Larvae - Onset of exogeneous feeding



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Alosa alosa After yolk-sac resorption fish were fed twice a day (i.e. one day at 20°C post-hatching) 20.0 °C * day Leguen, 2007
Alosa alosa By 3 days post-hatch [18-19°C], larvae were fed every 10 min with brine shrimp Artemia salini nauplii 18.5 °C * day Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Alosa sapidissima 94 [5 days at 15.6] 94.0 °C * day Wiggins, 1985
Alosa sapidissima The transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding occured between days 3 and 6, at 20 ± 1.0°C 20.0 °C * day Zydlewski and McCormick, 1997
Alosa sapidissima Feeding stage larvae was 6-8 days post-hatch at 19-20°C 7.0 °C * day Leach and Houde, 1999
Cobitis taenia 120-140 [20°C]. Exogenous feeding started at 6-7 days at 20°C 130.0 °C * day Bohlen, 1999
Cobitis taenia 120 [6 days at 21°C] 120.0 °C * day Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis taenia After the larvae had started exogenous feeding (usually on day 6-7) at 20-24°C 6.5 °C * day Bohlen, 1999b
Abramis brama 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 °C * day Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama During the 6th of development, i.e. the 3rd after hatching, most individuals began to ingest exogeneous food. Their average total length was 6.6 mm 6.0 °C * day Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama The cages were stocked with 6-day-old bream larvae that had just graduated to the mixed feeding stage. Fish TL was 7.9-8.1 mm (average 8.0 mm) and the body weight 1.8 mh. Larvae of this length still retained the yolk sac 8.0 °C * day Ziliukiene, 2005
Abramis brama After 5-6 days at 12-19°C, noticeably diminished yolk sac. Feed on yolk and some rotifers 5.5 °C * day Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Alburnoides bipunctatus Etap 1: mixed (endogeneous and exogenous) nutrition, larvae 10 old (4-5 days post hatching at 18-20°C), length 8.5 mm 4.5 °C * day Penaz, 1976
Aristichthys nobilis [After 4.5-5 days at 22-26°C, the larvae are 8.5-9.0 mm, the larvae swim in the water column and feed, but also continue to utilize yolk] 4.75 °C * day Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis Carp larvae that just started to feed exogeneously (about 3 days post-hatch) were used, T= 26-30°C 28.0 °C * day Santiago, 2003
Aristichthys nobilis The first feeding bighead carp larvae (about 3 days post-hacth), with temperature range 26-28°C in the morning and 28-30°C in the afternoon 27.0 °C * day Santiago, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day Naca, 1989
Aspius aspius First-feeding larvae age 6 days post-hatching at 20°C, Lt 7.8 ± 0.6 mm, body weight 2.7 ±0.2 mg 7.8 °C * day Wolnicki, 2005
Aspius aspius From hatch until day 3, the larvae obtain nutrition from susbtances stored in the yolk sac. Between day 3 and 11, the larvae started endo-exogenous feeding. 3.0 °C * day Ostaszewska, 2002
Aspius aspius Between days 3 and 5 post hatch, the intestine opened at both ends and lined with columnar epithelium. Signs of digestion and lipid absorption by enterocytes were observed on day 5, while protein absorption started on day 7 of the larval development. 3.0 °C * day Ostaszewska and Wegiel, 2002
Aspius aspius Beginning of exogenous (mixed) feeding at 7 days at 14°C 7.0 °C * day Kujawa, 2007
Barbus barbus 113-150 131.5 °C * day Philippart, 1989
Barbus barbus About 130-140 [7 days at 19.2-20] 135.0 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Barbus barbus 180 [11 at 17.5°C] 180.0 °C * day Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
Barbus barbus Beginning of the exogeneous feeding at 102 DD, or 6 days after hatching 102.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
Barbus barbus In the barb, the embryos pass to pelagic life habits and to exogenous food as late as between the 17th and 28 th day of developement, that is on the 11th to 19th day after hatching, depending on water temperature, about 16°C 17.0 °C * day Penaz, 1973
Barbus barbus The larva at the age of 12 days and 14 hours (Tl=12.9 mm, w=13.5 mg) was observed to ingest food for the first time (at that time the number of degree-days from the beginning of development was 245.8) at 19°C 12.0 °C * day Krupta, 1988
Carassius auratus At the day 8th and 10th after hatching larva is 7 mm long. At that time active feeding begins 8.0 °C * day Szczerbowski and Szczerbowski, 1996
Carassius auratus Each experimental tank was stocked with 83 3-4-day-old goldfish of the cornet variety at a density of 6.5 fish. L-1, and all trials started at the time of first exogenous feeding (at 25°C) 2.0 °C * day Kaiser, 2003
Carassius auratus Three days after hatching at 20°C, the young larvae swim towards the surface for fulfill their swimbladder, and then start to search food 20.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Carassius carassius When food are available from the start, larvae began mixed feeding at lengths of 6.5-7.2 mm, after 2-4 days of development at 20-30°C, when much of the yolk was present 6.85 °C * day Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius A few days (3 days at 20°C) after hatching the fish swim to the surface to fill the swim bladder and then switch to exogenous feeding and yolk reserves are reduced. 3.0 °C * day Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus About 80-90 [5-6 days at 16°C] 85.0 °C * day Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus About 70-80 [3.9 (At 19°C), 5.2 (16°C), 5.3 (13°C), 7.1 (10)] 75.0 °C * day Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus About 130, or 10 days after hatching 130.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
Chondrostoma nasus Starts to ingest food actively at a age of 27 days after insemination (i.e. 7-8 days after hatching at 12.4-14.5°C), having attained a total length of about 12 . The duration is rather short, being about 4 days at water temperature of 14.1-15.4°C 7.5 °C * day Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus From the very onset of external feeding (day 6 post-hatch) for 20 days, at 25-28°C 26.5 °C * day Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus The fish were fed beginning 4 days post-hatch (at 20°C) 4.0 °C * day Ostaszewka, 2005
Chondrostoma toxostoma 180 [10 days and 20 hour at 16-17] à vérifier 16.5 °C * day Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma toxostoma 70-80 [4 days at 16-18°C] 75.0 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella 3 or 4 days after hatching larval grass begin carp feeding on rotifers and protozoans 3.0 °C * day Cudmore and Mandrak, 2004
Ctenopharyngodon idella 4.5 days: Feeding is mixed 4.5 °C * day Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day Naca, 1989
Ctenopharyngodon idella These foods were first offered to the larvae 72 h after hatching 72.0 °C * day Rottmann, 1991
Cyprinus carpio About 100 [4 days at 26°C] 100.0 °C * day Khadka and Ramakrishna, 1986
Cyprinus carpio [The larvae start to take in air and to fill the swimming bladder when about 1/2 or 2-3 of the yolk sac has been absorbed. At this time the larvae also begin to feed at 20-24°C) 2.5 °C * day Woynarovich, 1962
Cyprinus carpio Larvae were fed only dry diet from the third day after hatching at 20°C 20.0 °C * day Charlon and Bergot, 1984
Cyprinus carpio At the start of exogeneous feeding the mean length of the Koi carp larvae was 6.6 mm [Deduced from graph, about 3 days after hatching at 28-29°C] 28.5 °C * day Van Damme, 1989
Cyprinus carpio 3 days after hatching with rearing temperatures was raised from 19.5°C at days 0 to 24°C at day 4 and kept at that temperature thereafter 3.0 °C * day Carvalho, 1997
Cyprinus carpio 91 to 122 hour od development at 25°Cwe found that at a temperature of 25°C, the onset of the larval period, i.e. the intake of the first food, to take place at 91 hhours (4 day) following impregantion, wich corresponds to 37 hours (2 days after hatching) 91.0 °C * day Penaz, 1983
Cyprinus carpio Exogenous feeding begins before the exhaustion of yolk and is marked by the taking of air to fill the swim-bladder No data Smith, 2004
Cyprinus carpio Received artificial diets starting from the 3rd day after hatching (i.e. 1st day of experiment = initiation of exogeneous feeding), at about 26 (25-27°C) 26.0 °C * day Kamler, 1990
Cyprinus carpio At 20°C, inthe series A,the 4 days old larvae captured and ingested about 70% of prey, while the 7 days old ones,over 90% 20.0 °C * day Jezierska, 2006
Cyprinus carpio The larvae were fed by nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina since the 5th day at 21.5-22.5°C 22.0 °C * day Palikova, 2004
Cyprinus carpio First feeding (day 1 of the experiment) started 2 days after hatching when larvae exhibited an inflated swim-bladder 1.0 °C * day Schlechtreim, 2004
Cyprinus carpio The gut evacuation time for four-day-old common carp larvae, taking their first food (Ewos C-10) is relaitvely short. It may be assumed that after 1 hour the larvae is emptied at 50% (at 24°C) 10.0 °C * day Szlamiska, 1987
Gobio gobio 60 [3 days at 18-20°C] 19.0 °C * day Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Carp larvae that just started to feed exogenously (about 3 days post-hatch) were used, reared at 26-30°C 28.0 °C * day Santiago, 2003
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day Naca, 1989
Leucaspius delineatus Onset of exogeneous feeding for the first embryo 88 hours at 21.6°C] .i.e. 3-16 hours after hatching 9.5 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leuciscus cephalus About 130 [8 days at 17 °C] 130.0 °C * day Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus [5 days after hatching, the larvae were fed ad libitum with the rotifer, for 3 days at 18°C] 5.0 °C * day Harzevili, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus 9 days, oral feeding started at temperature between 15.4 and 17.8°C 9.0 °C * day Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus idus 70-90 [4-5 days at 19-20°C] 80.0 °C * day Harzevili, 2004
Leuciscus idus Beginning from day 3 after hatching the larvae (TL=8.1 at 25°C] were supplied exclusively with freshly hatched Artemia salina nauplii or exclusively commercial dry feed or both] 3.0 °C * day Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
Leuciscus leuciscus About 100 [Feeding begin before the yolk-sac was fully absorbed] 100.0 °C * day Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus After 7 days at 15°C, fry start to eat 7.0 °C * day Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Leuciscus leuciscus About 4-6 days at 10°C 5.0 °C * day Mills, 1982
Mylopharyngodon piceus Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day Naca, 1989
Phoxinus phoxinus 110 [7 days at 16°C] 110.0 °C * day Soin, 1982
Pimephales promelas Begin feeding the day of hatching No data Duffy, 1998
Pseudorasbora parva Mixed feeding of the larvae. The filling of the swim bladder with air occurs during the first days after hatching. The length of the larvae at an age of 5-5.5 days is 6.3-6.5 mm. During these days the yolk is considerably resorbed. […] The larvae swim actively and begin to feed gradually. 5.25 °C * day Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Rhodeus sericeus 560 [28 days at 20°C] 560.0 °C * day Aldridge, 1999
Rutilus rutilus Starts swimming and feeding one to three days after hatching No data Hlnterleitner, 1989
Tinca tinca 110 [5 days at 22] 110.0 °C * day Hamackova, 1995
Tinca tinca 95 [Initiation of external feeding at 7.04 at 22°C, i.e. 4.31 after hatcing] 95.0 °C * day Kamler, 1995
Tinca tinca 140 at 20.2 °C [At the mean temperature of 20.2°C, the embryonic period of development, starting with the moment of fertilization and ending with the passage of the embryos to exogeneous food, lasted 10 days (202 DD), while the incubation period lasted 62.1 DD] 140.0 °C * day Penaz, 1981
Tinca tinca [Duration of development from activation to onset of exogeneous feeding, in parenthesis time for incubation: 224.6 (71.2) at 20°C, 159.2 (48.5) at 22.5°C, 131.5 (36.3) at 25°C, 125.4 (30) at 27.5°C] 224.6 °C * day Penaz, 1989
Tinca tinca Mixed endogeneous and exogeneous nutrition 7 days after hatching at a size of L=5.5-5.8 mm 5.65 °C * day Penaz, 1982
Tinca tinca Commencement of exogeneous feeding 5 days post-hatching at an initial total length of 5.10 ± 0.18 mm 5.1 °C * day Wolnicki and KorwinKossakowski, 1993
Tinca tinca Total duration of endogenous feeding period (from egg activation to the beginning of external feeding) is 10 days at a mean temperature of 20.2, that is 202 D°. Development within an egg takes 62°D, i.e. a shorter part of endogenous feeding period. During remaining 140°C larva is fixed to submerged plants 10.0 °C * day Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Tinca tinca The feeding was begun on day 6 after hatching when larval total length (TL +/-SD) averaged 4.53 +/- 0.16 mm 4.53 °C * day Wolnicki,2003
Tinca tinca Experiments started on day 5 post-hatch 5.0 °C * day Celada, 2008
Vimba vimba First feeding larvae age 5 days post-hatching at 20°C, Lt 7.8 ± 0.2 mm, body weight 2.0 ± 0.2 mg 7.8 °C * day Wolnicki, 2005
Vimba vimba The larvae (2 ± 0.34 mg, 8.4 ± 0.24 mm) were fed from the sixth day after hatching . The average temperature was 24.0 ± 0.5°C, pH 8.6 ± 0.2, and dissolved oxygen 7.9 ± 0.3 mg.l-1. 2.0 °C * day Ostaszewska, 2008
Vimba vimba Larvae begin to swim freely 7 days after hatching, and feed on day later 7.0 °C * day Luszczek, 2008
Esox masquinongy Require 13.3 days at 15°C for larvae to swim-up 13.3 °C * day Farrell, 2005
Esox masquinongy By 3 weeks of age the young begin to feed on other fish 3.0 °C * day Clemmons and Newman, 1997
Esox masquinongy Food was given to the larvae on the day they sawm up from the bottom of the tanks (9 days after hatching) and each day thereafter (at 20°C) 9.0 °C * day Anonymous, 1982
Esox lucius 150-160 155.0 °C * day Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
Esox lucius 150-160 155.0 °C * day Billard, 1996
Esox lucius 10 days at 12.5°C 10.0 °C * day Wurtz, 1944
Esox lucius The fry began to feed at 7 days post-hatching when the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed (at 12°C) 7.0 °C * day Giles, 1986
Esox lucius Pike larvae die within three days after the resorption of their yolk sac if no food is available to them No data Penaz, 1971
Esox lucius Food was only detected in the alimentary tract of the larvae with the standard length no less than 12.8 mm 12.8 °C * day Ziliukiene and Ziliukas, 2006
Lota lota 270 DD at 15-16°C after fertilization, they begin feeding less than about 130-140 DD for incubation 15.5 °C * day Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota Burbot larvae, which were the pooled offpsring of many wild spawners, were reared from the first feeding (day 10 post-hatch) over a period of 20 days. Larvae of an initial size of 3.61 ± 0.27 mm (average TL ± SD, n = 15). 3.61 °C * day Wolnicki, 2002
Pungitius pungitius About five days after hatching at 15°C, begin the transition to mixed feeding 15.0 °C * day Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
Micropterus dolomieui 120 [6-7 days at 20°C and 4-5 days at 25°C] 6.5 °C * day Siefert, 1974
Micropterus salmoides 75-105 [Initial feeding at 193 hours after fertilization and 90% hatch at 64 at 20°C and 124 hours and 90% hatch at 47 at 23°C, i.e. 5.3 days at 20°C and 3.2 days at 23°C] 90.0 °C * day Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Dicentrarchus labrax 115 [6 days at 19°C] 115.0 °C * day Cahu, 1998
Dicentrarchus labrax 160-230 [After day 10, larval development was based only on exogeneous food, at 16-23°C] 195.0 °C * day Hatziathanasiou, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax Time of first feeding (8-9 days from hatching at 15°C) at a length of 4.78 mm 8.5 °C * day Cerda, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax Feeding of cultured sea bass larvae has commonly begun at initiation of mouth opening (4 days after hatching). Initial feeding can be delayed 2-4 days without adversely affecting survival or growth of sea bass larvae if they are held at ambient temperature in dilute sea water 3.0 °C * day Johnson and Katavic, 1986
Dicentrarchus labrax First feeding about 6-7 days 6.5 °C * day Barnabé, 1980
Dicentrarchus labrax Feeding depends upon the yolk vesicle which persists beyong the mouth opening (day 5 post-hatching) until the end of endotrophy (day 7) at 15°C 5.0 °C * day Giffard-Mena,2006
Morone saxatilis Larvae in all experiments began active feeding 5 days after hatching at a temperature of 18°C 5.0 °C * day Eldridge, 1982
Morone saxatilis Beginning at 5 dph, larvae were provided with a diet that consisted of Artemia nauplii maintained at 100per liter, on days 5,6 and 7, 500-1000 rotifers Brachinonus plicatilis per liter also were provided 750.0 °C * day Monteleone and Houde, 1990
Morone saxatilis Larvae were fed Artemia from 6 days post-hatching. Larvae with food in their gut were first observed at 7 dph in the black tanks and one day later in white tanks 6.0 °C * day Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
Morone saxatilis At 16-19°C, striped bass larvae make the transition to exogenous feeding by 5 d posthatch 17.5 °C * day Harrell, 2002
Morone saxatilis The larvae grow quickly from 6 mm total length (Lt) at first feeding (6 days post-hatch, dph) […] Swimbladder inflation and first feeding occurred between 5 and 7 dph (at 19°C) 6.0 °C * day Macintosh and Duston, 2007
Gymnocephalus cernuus Feeding begins after about 1 week 1.0 °C * day Crosier, 2005
Gymnocephalus cernuus The transition to exogenous feeding takes plance in benthopelagic layer about 1 week after hatching 1.0 °C * day Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 120-130: Active feeding and swim-up occurring 13 days after fertilization (hatching 5-6 days after fertilization) at 16°C 125.0 °C * day Brown, 1998
Perca flavescens Larvae were initially fed a tank culture of rotifers and small zooplankton four to six times per day. Starting five days posthatch (dph), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii four times per day (at 15-18°C). 16.5 °C * day Fulford, 2006
Perca fluviatilis About 100 100.0 °C * day Wang and Eckmann, 1994
Perca fluviatilis On 27 and 28 May half of the perch still had some yolk left and 90% had started feeding. Hatching at 24 May and temperature 12-14°C 13.0 °C * day Urho, 1996
Sander lucioperca At the age of 2-5 days the larvae start exogeneous feeding 3.5 °C * day Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca 3 days after hatching at 15°C 3.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander lucioperca The period of endogeneous feeding of the pike-perch lasted until the 6th day post hatching, mixed endo-exogenous feeding occurred from the 6th to the 12th day, and from the 17th day on the fish were exclusively fed exogenous feeding 6.0 °C * day Ostasweska, 2005
Sander lucioperca 4-18 dph, corresponding to the period extending from the beginning of exogenous feeding to the end of swim bladder inflation. Feedinf started in the final stages of the absorption of the yolk sac (about 4 days post hatching). Feeding with Artemia nauplii started 1 day later 11.0 °C * day Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
Sander vitreus 100-122 111.0 °C * day Krise and Meade, 1986
Sander vitreus Feeding takes place prior to disappearance of yolk No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
Sander vitreus Walleye larvae commenced feeding at a mean length of 9 mm during this study 9.0 °C * day Johnston and Mathias, 1994
Sander vitreus The initiation of exogeneous feeding occurs between 100 and 120DD 100.0 °C * day Colsesante, 1996
Sander vitreus Initiation of feeding 100-120 110.0 °C * day Summerfelt, 1996
Sander vitreus Around days 5 and 6 at 19-25, mean of 22.3°C 22.0 °C * day Moodie, 1989
Coregonus lavaretus Feeding begin 4 days after hatching at 10-10.5°C 10.25 °C * day Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus After a 2-days period of adaptation, the feeding experiment was begun with larvae 1-2 days old at T of 11 or 14°C. Living zooplankton was consumed immediatly afteits initial introduction 1.5 °C * day Rösch and Appelbaum, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus Four days at 10°C, at a size of 11.2 ± 0.1 mm 11.2 °C * day Champigneulle, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus Feeding started 4 days after hatching at 12 ±0.5°C 12.0 °C * day Segner, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus 4 days after hatching at a size of 11-12 mm 11.5 °C * day Champigneulle and Rojas-Beltran, 1990
Coregonus lavaretus At 14-16°C, larvae begin to feed on the 2nd-3rd day after hatching. At lower temperatures (5-11.8°C) active feeding begins later, and according to various authors its beginning fluctuates between the 5th and 8th day 15.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
Coregonus lavaretus Food was found in all yolk-sac larvae 10 mm and larger indicating that feeding is normal for yolk-sac larvae 10.0 °C * day Hudd, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Fish larvae were fed nematodes ad libitum starting on day 1 after hatching.Nematodes are readily ingested by 2-day-old whitefish larvae. In comparison with the ingestion of nematodes, the onset of dry diet intake by Coregonus lavaretus is clearly delayed, starting around 8 days after hatching 1.0 °C * day Schlechtriem, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus Feeding commenced on 13 February (three days after hatching) 13.0 °C * day Dlugosz and Demska-Zakes, 1989
Coregonus albula Gradual transition from yolk utilization to external feeding occured after 10 days at 13.7°C 10.0 °C * day Karjalainen, 1991
Coregonus albula Time from hatching to exogeneous feeding in vendace, larvae decreased from 8 to 2 days when the temperature increased from 4.5 to 19°C. In the vendace population the larvae start exogeneous (mixed feeding at a total length of 9.5 mm [Other studies: at a constant temperature of 10°C, 6 days after hatching, whereas at 9.4°C, it amounted to 4 days] 8.0 °C * day Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula The number of days between mass hatching and the commencement of external feeding by 50% of fish is: 4.0 days [4.0°C], 3.5 days [7.3°C], 3.5 [10°C], 3.0 [12.3°C], 2.5 [15.3°C], 2.5 [17.1°C], 2.5 [19.8°C], 2.0 [22.1°C] 50.0 °C * day Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula At 10°C, the first exogenous feeding took place on about the 6th day, and all fish fed exogenously from the 8th-9th day after hathing 10.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
Coregonus albula Vendace incubated at pH 7.00 and 7.40 started to ingest paramecia several days after hatching and began feeding on Artemia a week later. The fish at pH 5.50 started to feed on paramecia with 7 days delay compared to the controls 7.0 °C * day Duis and Oberam, 2000
Coregonus clupeaformis In trial (at 11-13.5°C), lake whitefish were feeding in all tanks by day 3. In trial 2 (at 7.2-12.2°C), lake whitefish larvae were feeding in all tanks by day 3, but feed was not observed in the digestive tract until day 5 12.25 °C * day Zitzow and Millard, 1988
Coregonus clupeaformis Larvae were not fed until just prior to yolk sac absorption (21 after hatching) [Yet under natural conditions, larval lake whitefish are capable of feeding within 48 h after hatching 21.0 °C * day Brown and Taylor, 1992
Coregonus clupeaformis Upon acclimatization to 10 and 5°C, a lethal temperature of 22.6°C and 20.6°C, respectively. 10.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
Hucho hucho Two or three weeks later they begin feeding (at 12°C) 12.0 °C * day Jungwirth, 1978
Hucho hucho 457-545 DD (less than 287.6-339.1 for incubation) mixed nutrition 501.0 °C * day Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Alveins emerged from the gravel and started feeding 6 to 8 weeks after hatching at 11-12°C 11.5 °C * day Macquarrie, 1979
Oncorhynchus mykiss 500 500.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Oncorhynchus mykiss The fry commence feeding about 15 days after hatching 15.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss Young fish were expected to feed 60 days post-fertilization at 10°C 60.0 °C * day Springate and Bromage, 1985
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 437 [At 12°C], 464 [10°C], 482 [8°C] and 523 [6°C] posu hatching [It would be of little benefit to initiate food presentation before 905 tu, the point at which 50% of alevins were first able to ingest food at all four tested temperature, between 6-12°C, less than about ca.520-556 for incubation, This optimum feeding zone existed at temperatures below 12°C, between 905 thermal units (tu) postfertilization and a point (F, tu) which varied with temperature (T, °C) as F= 1201.1-20.3 T 9.0 °C * day Heming, 1982
Salmo salar [Equation relating time from hatch to first feeding: Y=472T-1.27. This equation yeilds times of 81, 49, 34, 25, and 20 days for incubation temperatures of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12, respectively] 472.0 °C * day Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
Salmo salar Fry emerge after 23 [12°C], 32 [10°C] and 70 [6°C] 23.0 °C * day Brännäs, 1988
Salmo salar First feeding occured after 815 degree-days at ambient temperature and 839 degree-days at 8°C (for incubation, 473-505 for heated and 452-487 for ambient respectively). Most of the visible yolk sac has been resorbed 489.0 °C * day Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar The last sample was taken immediatly before the juveniles were fed for the first time (about 700 day-degrees, and 520 for incubation) 700.0 °C * day Berg, 2001
Salmo trutta fario 300-350 [About 25 days at 14°C to 75 days at 4°C] 325.0 °C * day Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
Salmo trutta fario [At the commencement of first feeding, 35 days after haching at a temperature which fluctuated between 7.6 and 8.9°C with a mean of 8.5°C] 35.0 °C * day Hansen, 1985
Salmo trutta fario After 91 days post-fertlization [50 days for incubation] at 8°C, embryos in the control had completely resorbed their yolk supplies and were feeding exogeneously 91.0 °C * day Luckenbach, 2001
Salmo trutta fario Freely swimming fry, a few days after the yolk had been completely resorbed, the fry had already strated actively feeding and were behaving as fully formed organisms. The fry measured 25-35 mm 30.0 °C * day Formicki, 2004
Salvelinus alpinus 120-200 [70-96 days at 1.3°C, 25 days at 8°C] 160.0 °C * day Pavlov, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus First feeding in charr occurs when the fry are around 21.5 mm 21.5 °C * day Aasjord and Wallace, 1987
Salvelinus alpinus Temperature was increased to 11.5°C when fish were free swimming and feeding at about 630 DD posthatch 11.5 °C * day Bebak, 2000
Salvelinus alpinus First feeding coincided with swim-up at 6°C and at 8°C while at 3°C one fish was observed to have taken food before swim-up. At 12°C swim-up was registered 3 days before the first occurence of feeding. About 170 DD [3°C], 240 [6°C], 250 [8°C] and 320 [12°C] or in days ca. 55 (3°C), 40 (6°C), 35 (8°C) and 32 (12°C). At all temperatures the alevins were between 19 and 22 mm in length at 50% feeding. Registration of 50% occured about 40 day-degrees after 50% swim-up, independent of temperature 6.0 °C * day Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus About 120 [minus 85-90 for incubation] at 6.4 ± 0.1 6.4 °C * day Papst and Hopky, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus First feeding was reached after 627 ± 13 degree-days in all families (less than 400-450 °D for incubation) 627.0 °C * day Atse, 2002
Salvelinus alpinus From day 24 after hatching, first feeding was initiated manually several times a day with a specially adapted commercial feed formulation (Corey Feed Mills Inc.) 24.0 °C * day Lemieux, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis The first external feeding activities of the fish larvae start when the larvae swim up. Observations have demonstrated that the larva has a piece of yolk when swimming up, so in trout fisheries the first external feeding starts when over 30% of the larvae swim up. 30.0 °C * day Bascinar, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis 82-188 [Samplings at 544 and 650 DD were conducted to approximatively coincide with the middle and end of yolk absorption period, i.e. 82 and 188 when substrated the DD of incubation (462)] 135.0 °C * day Dumas, 1995
Salvelinus fontinalis The feeding experiment started 16 weeks after fertilization (21 February 1992 for SWF2 and FWF2, and 28 February 1992 for FWF3), when all the free-swimming fry were feeding (mouths and complete digestive tracts functional). This corresponded to 658.2 degree-days from time of fertilization for FWF2 and SWF2, and 622.5 degree-days for FWF3 16.0 °C * day Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
Salvelinus namaycush About 140 [Initial feeding started at 101 days after fertilization and 90% hatch occured at 81 days at 7°C and 60 days after fertilization and 90% hatch at 10°C, i.e. 20 days at 7°C and 14 days at 10°C] 140.0 °C * day Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Stenodus leucichthys About 30 [Mixed feeding at 3 days at 11.4°C, and 7 days at 3.8°C] 30.0 °C * day Bogdanova, 1978
Thymallus thymallus 100-110 [10-11 days at 9.0-10.5°C] 105.0 °C * day Zaytsev, 1986
Thymallus thymallus On the 8th day after hatching (at 10°C), the embryos, having attained the length of 15 mm, were observed to ingest exogeneous food for the first time 8.0 °C * day Penaz, 1975
Thymallus thymallus Change to active feeding 4-5 days after hatching 4.5 °C * day Kokurewicz, 1980
Thymallus thymallus 40 à 50 degré-jours après l'éclosion, à une taille moyenne de 15 mm, les alevins commencent à gober les particules. 40.0 °C * day Carmie, 1985
Thymallus arcticus Young grayling begin taking food as late as 9 days after hatching 9.0 °C * day Bishop, 1971
Ictalurus punctatus 700 700.0 °C * day Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Ictalurus punctatus "Yolk absorption, feeding activity, and swimming of fry at the surface normally occurs at 4-5 d after hatching (fry at this stage are commonly referred to as ""swim-up"" fry [23-33°C]" 4.5 °C * day Weirich, 2001
Silurus glanis After their first feeding (5-7 days old) at temperature of 22-26°C 6.0 °C * day Horvath, 1977
Silurus glanis 125 [5 days at 25°C] 125.0 °C * day Wolnicki, 1998
Silurus glanis 130 [5 days at 28°C] 130.0 °C * day Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
Silurus glanis 150 150.0 °C * day Linhart, 2002
Silurus glanis Exogenous feeding started at DPH 4 and there was a 2-day mixed endogenous-exogenous feeding period 4.0 °C * day Kozaric, 2008