Larvae - Full yolk-sac resorption



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla After four days, the yok sac is almost completely resorbed, the fat doplet begins to resorb No data Prokhorchik, 1987
Alosa alosa Yolk-sac resoprtion occured 6 days after fertilization at 20°C (less 5 for incubation) 6.0 °C * day Leguen, 2007
Alosa sapidissima 94 [6 days at 15.6] 94.0 °C * day Wiggins, 1985
Alosa sapidissima 70-85 [Yolksac larvae absorb their yolk in 4-5 days at 17°C] 77.5 °C * day Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima [About 4 to 7 days after hatching, 9-12 mm or 12.2 when yolk is absorbed] 10.5 °C * day Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima 4-7 days 5.5 °C * day Rue, 2001
Barbatula barbatula The yolk-sac is absorbed within 5-7 days [4.0-6.5 mm in size] 6.0 °C * day Smyly, 1955
Barbatula barbatula About 6 days 6.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
Abramis brama 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 °C * day Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama A complete resorption of the yolk-sac characterizing the beginning of this step took place at the average length of larve L= 7.7 to 7.9 mm on the 7th to the 8 th of development, i.e. 4-5 after hatching 4.5 °C * day Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama Bream larvae, the TL of which was 8.2 mm, switched completely to exogenous food 8.2 °C * day Ziliukiene, 2005
Abramis brama 8-10 days after hatching, reserves of the yolk sac have been used. 9.0 °C * day Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Aristichthys nobilis 154-162 [At 7 days at 22-26°C, the yolk sac is completely absorbed and the larvae migrate along the shore, feeding exclusively on external food] 158.0 °C * day Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis High mortality of unfed fish larvae was observed starting on day 6 and, except for one tank, all larvae in replicate tanks were dead by day 11 (at 26-30°C) 28.0 °C * day Santiago, 2003
Aspius aspius On day 11, when the larvae averaged 10.17 mm, the yolk sac was completely resorbed and the period of exogenous feeding begin (at 18-20°C) 19.0 °C * day Ostaszewska, 2002
Aspius aspius The yolk sac was completely absorbed on day 11 post hatch 11.0 °C * day Ostaszewska and Wegiel, 2002
Barbus barbus 130-140 [8 days at 17 ± 2°C] 17.0 °C * day Calta, 1998
Barbus barbus The yolk sac is complety resorbed before ca. 10 days at 23°C at a size of 13.7 mm 10.0 °C * day Vandewalle, 1993
Barbus barbus Termination of the yolk sac resorption 142 DD, or 8 days after hatching 142.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
Barbus barbus The change to exclusively exogenous nutrition took place on the 15th to 17th day of the development, at 19°C 15.0 °C * day Krupta, 1988
Barbus barbus Acively swimming larvae were transported to USB RIFCH, and the rearing study with exogenous nutrition started after absorption of the yolk sac one day later (19 days, 344 degree-days after fertilization and 13 days, 236 degree-days post-hatch) 19.0 °C * day Policar, 2007
Carassius auratus By one and one-half to two and one-half days,a length of 5.8 millimeters is attained, and the yolk sac has been reduced to a narrow tubular band. At seven to eight days (6.8 millimeter stage), the yolk material has practically all disappeared.At 25°C 5.8 °C * day Battle, 1940
Carassius auratus Yolk was absorbed to be absent or present as a thin ribbon only by day 2 at 27°C, day 4 at 22°C, and day 6 at 17°C 2.0 °C * day Wiegand, 1988
Carassius carassius At 20 and 25°C, a maximum size of 7.6 mm, and at 30°C, 7.4 mm was achieved. The survival time (50% mortality) on yolk sac energy was 8 days both at 5 and 25-30°C, 9 days at at 20°C, and 14 days at 10-14°C. Even when Artemia nauplii were available on the fourth day, feeding (food in the gut) was noted at 15°C only, but its importance even here is not known since all died at the embryonic stage 27.5 °C * day Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius The yolk sac disappears completely at the length between 6.5-7.2 mm 6.85 °C * day Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus 150-180 [About 11 at 13 or 16°C] 165.0 °C * day Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus 320 [20.8 at 16°C] for 50% yolk resoprtion] 320.0 °C * day Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus 140-160 [Full yolk resorption: 7.5 (19°C), 10.8 (16°C), 10.7 (13°C), 12.4 (10°C)] 150.0 °C * day Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus Termination of the yolk sac resorption: 196 DD, or 13 days after hatching 196.0 °C * day Penaz, 1971
Chondrostoma nasus The yolk sac is present in form of a small remainder which disappears by the end of the stage, i.e. 31 days after insemination or 11-12 days at 14-15°C 11.5 °C * day Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus Endogenous feeding of the nase larvae lasted from hatching until 4 dph, mixed feeding from 4 to 9 dph, and beginning from 9 dph the fish fed exogenously (at 18-20°C) 19.0 °C * day Sysa, 2006
Ctenopharyngodon idella 7 days: the mesolarva measures 7.5 to 8.1 mm, has absorbed its yolk sac and feed exogenously 7.0 °C * day Shireman and Smith, 1983
Cyprinus carpio 60-70 65.0 °C * day Billard, 1995
Cyprinus carpio 70 70.0 °C * day Lafaille and Crivelli, 2001
Cyprinus carpio 70-80: At 25°C, the yolk has dissapeared completely between the 133th and 131st hour of development, less than 51-57.5 hours for hatching 75.0 °C * day Penaz, 1983
Cyprinus carpio For the first three days post hatching, common carp rely exclusively on endogenous food resources (yok sac). The 8-9 days old larvae have usually completely resorbed yolk sac, and feed exclusively on exogenous food 8.5 °C * day Jezierska, 2006
Cyprinus carpio "It is interesing to note that the disappearance of proteolytic activity observed in the starved larvae age 10 days converges with the so-called ""point of no return"", which occurs on the 10th day of life of starved carp larvae at 24°C" 10.0 °C * day Szlamiska, 1982
Cyprinus carpio Total mortality in complete absence of food in the nursing ambient occurs for common carp larvae after 9-12 days of starvation 10.5 °C * day Hamackova, 2007
Gobio gobio 90-100 [5 days at 18-20°C] 95.0 °C * day Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio La vésicule est résorbée en quatre jours (à + 20°C) et les alevins de notre élevage mesurent 5.15 (5 à 5.5 mm) alors que l'alevin d'Irlande atteint 6 mm 20.0 °C * day Brunet and Hoestlandt, 1972
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix High mortality of unfed fish was observed starting on day 6, except for one tank, all larvae in replicate tanks were dead by day 11. At 26-30°C 28.0 °C * day Santiago, 2003
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix The larvae 2.5 days after hatching are at phase 23, their length is 7.4 mm. They begin to actively catch food oustide,but continue mostly to feed on yolk, which is present as relatively substantial residue 2.5 °C * day Burlakov,2006
Leucaspius delineatus 90-100 DD: By day 8, only a small portion of yolk reserves remained to be absorbed (less than 75.5-80.7 hours for incubation) at 21.6°C 95.0 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leucaspius delineatus Contents of small yolk sac were very quickly resorbed: 1-2 days at 20°C 1.5 °C * day Bonislawska, 1999
Leuciscus cephalus About 130 [8 days at 17 °C] 130.0 °C * day Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus 11 days, consumption of yolk sac finished at temperature between 15.4 and 17.8°C 11.0 °C * day Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus idus The resorption of the yolk-sac lasts about 80-90 DD 85.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus idus Other studies stated that, for ide, at 25°C water temperature, 50% of starving fry were killed after 9 days of nursing, and 95% after 10 days. In our case, total kill of starving fry occurred during the 10th day of nursing 25.0 °C * day Hamackova, 2007
Leuciscus leuciscus 90-120 [The yolk-sac was absorbed in a week or to ten days, when the larvae were about 10 mm long] 105.0 °C * day Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus After 10 days at about 15°C, the yolk sac is fully resorbed 10.0 °C * day Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Leuciscus leuciscus [The exhaustion of endogeneous supplies, heavy mortalities in starved fry kept at 10°C only began after three weeks] 10.0 °C * day Mills, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus 140-150 [On the 8th -9th day after hatching, when the larvae reach a length of 7.0-8.0 mm, the yolk sac disapperas completely and they go over to exogeneous feeding exclusively at 16°C] 145.0 °C * day Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus About 13-14 days 13.5 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
Phoxinus phoxinus The yolk sac had disappeared by the time the 'pin' minnows were 13-14 days old, they were then 8.0 mm long 13.5 °C * day Frost, 1943
Phoxinus phoxinus 170-190 The time for development from fertilization to 'swim-up' larvae at 15°C ranged from 14-17 days 180.0 °C * day Mills, 1988
Phoxinus phoxinus The resorption of the yolk sac requires 8 days at 16°C, and 5.5 days at 20°C 8.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Pseudorasbora parva Changeover of larvae to exogenous feeding only. Under aquarium conditions the larvae were around 7.6 mm long at an age of 8 days. The yolk sac was fully resorbed and the larvae fed on exogenous food only. 7.6 °C * day Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Rhodeus sericeus Mussels incubate the eggs for 2-4 weeks, until the yolk is absorbed when the young bitterling swim out the exhalant siphon of the living mussel] 3.0 °C * day Mills and Reynolds, 2002
Tinca tinca 110 [7 days and 20 hours after fertilization at 22, i.e. 5 days after hatching] 110.0 °C * day Geldhauser, 1995
Tinca tinca 120 [Full resorption of yolk at 8.17 at 22°C, i.e. 5.44 after hatcing] 120.0 °C * day Kamler, 1995
Tinca tinca 110-120 [5-10 days at 22°C] 115.0 °C * day San Juan, 1995
Tinca tinca Exclusively exogeneous nutrition, the last remains of the yolk sac disappered definitively: L=5.8-7.4 mm 6.6 °C * day Penaz, 1982
Vimba vimba Yolk resorption last up to 14 days 14.0 °C * day Luszczek, 2008
Esox masquinongy Yolk remained along the ventral portion of the oesophagus and intestine and was present until the fourth day of feeding No data Anonymous, 1982
Esox lucius 160-180 170.0 °C * day Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
Esox lucius 300 [End of the fixed period] 300.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius 160-180 [i.e. 15 days at 11.2°C] 170.0 °C * day Balvay, 1983
Esox lucius 130 130.0 °C * day Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
Esox lucius About 9-10 days 9.5 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
Esox lucius 8 days at 12.5°C, at a size of ca. 14.5 8.0 °C * day Wurtz, 1944
Esox lucius Yolk sacs were largely resorbed at 8 days (at 12°C) 8.0 °C * day Giles, 1986
Esox lucius About 14 days 14.0 °C * day Chimits, 1951
Esox lucius Pike larvae with yolk sac, 5 days post-hatch,were obtained from a fish hatchery in SW Finland 5.0 °C * day Engström-Öst, 2005
Lota lota Yolk-feeding burbot larvae resorb their yolk sac during almost two weeks after hatching No data Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota At the yolk stage they measure 3-4 mm. 3.5 °C * day Harzevili, 2004
Gasterosteus aculeatus The larva continues to grow by absorption of the yolk which is completely used up 4 days after hatching, giving the larva, now about 6 mm long, a slender appearance. 4.0 °C * day Swarup, 1958
Micropterus dolomieui 120 [The larvae became free-swimming 6 days after hatching at 21°C, at a length of approximatively 8.7 millimeters] 120.0 °C * day Meyer, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui 160 [Postlarval bass, rose off the nests in 1966 at 8-11 days after hatching, between June 17 and 20, when water temperatures ranged between 17.2 and 19.5°C] 9.5 °C * day Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus salmoides 260 260.0 °C * day Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides 180 [Whithin 10 days at 20°C, the largemouth bass fry become free-swimming shortly after which the yolk sac is fully absorbed] 180.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides 60-80 [Three or four days after hatching, at 21°C, larvae became free-swimming at approximatively 6.1 millimetres] 70.0 °C * day Meyer, 1970
Micropterus salmoides 120-130 [The yolk sac was absorbed and all fry were free-swimming 168 hours (less 48 hours for hatching) after fertilization, at 70-72°F, i.e. 20-22] 125.0 °C * day Tebo and McCoy, 1964
Dicentrarchus labrax 8 days 8.0 °C * day Saillant, 2001
Dicentrarchus labrax Feeding depends upon the yolk vesicle which persists beyond the mouth opening (day 5 post-hatching) until the end of endotrophy (day 7) at 15°C 5.0 °C * day Giffard-Mena,2006
Dicentrarchus labrax The differences between the mortality rates of the different temperature treatments were expressed at the end of yolk-sac larval stage (4-7 days post-hatching) 5.5 °C * day Georgakopoulou, 2007
Morone americana Larvae absorb the yolk-sac and develop a swimbladder within 3-5 days post-hatch at a length of about 3.8 mm 4.0 °C * day North and Houde, 2001
Morone chrysops 60-70 [72-96 hours at 16-18°C] 65.0 °C * day Kohler, 1997
Morone saxatilis The yolk sas larval stage runs 3-6 days 4.5 °C * day Everly and Boreman, 1999
Morone saxatilis Absorb their yolk sac until they are >5 d old and > 5 mm in length 5.0 °C * day North and Houde, 2001
Morone saxatilis Striped bass survive on endogenous yolk for the first 5 days of life 5.0 °C * day Harell and Curry Woods III, 1995
Morone saxatilis In stripped bass, inflated swibladders are first detected at 5-7 days post-hatching (dph) at 18°C, which coincides with the completion of yolk absorption, initiation of first feeding and peak larval specific gravities 6.0 °C * day Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Active feeding and swimming occur within one week of hatching after the yolk-sac is absorbed No data Crosier, 2005
Perca flavescens 3-5 days 4.0 °C * day Rue, 2001
Perca fluviatilis 105 105.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
Perca fluviatilis About 130-150 140.0 °C * day Wang and Eckmann, 1994
Perca fluviatilis About 4 days 4.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
Sander lucioperca 100-110 at 14-15°C 105.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander lucioperca Their yolk-sacs are totally used after 10-12 days at a length of 6.5-9 mm 11.0 °C * day Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca 100 100.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
Sander lucioperca Nearly resorbed after 4-5 days after hatching at 14°C 4.5 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
Sander lucioperca The end of endogenous feeding of pike-perch larvae reared at 20°C took place at the same time as macroscopic yolk resorption, on the 6 day post hatching. The remaing traces of yolk nutrients visible under the microscope were absorbed until the 17 day of life 20.0 °C * day Ostasweska, 2005
Sander vitreus 100-127 113.5 °C * day Krise and Meade, 1986
Sander vitreus 80-100 [i.e. 5 days at 18-20] 90.0 °C * day Mathais and Li, 1982
Sander vitreus Feeding takes place before the yolk is fully absorbed No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus [9-12 days at 53-57°F or 11.5-15.5] 10.5 °C * day Hurley, 1972
Sander vitreus At a mean temperature of 16.4°C, the yolk sac dissapears in the 5th day posthatch, about 68 TU, but it may persist up to 13 days at temperature of 13.2°C. Also reported that the yolk sac dissapeared in 10-11 days 10.5 °C * day Summerfelt, 1996
Coregonus lavaretus The yolk is used 7 days after the start of feeding (which is four days after hatching), and the oil globule of the yolk sac persists about 10 days longer at 12°C for Coregonus fera !! 7.0 °C * day Loewe and Eckmann, 1988
Coregonus albula At 10°C, the mortality of starved larvae was greatest between the 10th and the 15 th day 10.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
Coregonus clupeaformis 150-160 [There were essentially no differences in survival among feeding regimes until day 15 [at 12°C], when yolk sac was complete and the larvae had to feed on exogeneous food resources.] 155.0 °C * day Taylor and Freeberg, 1984
Coregonus clupeaformis 150-170 [Yolk-sac absorption occured between 23 and 25 days post-hatch (at 6.9°C). Yet, water temperatures in their this experiment were maintained at relatively low temperatures to simulate temperatures normally encountered in the Laurentian Great Lakes, while in early study was conducted at 12°C. At this higher temperature, larval lake whitefish exhausted energy reserves between 12 and 15 days post-hatch] 160.0 °C * day Brown and Taylor, 1992
Hucho hucho 140-160 150.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Hucho hucho 140-160 150.0 °C * day Jatteau, 1991
Hucho hucho The larval stage from hatching to the complete resorption of the vitelline sac is about 309°D at 10°C [The feeding to larvae began a few days before the completion of the vitelline sac] 309.0 °C * day Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
Hucho hucho The period from hatching to the loss of the yolk sac is 164.1 DD 164.1 °C * day Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho 545 (less than 287.6-339.1 for incubation) yolk sac has disappeared, exlusively external nutrition 313.35 °C * day Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 305 [Swim-up from fertilization: 805 degree-days, less 500 for hatching ] 305.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha [Duration for 50% emergence: 66.1 days at 9.6°C, 36.6 days at 9.7°C, 64.1 days at 5.1°C and 153.4 days at 2.9°C, also 41.7 days at 10.5°C, 39.4 days at 7.3°C, 45.8 days at 6.0 and 46.7 days at 5.2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Emergence at 255 DD [3°C], 330 DD[6°C], 310 DD [10°C] and 360 DD [12°C] deduced from graph and size at hatching average 31 mm, range 28.5 to 33.5 255.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 50% emergence vary: 32.3 days [14°C], 43.6 days [11°C], 48 days [8°C], 74.2 days [5°C], Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 26 [14°C], 27.1 [11°C], 28.4 [8°C], 26.8 [5°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta 700-1000 [from egg fertilization ?] 850.0 °C * day Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta The yolk sac are fully absorbed 30 to 50 days after hatching 30.0 °C * day Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta 400 [Swim-up from fertilization: 960 degree-days, from hatching 960 less 560] 400.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus keta The alelvins phase is completed in 30 to 60 days 30.0 °C * day Bakkala, 1970
Oncorhynchus keta Emergence 300 DD [3°C], 294 [6°C], 370 [10°C] and 408 [12°C] at an average of 34.5 mm, range 31.5-38.5 mm 35.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus keta Emergence 30 days [12.1°C], 43.2 [9.5°C], 37.6 [8.1°C], 63.7 [4.9°C], 66.9 [4.1°C] 30.0 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1987
Oncorhynchus keta 50% emergence at: 39.8 [14°C], 45.6 [11°C], 57.6 [8°C], 64.1 [5.0°C], Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 30 [14°C], 31 [11°C], 31.4 [8°C], 32.6 [5°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta Emergence vary between Mid-february to Mid-April for groundwaters incubation, 60 days at 3-4°C, and for subsurface waters from 30-40 days at 2-6°C 3.5 °C * day Leman, 1993
Oncorhynchus keta In Central coast: time to 50% emergence 327.6-186.8 [At 2.2°C], 204.1-124.5 [4.1°C] and 132.3-69.3 [8.1°C] 257.2 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus kisutch 550 [Swim-up from fertilization: 970 degree-days, from hatching 970 less 420] 550.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus kisutch Emergence 390 DD [3°C], 420 [6°C], 500 [10°C], 480 [12°C] at an average size of 32, range 29-35 32.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus kisutch 50% emergence at 29.7 [14°C], 31.7 [11°C], 46.4 [8°C], 51.6 [5°C], 113.3 [2.°C] Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 23.9 [14°C], 24.9 [11°C], 25.9 [8°C], 27.1 [5°C] and 27.9 [2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
Oncorhynchus mykiss 3-7 days to absorb the yolk 5.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss 190 [Swim-up from fertilization: 500 degree-days, from hatching 500 less 310] 190.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus mykiss For female age 3 (prior to yolk sac resorption no food was administered to larvae): 540 DD [At 10°C], 336 [At 12°C], 262 DD [At 14°C] 3.0 °C * day Kamler and Kato, 1983
Oncorhynchus mykiss In the control, yolk utilisation ended after 20 days of exposure, but it was resorbed 3-5 days later in the test alevins, 11-12°C 4.0 °C * day Stasiunaite, 2003
Oncorhynchus nerka 300-360 [Hatching to emergence: 53-60 days (5.0°C), 36-40 (9°C), 24-25 (12.5°C] 330.0 °C * day Hendry, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka 330 [Swim-up from fertilization: 1000 degree-days, from hatching 1000 less 670] 330.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus nerka Emergence at 285 [3°C], 420 [6°C], 500 [10°C], and 480 [12°C] at an average size of 26.5, range 25-28.5 26.75 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus nerka 50% emergence at: 25 [14°C], 38.5 [11.1°C], 43.6 [6.9°C], 53.5 [5°C], 75.8 [2°C], Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 20.7 [14°C], 22.9 [11°C], 24.4 [8°C], 23.4 [5°C] and 23.6 [2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 470 [Swim-up from fertilization: 890 degree-days, from hatching 890 less 420] 470.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 870-920 [Thermal units from fertilization at complete yolk absorption averaged 1456 ± 22 among the test temperatures: 250 days (6°C), 180 (8°C), 150 (10°C) and 120 (12°C), minus 95, 71, 55, 44 days for incubation respectively, thus vary between 870-920] 895.0 °C * day Heming, 1982
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Emergence at 315 DD [3°C], 360 [6°C], 400 [10°C], 396 [12°C] at an average size of 35, range of 33.5-36.5 35.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Emergence time vary: 32.1 days [12.1°C], 51.1 [9.3°C], 53 [8.1°C], 87.8 [4.8°C], 90.3 [4.1°C] 32.1 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1987
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 50% emergence vary: 24.6 [14°C], 37.1 [11°C], 47.9 [8°C], 89.5 [5°C], 114 [2°C], Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 27.3 [14°C], 28.6 [11°C], 28.5 [8°C], 30.7 [5°C] and 29 [2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
Salmo salar 280-320 [80% water content, from fertilization at 320 at 4°C, at 325 at 6°C, at 288 at 8°C, at 280 at 10°C, at 240 at 12°C] 300.0 °C * day Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
Salmo salar Usually 39 to 53 days [Last from 30 to 65 days] 39.0 °C * day Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar 370 [Swim-up from fertilization: 800 degree-days, also from 387-765, from hatching 800 less 430] 576.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Salmo trutta fario 800 [For emergence from the substrates] 800.0 °C * day Ombredane, 2001
Salmo trutta fario 561 to 752 [Degree-days, life span after hatching, without external food] 561.0 °C * day Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
Salmo trutta fario 650 [52 days at 12.5°C] 650.0 °C * day Ojanguren, 1996
Salvelinus alpinus 200-320 [135 days at 1.3, 40-43 at 8°C] 260.0 °C * day Pavlov, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus [6 weeks after hatching at 8-13°C, fish were transfered to 70 l tanks to begin feeding] 10.5 °C * day Dumas, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus Stage 2 was when about two-thirds of the yolk has been used: 61 days (3°C), 44 (6°C), 35 (8°C) and 32 (12°C) and Stage 3 was yolk exhaustion, defined as the point at which less than 1.5% of the yolk remain: 101 days (3°C), 75 (6°C), 59 (8°C) and 48 (12°C) and in degree-days 320 (3°C), 400 (6°C), 450 (8°C) and 570 (12°C) 2.0 °C * day Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Salvelinus fontinalis 220 220.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis The feeding experiment was initiated 112 days after fertilization (5 weeks after hatching). Sampling started when all fry from a given group hadesorbed started exogenous feeding, with the yolk sac being fully or partially resorbed 112.0 °C * day Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
Stenodus leucichthys 115 [Around 11 days at 11.4°C, the last remnants of the yolk has disappeared and 23 days at 3.8°C] 115.0 °C * day Bogdanova, 1978
Stenodus leucichthys 130 [33 days at 4°C] 130.0 °C * day Sturn, 1994
Thymallus thymallus 130-150 [13-14 at 9.0-10.5°C] 140.0 °C * day Zaytsev, 1986
Thymallus thymallus About 130 130.0 °C * day Haugen and Vollestad, 2000
Thymallus thymallus Remain within the gravel during 120-150 DD until their yolk sac is almost fully resorbed 135.0 °C * day Bardonnet and Gaudin, 1990
Thymallus thymallus Complete absoprtion of the yolk sac did not occur until fish reached a size of about 22 mm 22.0 °C * day Scott, 1985
Thymallus thymallus On the 17-24 th after hatching, the yolk sac is completely resorbed and the larvae rely on exogeneous food only 20.5 °C * day Penaz, 1975
Thymallus thymallus La vésicule se résorba en 8 jours (degrés-jours de 90) et les alevins furent alimentés avant disparition de celle-ci 8.0 °C * day Vivier, 1958
Thymallus thymallus La durée moyenne de résorption est de 90 degré-jours 90.0 °C * day Carmie, 1985
Thymallus arcticus 60-70 [A post-hatching sub-gravel stage of 3 to 4 days'duration appears to be a normal feature of the life cycle of Arctic grayling in the Fond Lac River. The newly hatched fry possess large yolk sac wich are almost completely absorbed by the time they emerge. Also observed between 4-7 days at about 10°C] 65.0 °C * day Kratt and Smith, 1977
Thymallus arcticus About 100 [The young developed in the trays until most were free-swimming (24-29 days after fertilization) i.e. 10 days at 10°C] 26.5 °C * day Kaya, 1989
Cottus gobio The resorbtion of yolk requires 275 °D 275.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
Cottus gobio 275-330 302.5 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Cottus gobio 150 [10-15 at 10-12°C] 12.5 °C * day Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Cottus gobio About 4 weeks 4.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
Cottus gobio Large yolk-sac absorbed in 10 days 10.0 °C * day Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
Ictalurus punctatus 448 448.0 °C * day Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Ictalurus punctatus 5-16 days after hatching, young have exhausted the yolk 10.5 °C * day Grizzle, 1985
Ictalurus punctatus 5-10 days 7.5 °C * day Hecht, 1996
Silurus glanis A yolk sac was present during the first 5 days (1-5 DPH) 3.0 °C * day Kozaric, 2008
Osmerus eperlanus 120-140 [Live without feeding for 10-14 days at 10-12°C] 130.0 °C * day Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus In talking about larval development, we refer to the period from hatching of the embryo from egg shell to full resorption of the vitelline sac. As the age of the smelt is counted in relative duration untis, the larval period falls in the age interval between 200 and 340 ts. The duration of the larval development may be counted easily for each temperature regime using the following formula: log ts (t) = 3.22665 -0.13876t + 0.00297t² where t is the temperature. For example, value ts is equal to 116 min at 10.8°C, so the duration of the total larval development at the given regime is 116 (min) x 140 (ts) = 16240 min or 11 days and 7 hours 11.7 °C * day Mel'nikova and Gorodilov, 2006
Osmerus eperlanus The yolk sac is fully absorbed at a total length of 8 mm, 9 days after hatching at 17.7°C. Smelt larvae with functional mouth and remaining yolk sac are already capable of performing exogenous feeding. 8.0 °C * day Sepulveda, 1994