Female - Female sexual dimorphism



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla Females are larger than males Absent Vollestad and Jonsson, 1986
Alosa alosa Female grow faster than males Absent Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa alosa Females grow faster and mature later than males Absent Aprahamian, 2001
Alosa fallax Female are usually older and bigger than males Absent Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
Alosa fallax Females were larger and heavier than males Absent Lopez, 2007
Aphanius iberus Males mature before famles, but females were larger than males Absent Fernandez-Delgado, 1988
Barbatula barbatula In many fish, the pectoral fin is relatively long and pointed in the male and round and short in the female. In most adult fish, but not all, the male pectoral fin was longer than that of the female, the distinction is therefore a useful but not infaillible means of determining sex from external examination. Immature fish could not be separate by this way. In the breeding season, no change of colour in either sex has been seen but small papillae, present on the pectoral fins of only male fish, have been found Absent Smyly, 1955
Cobitis taenia The sexual dimorphism in size between males and females was evident Absent Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
Cobitis taenia No Absent Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis paludica A change of coloration is observed only during spawning activity: the female became very intensely pigmented [This spawning coloration. This spawning coloration disappeared within a few hours after spawning activity Absent Bohlen, 2000
Abramis brama Compared to males, females have their breeding tubercles poorer developped, occupying a much smaller area Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
Alburnoides bipunctatus Some females display nuptial tubercules Present Spillmann, 1961
Alburnoides bipunctatus Snout longer Absent Coad, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis External sexual dimorphism can be determined by examining the pectoral fins. In the male, these fins have a sharp edge along the dorsal surface of several front rays, whereas in the female this characteristic is absent. This secondary sexual characteristic of the male is formed before maturity, and once formed, persists throughout its lifetime. Absent Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis Pectoral fin is smooth Absent Naca, 1989
Aspius aspius Sex was not determined, as this was impossible without harming the fish, especially in the post-spawing season Absent Fredrich, 2003
Barbus barbus The difference in age at first spawing betwen males and females is 3-4 years Absent Lobon-Cervia and Fernandez-Delgado, 1984
Carassius carassius The head and scales develop tubercules in the epithelium Absent Holopainen, 1997
Carassius carassius During the spawning season, both males and females developped small tubercles in the epithelium when ready to spawn. At both sites some sexual dimorphism was observed. In males, the tubercles were most abundant, covering both head and body, but in females they were limited to the head region only. Nearly all ripe male crucian carps had tubercles. At the beginning of the reproudction period, tubercles covered only the head (forehead and operculum), but a few days later they were found on the body as well. In female fish the tubercles were found only on teh head and tuberculum. by the end of the ripe period tubercles were absent in both sexes Absent Aho and Holopainen, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Pigmentation is more pronounced Present Spillmann, 1961
Chondrostoma nasus Breeding tubercles on head Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
Chondrostoma nasus Females in Fischa River. In smaller females (348 mm SL), the tubercles on the head run forward in a single row from about the dorsal margin of the anterior part of the operculum above the eye to the nasal opening. Larger specimens (370-409 mm SL) have larger breeding tubercles which additionally occur on the dorsal part of the operculum and on the dorsal part of the head. Females in Danube. Females exceeding 396 mm SL may also bear a few tubercles on the snout Present Ahnelt and Keckeis, 1994
Chondrostoma toxostoma Does not seem to present any sexual dimorphims Present Internet
Ctenopharyngodon idella Females may also develop deciduous tubercles, but thay are not as highly developped as in the males. Females exhibit soft, bulging abdomens and swollen, pinkish vents at onset of maturity Present Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella Females also have pearl organs, although they are not as higlhy developed as in males. When fully ripe, females exhibit soft bulging abdomens ans swollen pinkish vents Present Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella The pectoral fins are thin and short, spreading out spontaneously like a fan. No pearl organs appear Absent Naca, 1989
Cyprinus carpio For female carp, they include the softening and enlargement of the abdomen and the reddening and protrusion of the cloaca Present Smith, 2004
Gobio gobio Tubercles are present mostly on the head, and in the largest individuals also on scales of back Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Pectoral fin is smooth Absent Naca, 1989
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The females can be distinguished from males by the absence of serrations on the inner surface of pectoral fin rays Present Esmaeili, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus Females have a unique fold of skin in the shape of two, large rounded papilla around the genital opening Present Coad, 2005
Leucaspius delineatus Females have three small bulges near anus Absent Bonislawska, 1999
Mylopharyngodon piceus The pectoral fins are thin and short, spreading out spontaneously like a fan. No pearl organs appear Absent Naca, 1989
Phoxinus phoxinus Bright colors Absent Spillmann, 1961
Phoxinus phoxinus Breeding tubercles are located mostly in the posterior body part Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
Phoxinus phoxinus The ventral side becomes intensively red Absent Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
Phoxinus phoxinus Numerous pearly tubercles, few tubercles may occur on sides of the body, frequently dark coloration of body, widened anus, pectoral, ventral and anal fins slightly reddened at their bases Present Heese, 1984
Phoxinus phoxinus Some females can display bright colours Present Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Pseudorasbora parva Horny pads on the jaws Absent Coad, 2005
Pseudorasbora parva The female becomes clearly lighter Absent Witkowski, 2006
Rhodeus sericeus Long ovipositors that they use to place their eggs onto the gills of a mussel trough the mussel'sexhalant siphon Absent Smith, 2004
Rhodeus sericeus Female develops a conduit ovipository by which it deposits its ovules between the gills of the bivalve Absent Fishbase, 2006
Rhodeus sericeus Females use their long ovipositors to force eggs throught the exhalant siphon into the gills of the museel host Absent Mills and Reynolds, 2002
Rutilus rutilus Tubercules cover both head, body sides and fins only in largest specimens Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
Tinca tinca No Absent Spillmann, 1961
Tinca tinca Diploid females have soft pelvic fins, not reaching the anus Absent Linhart and Billard, 1995
Vimba vimba Females may also develop tubercules but to a lesser extent Absent Coad, 2005
Vimba vimba As a rule, the females are slightly larger than males of the same age Absent Kuliev, 1988
Gambusia affinis "A small pigmented spot dorsal to the anus occurs in female poecilliid fishes before they are matured. As they become mature and gravid, the spot becomes larger reaching its maximum size shortly before the birth of the brrod. This prigmented spot is referred to as the ""gravid spot"". After the brrod is born, the gravid spot recedes, but there is never a complete loss of the pigmented mass." Absent Medlen, 1951
Esox masquinongy Female are typically larger than males Absent Wynne, 2006
Esox niger Females appear to grow faster and live longer Absent Anonymous, 2006
Esox niger Female fish grow faster and larger than males. Females also mature sooner and live longer than males Absent Wynne, 2006
Esox lucius In the female, there is a protuberance between the urogenital pore and the anus which does not exist in the male Present Billard, 1996
Esox lucius Female pike tend to live longer and attain heavier weights than male fish Absent Kerr and Grant, 1999
Lota lota Females reach maturity at a lesser weight than males, possibly younger Absent Hewson, 1955
Micropterus dolomieui The female developed a pattern of dark vertical bars on her side that remained throughout both phases. This feature was used to distinguish between both sexes Absent Ridgway, 1989
Micropterus salmoides In female the genital papilla is elliptical or pear shaped Present Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides Female have a pear-shaped or elliptical opening, also gravid female can be recognized by the distended belly and inflamented vent prior to spawning Absent Newburg, 1975
Micropterus salmoides The urogenital opening in female is elliptical or pearshaped, obviously distended and soft abdomen Present Williamson, 1993
Micropterus salmoides A gravid female can readily be determined by the distention of the ovarian region of the abdomen and by the swollenn ibflamed vent- immediatly before spawning. No method of distinguishing a ripe male from an unripe, pporly developed, or sterile male or female has been described to date Present Snow, 1963
Dicentrarchus labrax Normally, males are smaller than females at the time of firts maturity, although there is no clear sexual dimorphism Absent Rodriguez, 2001
Morone americana No external characteristics have been found that help to differentiate between the two sexes, except during the spawning season. At that time, females are recognized, if gravid, by their widely distended abdomens, by the loss of eggs, if ripe, when light pressure is exerted Present Mansuetti, 1961
Morone chrysops Urinary and genital pores are seperated in females Present Internet, 2005
Perca flavescens Females less highly coloured Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
Perca flavescens Females generally grow faster than males and reach a greater final length Absent Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Perca fluviatilis Gravid females in spring are distinct due to their swollen appearance and slight protusion of the genital orifice Present Thorpe, 1977
Sander lucioperca During the spawning season, female display a white belly compared to male Present Spillmann, 1961
Sander lucioperca The genital papilla protrudes more strongly in the female than in mal Present Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander vitreus No Absent Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Females typically grow much larger than males Absent Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus Females tend to grow faster than males Absent Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
Coregonus clupeaformis Sexual dimoprhism is minimal Absent Willson, 1997
Coregonus clupeaformis No change for female Absent Mack and Billard, 1984
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Morphological changes are minor in mature females but they show the same color changes as males Absent Groot, 1996
Salmo salar Female change colour and shape :become tusty-brown on the sides and yellowish brown on th back and head Present Groot, 1996
Salvelinus fontinalis The female are less bright than males and have swollen abdomens full of ripening eggs Present Groot, 1996
Stenodus leucichthys The inconnu exhibits little external difference between the sexes, although females can be slightly bigger than same-age males Absent Willson, 1997
Thymallus thymallus Distinguished from the males by their pale colour pattern Present Darchambeau and Poncin, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus Female retain the general appereance of juveniles except for the larger abdomen related to the increase of ovarian size Present Grizzle, 1985
Osmerus eperlanus Females grow faster than males Absent Buckley, 1989