12) 20.63 percent Lefler, 2008
Ctenopharyngodon idella 18.4-21.6 % Prior to ovulation 20.0 percent Khan, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella 20% 20.0 percent Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella Average maturity rate of 14.2% 14.2 percent Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio 20-30 25.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cyprinus carpio About 10% 10.0 percent Yaron and Levavi-Zermonsky, 1986
Cyprinus carpio Mean of 28%, up to 30% [June] 28.0 percent Crivelli, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Maximum GSI values in female 17%, less than in other studies 29% 17.0 percent Dubost, 1997
Cyprinus carpio Mean of 18% up to 21-22% [In October in Australia] 21.5 percent Smith and Walker, 2004
Cyprinus carpio About 25% [May] 25.0 percent June, 1977
Cyprinus carpio Recorded estimates are usually around 20% for males 20.0 percent Smith, 2004
Gobio gobio 16.53 ± 1.53 [Idem as Spawning value, May-June] 16.53 percent Rinchard, 1993
Gobio gobio 23-28.6 25.8 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gobio gobio 16.5% [June, and July] 16.5 percent Kestemont, 1987
Gobio gobio 17.1 [April, May] 17.1 percent Rosecchi, 2001
Gobio gobio Huge variations between females, from 4 to 22, most between 12-18% in May 15.0 percent Mann, 1980
Gobio gobio 13.5 [End of May in the control group] 13.5 percent Kestemont, 1990
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 18-20% [Not specified when] 19.0 percent Makeeva, 1988
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Average maturity rate 15.1% 15.1 percent Naca, 1989
Leucaspius delineatus Mean about 13%, up to 16% [In May] 13.0 percent Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
Leuciscus cephalus 13.56 [May] 13.56 percent Kalkan, 2005
Leuciscus cephalus Up to 15-18% [June] 16.5 percent Unlu and Balci, 1993
Leuciscus cephalus 7.37% [In March] 7.37 percent Sasi, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus 9-10% [In Mid-May] 9.5 percent Mann, 1976
Leuciscus cephalus 12, range 11-14 [In June] 12.5 percent Poncin, 1989
Leuciscus cephalus The maximum values for females in May was calculated to be 9.1 9.1 percent Unver, 1998
Leuciscus cephalus Just before spawning ovaries may contribute to 1% body mass. Other authors said that at the brginning of spawning ovarian mass depends on female body size and contributes to 7.3-19.6% 13.45 percent Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus Around 10% based on graph in May 10.0 percent Erdogan, 2002
Leuciscus idus GSI of mature females just before spawning (March-April) ranges from 7 to 20%, typically about 12%. In Scandinavian populations GSI value are higher, from 17 to 30% (mean 21%) 7.0 percent Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus idus 19.14 ± 2.24 [In April] 19.14 percent Lefler, 2006
Leuciscus idus GSI =18.57 % in March 29 (n=5) 18.57 percent Lefler, 2008
Leuciscus leuciscus The average GSI for females about to spawn was 13.8% [Range 8.9-19.4%] 14.15 percent Lobon-cervia, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Mean of 16%, range 15-17% [Mid-March] 16.0 percent Mann, 1974
Mylopharyngodon piceus Average 11.00 11.0 percent Naca, 1989
Phoxinus phoxinus Mean 20 [early June], but up to 25% 20.0 percent Mills, 1987
Phoxinus phoxinus 20 20.0 percent Wooton and Mills, 1979
Phoxinus phoxinus Mean 14, up to 16 [May] 14.0 percent Scott, 1979
Phoxinus phoxinus 14.2-25.5, mean 18.2 [Not specified when] 19.85 percent Heese, 1984
Phoxinus phoxinus Range between 12-14 during May-June 13.0 percent Mills and Eloranta, 1985
Phoxinus phoxinus Maximum GSI vary between 4 locations, about 8-9% in Mid-May [Papulampi, eastern forest Lapland], about 6-7% in Mid-June [Lapland], 13-14 in Mid-May [Central Finland] and 21-22 in Mid-June [Southern england] 8.5 percent Mills, 1988
Pimephales promelas Mean GSI of 9.71 ± 0.5, up to 12 9.71 percent Jensen, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva 27 27.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva Up to 30% [June, prior to spawning] 30.0 percent Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Up to 27% 27.0 percent Billard, 1997
Pseudorasbora parva 27.9 [May] 27.9 percent Rosecchi, 2001
Rhodeus sericeus 7-10 8.5 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus 21 [Mid-May, prior to spawning] 21.0 percent Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
Rutilus rutilus 21 [Not precised] 21.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus 14-16 [Just prior spawning in May] 15.0 percent Mann, 1973
Rutilus rutilus Between 9.03 up to 16.67 increase with the age of female [7.35 for the smallest mature female] 9.03 percent Papageorgiou, 1979
Rutilus rutilus About 11% in 2001 and 15% in 2002 [End of April] 11.0 percent Tarkan, 2006
Rutilus rutilus No data Libovarsky, 1985
Rutilus rutilus Mean 18%, up to 30% [In April, in Gomishan] and Mean of 15% up to 23% [In April for Anzali] 18.0 percent Naddafi, 2005
Rutilus rutilus Peak at the end of May at 20-23% 21.5 percent Gillet and Quétin, 2006
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Average 9.3 9.3 percent Shikhshabekov, 1979
Scardinius erythrophthalmus About 12.5 in 2001 and 14.5% in 2002 [May] 12.5 percent Tarkan, 2006
Tinca tinca 7.95 ± 1.12 [July during spawning season] 7.95 percent Pinillos, 2003
Tinca tinca 8.3-10.5 [End of May] 9.4 percent Breton, 1980
Tinca tinca 17% [In June] 17.0 percent Yilmaz, 2002
Tinca tinca Most 7-10, but up to 17% [June] 8.5 percent Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca Mean of 10.19 ± 0.66 [In June] 10.19 percent Alas and Solak, 2004
Tinca tinca Around 17% (based on graph) 17.0 percent Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba Mean 14.2%, but up to 18.0 [3 June] 14.2 percent Hliwa, 2002
Vimba vimba The average weight of the gonads calculated from 10 specimens of V. vimba obtained in 1972, of body weight 550-750 g g., constitued about 13 to over 24 per cent of the body weight of the fish, the mean being 17.3 per cent 17.3 percent Wajdowicz, 1974
Vimba vimba The mean GSI in eight examined females amounted to 13.9% (12.1-17.3%) 14.7 percent Lusk, 2005
Gambusia affinis 23-24.1 [From late June to early October] 23.55 percent Koya, 1998
Gambusia affinis 20-22%, every 22 days during the reproductive season 21.0 percent Koya, 2000
Esox lucius Almost 20% [Prior to spawning] 20.0 percent Billard, 1996
Esox lucius About 22% 22.0 percent Lenhardt, 1992
Esox lucius Range between 15 and 25% in February 15.0 percent Goedmakers and Verboom, 1974
Esox lucius Mean 8.98, range 3.81-11.28 [In L. Kinord], 8.32, range 7.42-8.92 [L. Davan], 4.0-8.7 [L. Skene], 15-20 [Windermere], 17 [Slapton Ley] 7.545 percent Treasurer, 1990
Esox lucius About 8% [In April] 8.0 percent June, 1977
Lota lota 8.8 (November 26) but also up to 16.9% 8.8 percent Brylinska, 2002
Lota lota Mean of 12, from 10-14.8 in December [Coefficient of sexual maturation] 12.4 percent Vedeneev, 2003
Lota lota 10-11 [In beginning of January] 10.5 percent June, 1977
Gasterosteus aculeatus Up to 45 % 45.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Gasterosteus aculeatus Mean 35, range 32-44 in June [With eviscerated weight !!, about 25-30%] 38.0 percent Copp, 2002
Gasterosteus aculeatus Peak in May: Mean of 19%, up to 21 in 1974 and mean of 12.5, up to 15.5 in 1975 19.0 percent Wootton, 1978
Gasterosteus aculeatus Mean of 22, up to 25% [In June] 22.0 percent Borg and Van Veen, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus Mean of 19, 18-21, based on fig 5b 19.5 percent Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
Pungitius pungitius About 35 in end of March [With eviscerated weight, i.e. about 25%] 35.0 percent Copp, 2002
Pungitius pungitius In females, the ovaries wan make up as much as 20% of the total weight during the reproductive period 20.0 percent Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus Up to 10.5, between 5.4-9.0, rarely peaking at 15 in Europe 7.2 percent Copp, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus Up to 15.2-15.3% 15.25 percent Fox and Crivelli, 1998
Lepomis gibbosus Mean of 7, up to 9.5% [In July] 7.0 percent Burns, 1976
Lepomis gibbosus Female mean IG: 5.6% [Ontario Lakes, Canada], 6.1%[Cottesmore Pond, England], 6.3% [Rhône River, Delta canals, France], 7.8% [Mirgenbach Reservoir, Moselle, France] 5.6 percent Dembski, 2006
Lepomis gibbosus GSI at peak months of spawning in various studies: 6.1% [England, Cottesmore pond], 9.0 [Romania, Danube Delta], 6.5 [Spain, Banyoles Lake], 6.4 [Brazil, Custodio's Dam], 9.3 [Canada, Warrens Lake], 6.9% [Canada, Black lake] 6.1 percent De Magalhaes and Ratton, 2005
Micropterus salmoides 7-10% (unknown sources) 8.5 percent Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides 4.57 for 15 forage-fed females (March), 6.97 ± 0.52 for 20 pelled-fed female (April and early May) 6.97 percent Rosenblum, 1994
Micropterus salmoides About 12 (March) 12.0 percent Rosenblum, 1999
Micropterus salmoides About 8 [April-May] 8.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Micropterus salmoides 8% [May] 8.0 percent Kokkidis, 2000
Micropterus salmoides Maximal GSI observed for females were 8.2 (unheated) and 8.8 (heated) in March 8.2 percent Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
Micropterus salmoides For Low Altitude sample, GSI reach 7.34% [In May] and for high altitude sample, 10.08, up to 11.23% [Early July] 7.34 percent Martin, 1997
Micropterus salmoides Gonadosomatic index were highest between July and October for female fish:, peak in beginning of August about 4, range from 2 to 7 based on Fig 5 (n=145) 4.0 percent Beamish, 2005
Dicentrarchus labrax About 7.5 [In April, at Arcachon] 7.5 percent Zohar, 1984
Dicentrarchus labrax About 7.5, in March [In Arcachon, France], 8% in January[In Sète, France], 7.5 in December [Tunisia] 7.5 percent Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana 7,67 ± 0,36 [April] 67.0 percent Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
Morone chrysops Mean 15, and up to 20% [Third week in May] 15.0 percent Ruelle, 1977
Morone chrysops 16-17% [End of May] 16.5 percent June, 1977
Morone saxatilis Vary according to the age of female from: 10.77 ±3.28 [Age 3], 12.10 ± 4.65 [Age 4], 13.58 ± 4.30 [Age 5], 18.19 ± 4.09 [Age 6] in May 10.77 percent Olsen and Rulifson, 1992
Morone saxatilis Mean of 4% in April, for maturing captive females 4.0 percent Holland, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus 7.1-15.6 [Average spawning GSI] 11.35 percent Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 9-11 [May] 10.0 percent Brown, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 8-11 [April] 9.5 percent Leino and McCormick, 1997
Gymnocephalus cernuus Gonad in stage VI, meaN: 13.81, range 9.52-24.29 [In other study, the coefficient in females migrating to spawn to average 15.6 (9.0-22.0)] 16.905 percent Neja, 1988
Perca flavescens 21.6-22.6 22.1 percent Hayes and Taylor, 1994
Perca flavescens 22 in wild populations and up to 30.9% in cultured perch 22.0 percent Dabrowski, 1996
Perca flavescens From 20 to 31% [Just prior to spawning] 20.0 percent Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens Mean 18.74% [March] 18.74 percent Malservisi and Magnin, 1968
Perca flavescens The fecundity index gradually increased smoothly for all age classes from April to May reaching a value of 20-25% immediatly before spawning 22.5 percent Brazo, 1975
Perca flavescens Mean 14, range 12-14 [March, but note that authors suspect that the Gsi's of yellow perch collected near to spawning (April-May) would have been higher] 13.0 percent Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
Perca flavescens 18% [April] 18.0 percent June, 1977
Perca flavescens For stunted individuals: GSI vary between 22.5 to 30% and for normal females from 12.5-22.5% 17.5 percent Jansen,1996
Perca fluviatilis 25 % [April prior to spawning] 25.0 percent Sulistyo,1998
Perca fluviatilis 21.3-24.3 22.8 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis 21.3-24.3% [Immediatly prior to spawning] 22.8 percent Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
Perca fluviatilis About 20% [Prior to spawning, in May] 20.0 percent Le Cren, 1951
Perca fluviatilis May, 18 +/- 0.6% just before spawning. 18.0 percent Noaksson, 2004
Sander lucioperca Can reach 22 for rearing individuals, but only 7 when conditions are bad 22.0 percent Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
Sander lucioperca Can reach 22 [Before spawning] 22.0 percent Lappaleinen, 2003
Sander lucioperca Mean of 9, but up to 21.6 [March] 9.0 percent Poulet, 2004
Sander vitreus 16.3 [May, prior to spawning] 16.3 percent Craig, 2000
Sander vitreus 24.1-27.8 in certain areas 25.95 percent Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus About 16-17 [April] 16.5 percent Malison, 1994
Sander vitreus Mean of 16, can reach 20-22 [April] 21.0 percent Henderson, 1996
Sander vitreus About 20% [End of March] 20.0 percent June, 1977
Sander vitreus Summary statistics for mature adult walleye: mean GSI = 10.99 ± 0.34 [Trout Lake], 25.52 ± 0.42 [Winefred Lake], 13.46 ± 0.30 [Lake Winnipeg], 16.47 ± 0.44 [Lake of the woods], 18.57 ± 0.57 [Lac Beauchêne], 17.40 ± 0.34 [Lake Nipissing], 28.59 ± 1.05 [Lake Ontario] 10.99 percent Moles, 2008
Coregonus lavaretus 15.77 [Not specified when] 15.77 percent Mack and Billard, 1984
Coregonus lavaretus Mean of 16%, up to 21% [In December] 16.0 percent Fuller, 1976
Coregonus lavaretus Up to 29-30% [End of November] 29.5 percent Heese, 1990
Coregonus albula Mean is 23.39 ± 4.21 [November] 23.39 percent Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
Coregonus albula 14.63-23.16% in Polish lakes [Up to 33.2%] 18.895 percent Czerniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
Coregonus albula 19-27 [Autumn spawner] to 15-20 [Winter spawner] 23.0 percent Lahti, 1991
Coregonus albula 26.5 [15 December], up to 29.92 [23 November] 26.5 percent Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
Coregonus albula Mean of 19.6, range 13.6-25.0 [In December for nominate form] and mean of 10.9, range 9.3-13.9 [In April/May, for deepwater form] 19.3 percent Anwand, 1998
Coregonus albula Gonadosomatic index for 1+ vendace females vary between years from 19 to 29% 1.0 percent Sarval and Helminen, 1995
Coregonus albula Means of GSI very between 24.1-29.5 between years 26.8 percent Sarvala, 1992
Coregonus albula For example in vendace females occurring in brackish waters of the Gulf of Bothnia it fits 10-12%, whereas in neighbouring lakes Keitele and Pyhajarvi it is 23.9% and 19.3%, respectively. In Polish bodies of water the values of GSI are also very variable. In Lakes of West Pomerania (Bucerz, Krzemien, and Kalensko) te size of gonds constitued between 14.63 and 23.16% of the body weight of vendace. Even wider range was determined for Masurian Lakes Dargin, Dobskie, and Kisajno. The mean values of the gonadosomatic index of vendace from lakes of West Pomerania fitted into the above range, however, few specimens from lakes Pile and Pelcz showed low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI < 10%), whereas in a single vendace female from Morynskie Lake the value of the above parameter amounted to more than 30% of the fish body weight 11.0 percent Czeniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
Coregonus clupeaformis Female whitefish in Lake Erie habe been calculated to lose approximatively 11% of their weight at spawning 11.0 percent Scott and Crossman, 1973
Hucho hucho Mean of 15.5% for different populations 15.5 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 17.44 ± 1.40 [Spawning grounds] 17.44 percent Dye, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Mean of 16.8 (range 16.1-17.4%) for different populations 16.75 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus keta Mean of 14.3, range 14.0 to 16.6 14.3 percent Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Mean of 17.4 for different populations 17.4 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus kisutch From 22.8 ± 2.6 to 32.5 ± 2.8 [Not specified if maximal values] 22.8 percent Morrison, 1985
Oncorhynchus kisutch 16.4 ± 4.1 [In May for broodstock population cultured in a fish farm in Southern Chile] and 23.87 ±3.21% 16.4 percent Estay, 1998
Oncorhynchus kisutch Mean of 20.7 (range 19.4-24.0) for different populations 21.7 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss 16.5 ± 0.5 [November to late November] 16.5 percent Bon, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss 20% just prior to ovulation in February 20.0 percent Tyler, 1990
Oncorhynchus mykiss 10.5 ± 1 [Age 2], 10.7 ± 1.7 [Age 3] and 16.5 ± 1.9 [Age 4] for females sampled 10.5 percent Kato and Kamler, 1983
Oncorhynchus mykiss Mean of 14.9 (range 14?5-15.3) for anadromous populations, mean of 14.6 (range 8.3-22.6) for resident populations 10.15 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss The mean GSI : early stress = 20.9 +/- 0.8, late stress = 19.9 +/- 0.6, whole-period stress = 21.4 +/- 0.9, controls = 19.8 +/- 0.8 20.9 percent Contreras-Snachez, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka Average of 16.8 [Kokanee] and 17.4-17.6 [Sockeye] 17.5 percent Kaeriyama, 1995
Oncorhynchus nerka Mean of 17.8 for anadromous populations, and 12 (11.4-12.8) for resident population 12.1 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha From 17.6 to 20.3 [Mean for different populations] 17.6 percent Kinnison, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Mean of 19, range 17.8-21.1, for different populations 19.45 percent Fleming, 1998
Salmo salar 25 [Not specified] 25.0 percent Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Salmo salar 17% in late March [In Tasmania, 6 months out-of-phase from nothern hemisphere] 17.0 percent King and Pankhurst, 2003
Salmo salar Mean of 22.2 (range 20.1-25.7%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 17.3 (range 17.2-17.4) for resident populations 22.9 percent Fleming, 1998
Salmo trutta fario About 22 [October] 22.0 percent Billard, 1987
Salmo trutta fario 20-22 [September-October] 21.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo trutta fario About 20% [mid-october, independent of the distance from the sea to the spawning site] 20.0 percent Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006
Salmo trutta fario Mean of 18.5 (range 15-25.4) for anadromous population, mean of 12.9 (range 9.9-15.8) for resident population 20.2 percent Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus 18.2 [15 October] 18.2 percent Frantzen, 1997
Salvelinus alpinus 17.4 [max value observed in October] 17.4 percent Jamet, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus In spawning females, there was a definite increase in GSI's throughout August and september, with females immediatly prior to spawning ranging from 20-30%, up to 35.7% 25.0 percent Beddow, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Mature small charr females: 3.2-16.6 (mean 10.1%) and mature large charr 3.8-14.3 (mean 8.4%) 9.9 percent Sparholt, 1985
Salvelinus alpinus Mean of 16.4 (range 12.8-18.6%) for anadromous populations, and 18.4 (range 11.9-24.3) for resident populations 15.7 percent Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis 16-18% [Mid-October] 17.0 percent Tam, 1986
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 9.74, range 9.04 to 12.92 [Not specified] 9.74 percent Vladykov, 1956
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 10-11% [September/October] 10.5 percent Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
Salvelinus fontinalis Maturity indices were higher at 19 and 21 C since these fish did not spawn. The decoded-mean-maturity index (8.6) for female brook tout at 19C was derived from only three fish (0.5, 15.6, and 17.7) on November 7 the female maturity indices were 19.7 at 19°C and 16.2 at 21°C 19.0 percent Hokanson, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 13.9 for anadromous populations, and 13.2 (range 10-16.8%) for resident populations 13.4 percent Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 8.37 for acid lakes and 5.73 for non-acid lakes in September 8.37 percent St-Pierre and Moreau, 1986
Salvelinus namaycush Mean of 14.6 (range 12.3-17.6%) for different populations 14.95 percent Fleming, 1998
Stenodus leucichthys Mean 18.3 but up to 23.5 [First ten day period of August] 18.3 percent Chereshnev, 2000
Stenodus leucichthys 26.25 ± 2.02 26.25 percent Kychanov, 1982
Thymallus thymallus Mean of 15.7 but up to 18% [The highest GSI values are observed in March and at the beginning of April] 15.7 percent Witkowski, 1989
Ameiurus nebulosus 5-9 % [Late June] 7.0 percent Rosenblum, 1987
Ameiurus nebulosus 9.05 [Late May] 9.05 percent Burke, 1984
Ictalurus punctatus 10.9 [June, July] 10.9 percent Mackenzie, 1989
Ictalurus punctatus 15.2 [June] 15.2 percent Banks, 1999
Ictalurus punctatus 15.6 for prespawning females 15.6 percent Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus 15 [GSI usually found in female broodstock] 15.0 percent Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Mean of 13.8, range 11.0-19.35 [1 July] 15.175 percent Brauhn and McCraren, 1975
Ictalurus punctatus 5% [In May] 5.0 percent June, 1977
Silurus glanis 7.5% [Maturation coefficient, measured prior to spawning] 7.5 percent Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
Silurus glanis 3-15 [GSI usually found in female broodstock] 9.0 percent Legendre, 1997
Silurus glanis 4.5% [May] 4.5 percent Alp, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus About 18-22% 20.0 percent Belyanina, 1969
Anguilla anguilla Gonad weight of mature males only constitutes, at most 14% of the body weight 14.0 percent Vollestad and Jonsson, 1986
Anguilla anguilla 9.0 ± 1.10% coincide with the onset of spawning migration (treated males) 9.0 percent Amin, 1998
Alosa alosa 7.5-10% [Not precised] 8.75 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa 8.6% 8.6 percent Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa fallax 11.82 11.82 percent Maitland and Lyle, 2005
Alosa fallax 11.4 ± 2.9 11.4 percent Doherty, 2004
Aphanius iberus Mean of 2.0 [Up to 2.6], in May 2.0 percent Vargas and De Sostoa, 1997
Aphanius iberus Mean of 0.5 [In April] 0.5 percent Fernandez-Delgado, 1988
Valencia hispanica Up to a mean of 1.8 [Up to 2.3] in March 1.8 percent Caiola, 2001
Barbatula barbatula 1.5-2 [Beginning of the spawning season] 1.75 percent Saat, 2003
Barbatula barbatula The weight of testus was seldom more than 2% of the body weight 2.0 percent Smyly, 1955
Cobitis taenia 2.8 [June-July] 2.8 percent Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia About 5 but for GSR which is the gonad weight/total weight minus gonad weight 5.0 percent Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis paludica 1.52% [April-June] 1.52 percent Oliva-Paterna, 2002
Abramis brama Up to 6.1% [Calculated without viscera] 6.1 percent Sokolova, 1990
Abramis brama Mean of 2.8-3.4 [Up to 4.6] 3.1 percent Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama The lowest and highest mean coefficients in males were 0.867 (July 1976, Lake Dabie) and 4.411 (late May, 1976, Lake Dabie) 0.867 percent Kompowski, 1982
Abramis brama In spring, the testes accounted for up to 3.7% 3.7 percent Neja and Kompowski, 2001
Alburnoides bipunctatus 13.4 [In end of May, n= 17] 13.4 percent Yildirim, 1999
Aristichthys nobilis 1.1 1.1 percent Schrank and Guy, 2002
Aristichthys nobilis 1.07 [Not specified if the maximum and when ?] 1.07 percent Belova, 1981
Aspius aspius 2.02 [April] 2.02 percent Kompowski et Neja, 2004
Barbus barbus About 11 [Beginning of June] 11.0 percent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
Carassius auratus 3.2 ±0.4 [May] 3.2 percent Kobayashi, 1986
Ctenopharyngodon idella 2.27 [Not specified if the maximum and when ?] 2.27 percent Belova, 1981
Cyprinus carpio 7 7.0 percent Suquet, 1994
Cyprinus carpio 6.9 ± 2.6 6.9 percent Saad and Billard, 1987
Cyprinus carpio Range between 10.62 and 11.97 for individuals studied but not specified if the maximum and the date 10.62 percent Belova, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Mean of 8.2, up to 9.2 [Beginning of April] 8.2 percent Crivelli, 1981
Cyprinus carpio Maximum GSI for males 11% less than in other studies 15% 11.0 percent Dubost, 1997
Cyprinus carpio About 7% in March in Australia 7.0 percent Smith and Walker, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Recorded estimates are usually around 10% for males 10.0 percent Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio GSI reaches 16.3 +/- 2.0 for big-belly and 7.0 +/- 0.7% for Gold in November 12 in Israel 16.3 percent Hulata, 1974
Gobio gobio 2.3 [June, prior to spawning] 2.3 percent Kestemond, 1989
Gobio gobio 2.3 [During the breeding season] 2.3 percent Rosecchi, 2001
Gobio gobio Huge variations between individuals: mostly 1-3% in May 2.0 percent Mann, 1980
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Range between 0.87 and 1.64 but not specified when or if it was maximal values 0.87 percent Belova, 1981
Leuciscus cephalus 2.77 ± 0.04 % [April] 2.77 percent Guerriero, 2005
Leuciscus cephalus 2.29 [March] 2.29 percent Sasi, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Most between 2.5-4, some almost 6% [June] 3.25 percent Mann, 1976
Leuciscus cephalus Mean 5, range 4-6 [June] 5.0 percent Poncin, 1989
Leuciscus cephalus The maximum values for males in May was calculated to be 5.2 5.2 percent Unver, 1998
Leuciscus cephalus Up to 6% 6.0 percent Zelepien, 1997
Leuciscus cephalus 8.5% [In May] 8.5 percent Erdogan, 2002
Leuciscus idus In March-April, the mass of testes accounts for only 1.8% of body weight 1.8 percent Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus Average 1.2% 1.2 percent Lobon-cervia, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Mean 1.5, range 1-2% [November through December] 1.5 percent Mann, 1974
Phoxinus phoxinus 5.5 [Early May] 5.5 percent Mills, 1987
Phoxinus phoxinus 4.65% [18-20 May] 19.0 percent Mills and Eloranta, 1985
Pimephales promelas 1.15 ± 0.02, 1.2 1.15 percent Jensen, 2001
Pseudorasbora parva 2.3 [May] 2.3 percent Rosecchi, 2001
Rutilus rutilus 9 9.0 percent Suquet, 1994
Rutilus rutilus 9 [March] 9.0 percent Escaffre and Billard, 1976
Rutilus rutilus 8-9 [March] 8.5 percent Mann, 1973
Rutilus rutilus 9.7-11.07, quite constant during the life of male 10.385 percent Papageorgiou, 1979
Rutilus rutilus About 7.5% in 2001 and 8% in 2002 [April] 7.5 percent Tarkan, 2006
Rutilus rutilus Mean of 4.5, up to 7.5 and even 9% [In March, in Gomishan] and mean of 4, up to 7.5% [In March for Anzali] 4.5 percent Naddafi, 2005
Scardinius erythrophthalmus About 7% in 2001 and 9% in 2002 [In May] 7.0 percent Tarkan, 2006
Tinca tinca 0.66 (July) 0.66 percent Pinillos, 2003
Tinca tinca 1.6 [June] 1.6 percent Linhart and Billard, 1995
Tinca tinca About 1.7 [Beginning og June], based on graph 1.7 percent Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba Mean GSI in 14 males was 2.48% (1.68-3.38%) 2.53 percent Lusk, 2005
Gambusia affinis 3.8 [June to July] 3.8 percent Koya and Iwase, 2004
Esox lucius 2-3 2.5 percent Suquet, 1994
Esox lucius 2-3 [End of October] 2.5 percent Lenhardt, 1992
Esox lucius 2.5 [Beginning of September then slighlty decline and remain at about 1.5% until spawning] 2.5 percent Billard, 1996
Esox lucius 2.04 ± 0.78 [From December to April] 2.04 percent Hoffmann, 1980
Esox lucius Mean 0.94, range 0.84-1.05 [In L. Kinord], 1.14, range 0.99-1.20 [L. Davan] both in March, 2-4 [Windermere], 2 [Slapton Ley] 0.945 percent Treasurer, 1990
Lota lota 20.6 [November 26] but up to 25.8% 20.6 percent Brylinska, 2002
Lota lota Mean of 11.1, from 9.5-16.0 in December [Coefficient of sexual maturation] 12.75 percent Vedeneev, 2003
Lota lota The maturity index of males sharply increases in November to 14.55 14.55 percent Kirillov, 1989
Gasterosteus aculeatus 4.8 [April] 4.8 percent Copp, 2002
Gasterosteus aculeatus The peak of the GSI is reached in October, about a mean of 1.4, up to 1.6, and is followed by a gradual decline until August when the lowest values are reached 1.4 percent Borg, 1982
Gasterosteus aculeatus Around 1 in September than remained around 0.5 the rest of the year 1.0 percent Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
Pungitius pungitius 7.4-8 [August] 7.7 percent Copp, 2002
Pungitius pungitius Based on GSI graph: 1.0 in February 1.0 percent Sokolowska and Skora, 2002
Lepomis gibbosus Mean 0.9, up to 1.1% [in June] 0.9 percent Burns, 1976
Micropterus salmoides 0.87 ± 0,07 (Beginning of April) but also 1,20 for pellet-fed male ( 0.87 percent Rosenblum, 1994
Micropterus salmoides Maximal value of GSI for males were 0.85 (unheated) and 0.81 (heated) in March 0.85 percent Bennett and Gibbons, 1975
Micropterus salmoides Gonadosomatic index were highest between July and September for male fish, peak in mid-July: about 0.4, range from 0.25 to 1.1 based on Fig 5 (n=309) 0.4 percent Beamish, 2005
Dicentrarchus labrax 2.5 [March in Arcachon] to 5 [February, Sète] 2.5 percent Zohar, 1984
Dicentrarchus labrax 2.5 in March [In Arcachon, France], 5% In January [In Sète, France], 5.2 in December [Tunisia] 2.5 percent Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax During the second reprodcutive period (third annual cycle), the control group showed higher GSI values (January Ferbaury 2.5-3.0%) than at the first reproductive period 2.75 percent Rodriguez, 2001
Dicentrarchus labrax January No data Gonzalez and Piferrer, 2003
Dicentrarchus labrax 2.5 [In January] 2.5 percent Rodriguez, 2004
Dicentrarchus labrax Mean of 1.5, up to 1.8% [In beginning of February] 1.5 percent Rodriguez, 2005
Morone americana 4.60 ± 0.31 (April) 4.6 percent Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
Morone chrysops Mean 5, up to 7.5 [Mid-May] 5.0 percent Ruelle, 1977
Morone saxatilis Mean of 9.5, up to 10.5 [Mid-April] in reared conditions 9.5 percent Holland, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus 7-10 [Average spawning male GSI] 8.5 percent Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus In 3 test fish, the coefficient of maturity was 3.74, 4.18 and 4.80 3.0 percent Butskaya, 1981
Gymnocephalus cernuus Male in VI stage, were on average 7.11, range 5.26-12.18 8.72 percent Neja, 1988
Perca flavescens 10 [In mid-october] 10.0 percent Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens No value [November] No data Dabrowski, 1996
Perca flavescens 5% in September 5.0 percent Tansichuk and Mackay, 1989
Perca fluviatilis 8.5 ± 1.8 [September] 8.5 percent Sulistyo, 2000
Perca fluviatilis 6.6-7.1 6.85 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Perca fluviatilis 6.6-7.1 [September-October] 6.85 percent Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
Perca fluviatilis About 8% [October] 8.0 percent Le Cren, 1951
Sander lucioperca 1% 1.0 percent Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
Sander vitreus 4.3 [October and stay relatively constant after or slight decrease] 4.3 percent Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Mean 3.2%, up to 3.7% [Prior to spawning, April] 3.2 percent Malison, 1994
Sander vitreus 4% in August and also 3.3 in April, prior to spawning 4.0 percent Henderson, 1996
Sander vitreus Summary statistics for mature adult walleye: mean GSI = 1.87 ± 0.07 [Trout Lake], 2.97 ± 0.12 [Winefred Lake], 1.35 ± 0.06 [Lake Winnipeg], 1.20 ± 0.15 [Lake of the woods], 2.50 ± 0.11 [Lac Beauchêne], 2.05 ± 0.09 [Lake Nipissing], 3.38 ± 0.19 [Lake Ontario] 1.87 percent Moles, 2008
Coregonus lavaretus 2 [Not specified] 2.0 percent Mack and Billard, 1984
Coregonus lavaretus Mean of 2%, up to 2.5% [In September until January, with no significant change during this period] 2.0 percent Fuller, 1976
Coregonus lavaretus Mean of 3% [In the end of October] 3.0 percent Heese, 1990
Coregonus albula 2.35 [End of November], 4.08%[October] 2.35 percent Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
Coregonus albula Mean of 5.1, range 3.9-6.5 [In December for nominate form] and mean of 4.9, range 3.5-6.1 [In April/May, for deepwater form] 5.2 percent Anwand, 1998
Hucho hucho Mean of 3 for different populations 3.0 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Mean of 5.2 (range 4.9-5.4%) for different populations 5.15 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus keta Mean of 3.7 (range 3.2-4.1%) 3.65 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus kisutch From 4.3 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 [Not specified if maximal values] 4.3 percent Morrison, 1985
Oncorhynchus kisutch 8.4 ± 0.8% [For broodstock population cultured in fish farm in southern Chile] 8.4 percent Estay, 1998
Oncorhynchus kisutch Mean of 5.8% (range 5.2-6.4) for different populations 5.8 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus mykiss 10 10.0 percent Suquet, 1994
Oncorhynchus mykiss Peaked in October 5.4 ± 0.8, then declined in November 5.4 percent Ya-yi, 2001
Oncorhynchus mykiss Mean of 5 for resident population 5.0 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka Mean of 3.0 (range 2.1-3.4%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 2.7 (range 2.6-2.8) for resident populations 2.75 percent Fleming, 1998
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Mean of 6.1 (range 5.4-6.7%) 6.05 percent Fleming, 1998
Salmo salar Mean of 4.1 (range 2.3-5.8%) for anadromous populations, and Mean of 8.0 (range 4.7-10) for mature male parr 4.05 percent Fleming, 1998
Salmo trutta fario 6 6.0 percent Suquet, 1994
Salmo trutta fario 5-6 5.5 percent Billard, 1987
Salmo trutta fario 4-5 [i.e. 1/5 or 1/7 of the RGS of female] 4.5 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Mean of 2.9 (range 2.7-3.0) for anadromous population, mean of 2.3 (range 1.9-2.6) for resident population 2.85 percent Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus 4.2 (max value in September) 4.2 percent Jamet, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus 1.3-6.1 [End of September] 3.7 percent Beddow, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus Mature small charr males: 3.2-12.5 (mean 7.1%) and mature large charr 1.3-4.8 (mean 2.4%) 7.85 percent Sparholt, 1985
Salvelinus alpinus Mean of 4.4 for anadromous populations (mean of 6.7% for mature male parr) and 2.8 for resident populations 4.4 percent Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 2.9 and 3.4 at 19 and 21°C respectively [November] 2.9 percent Hokanson, 1973
Salvelinus fontinalis Between 1.5 and 2% [August/September] 1.5 percent Wydoski and Cooper, 1966
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 1.5 for resident populations 1.5 percent Fleming, 1998
Salvelinus fontinalis Mean of 2.78 for acid lakes and 2.50 for non-acid lakes in September 2.78 percent St-Pierre and Moreau, 1986
Salvelinus namaycush Mean of 3.1 for different population 3.1 percent Fleming, 1998
Stenodus leucichthys 2.72 ± 0.08 2.72 percent Kychanov, 1982
Thymallus thymallus Mean 1.63, up to 2 [September] 1.63 percent Witkowski, 1989
Ameiurus nebulosus 0.35 (Late June) 0.35 percent Rosenblum, 1987
Ameiurus nebulosus 0.218 (Mid-May until End of June) 0.218 percent Burke, 1984
Ameiurus nebulosus 0.22 0.22 percent Burke and Leatherland, 1984
Ictalurus punctatus 0.3 0.3 percent Suquet, 1994
Ictalurus punctatus Averages 0.88 during July and 0.69 during November 0.88 percent Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus In captivity GSI reaches 0.25 0.25 percent Legendre, 1997
Silurus glanis May reach 0.94%, but mean is 0.38% 0.94 percent Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
Silurus glanis In captivity GSI reaches 1-1.5% 1.25 percent Legendre, 1997
Silurus glanis 0.2 [May] 0.2 percent Alp, 2004
Osmerus eperlanus About 5 5.0 percent Belyanina, 1969