Larvae - Temperature during larval development



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Anguilla anguilla About 20 20.0 °C Deelder, 1970
Anguilla anguilla The smallest (probably just hatched) larvae were found at depths between 50 and 300 m with temperatures of 18-24°C respectively 21.0 °C Vincent, 2005
Alosa alosa 18-20 19.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Larvae hatched and were put in troughs, at a density c. 50 larvae l-1.Temperature varie between 18.3 and 18.6°C, dissolved oxygen between 8.4 and 7.6 mg.l-1, pH was constant at 7.6) 18.5 °C Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Alosa alosa Aerated water at 20 (± 1°C) 20.0 °C Bardonnet and Jatteau, 2008
Alosa fallax Preference for a temperatures in the range 17-21°C for larvae 7.7-15.2 mm, and from 17-21.5°C for larvae 18.4-23.8 in length 19.0 °C Maitland and Hatton-Ellis, 2000
Alosa sapidissima 15.5-26.5 [Optimum temperature] 21.0 °C Carscadden and Leggett, 1975
Alosa sapidissima 15.6 15.6 °C Wiggins, 1985
Alosa sapidissima 17-25 for juveniles 21.0 °C Mills, 2004
Alosa sapidissima Reared at about 20°C 20.0 °C Johnson and Dropkin, 1995
Alosa sapidissima Rearead at 17°C 17.0 °C Everly and Boreman, 1999
Alosa sapidissima The temperature was maintained at 20.0 ±1°C 20.0 °C Zydlewski and McCormick, 1997
Alosa sapidissima Required temperatures are in the range 15.5-26.1°C. Reared at 20°C 20.8 °C Leach and Houde, 1999
Alosa sapidissima The temperature of water during the egg incubation and larval development was 17-18°C 17.5 °C Laiz-Carrion, 2003
Cobitis taenia 16-24 [Optimum temperature] 20.0 °C Vaino and Saat, 2003
Cobitis taenia 21°C [Rearing condition] 21.0 °C Bohlen, 2000
Cobitis taenia Fry reared at 17.4°C 17.4 °C Rasotto, 1992
Cobitis taenia Reared at 20-24°C 22.0 °C Bohlen, 1999b
Blicca bjoerkna 16°C [Reared conditions] 16.0 °C Mooij, 1989
Abramis brama 16-25 20.5 °C Sidorova, 2005
Abramis brama 13.5-34.0 without abnormalities 23.75 °C Kucharczyk, 1998
Abramis brama 17-20 18.5 °C Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
Abramis brama 16°C [Reared conditions] 16.0 °C Mooij, 1989
Abramis brama 20 20.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Abramis brama Reared at 19.5-20.5 20.0 °C Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Abramis brama Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-31°C 26.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Abramis brama Water temperature of the lake varied from 17.1 to 21°C (19°C average) during the experimental period (in a lake) 17.1 °C Ziliukiene, 2005
Abramis brama Water temperature in nature 12-19°C for the first six days after hatching 15.5 °C Brylinska and Boron, 2004
Abramis brama In all aquaria constant temperatures of 20 ± 0.5°C 20.0 °C Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
Abramis brama Fastest growth of bream larvae (weight and length) was observed at a temperature of 27.9°C, the slowest growth was at 13.5°C. Fish reared at the highest temperature (34.0°C) grew much more slowly than those at 27.9°C, showing high weight and length variation. Lowest mortality was observed at 27.9°C, the highest was as 34°C. 27.9 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
Alburnoides bipunctatus Reared at two different temperatures: mean of 20 (range 19.6-21.2), mean of 18 (range of 16-19.8) 20.4 °C Penaz, 1976
Alburnus alburnus Incubation at 22.9°C 22.9 °C Baros, 1979
Alburnus alburnus 19-22 20.5 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Alburnus alburnus Reared at 20-25°C 22.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Alburnus alburnus Reared at 20-25°C 22.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Aristichthys nobilis 24.5 [Reared conditions] 24.5 °C Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
Aristichthys nobilis 22-26 24.0 °C Jennigs, 1988
Aristichthys nobilis 26-30°C [Reared conditions] 28.0 °C Santiago, 2003
Aristichthys nobilis Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
Aristichthys nobilis Reared at 25-33°C 29.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Aspius aspius Reared at 25-26°C 25.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Aspius aspius Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-28°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Aspius aspius The larvae were allowed to develop at 18-20°C 19.0 °C Ostaszewska, 2002
Aspius aspius Rearing temperature ranged from 14 and 18.7°C (mean 17.2°C) 14.0 °C Kujawa, 2007
Barbus barbus 17-24 20.5 °C Philippart, 1989
Barbus barbus 25 25.0 °C Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
Barbus barbus 19-20 19.5 °C Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Barbus barbus 17 ±2 17.0 °C Calta, 1998
Barbus barbus 23 23.0 °C Vandewalle, 1993
Barbus barbus Reared at 17.5 17.5 °C Krupka and Meszaros, 1993
Barbus barbus Reared at temperature between 20-21°C, close to natural conditions 20.5 °C Penaz, 1971
Barbus barbus Reared at 17-26 21.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Barbus barbus Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-28°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Barbus barbus Reared at 19°C 19.0 °C Krupta, 1988
Barbus barbus 21.5 ± 0.5°C 21.5 °C Hadi Alavi, 2009
Barbus barbus 21.0 ± 0.6 21.0 °C Policar, 2007
Carassius auratus Could tolerate 30 or more 30.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
Carassius auratus Compared with incubation at a constant 22°C, exposure of goldfish embryos and larvae to 13°C, under a variety of thermal protocols, caused increased frequencies of abnormal development and, in some cases, reduced survival to hatching. 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1989
Carassius auratus Reared at 21°C 21.0 °C Pozernik and Wiegand, 1997
Carassius auratus The optimum temperature for rearing eggs and larvae was 22°C [At 27°C and 17°C, there was a higher indidence of abnormal larvae at hatching and reduced viability compared to 22°C in some, but not all, experiments. Eggs incubated at 12°C produced inviable larvae. High proportions of 12°C larvae were abnormal at hatching and fish raised at 12°C failed to feed] 22.0 °C Wiegand, 1988
Carassius auratus Reared at 24°C 24.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Carassius auratus Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Battle, 1940
Carassius auratus A central heater-thermostat unit was set to maintain a temperature àf 24°C 24.0 °C Kaiser, 2003
Carassius auratus The experiments investigated the effects of temperature (20, 24 and 28°C) […] Although goldfish is considered as a thermophilic species, survival was lower at 28°C than at 20 and 24°C in Experiment 1, probably due to a decrease of water quality (caused by high feeding level, up to 90% in expeirment 1) and faster development of pathogens in the rearing tanks 20.0 °C Kestemont, 1995
Carassius carassius 20-25, maximum size obtained and highest yolk utilization efficiency [At 5°C, no increase but the larvae were deformed and all died after 8 days] 22.5 °C Laurila, 1987
Carassius carassius Reared at 22°C 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Carassius carassius Different stages of embryonic, larval and juvenile development were described from fish kept at 20°C in the laboratory 20.0 °C Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus 15-18 [Optimum for Yolk feeding larvae] and 19-22 [For early externally feeding larvae], and 22 [For late larvae and juveniles] 16.5 °C Heckeis, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus 9.0-22.7 [In natural conditions] 15.85 °C Prokes and Penaz, 1978
Chondrostoma nasus 15-18, optimal for rearing of hatched, yolk-feeding larvae 16.5 °C Kamler, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus Optimal temperature at 16°C 16.0 °C Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus 15-18 optimum for yolk feeding larvae and 19-25°C for exogeneous feeding larvae 16.5 °C Schiemer, 2003
Chondrostoma nasus Optimum temperature: 15-18°C for yolk-sac larvae prior to external deefind, 19°C for early steps, and 22°C for late largae 16.5 °C Kamler and Keckeis, 2000
Chondrostoma nasus Increase from 19.1 to 26°C [rearing conditions] 19.1 °C Spurny, 2004
Chondrostoma nasus Reared at temperature between 15-18, close to natural conditions 16.5 °C Penaz, 1971
Chondrostoma nasus Between 12.4 to 15.4°C 12.4 °C Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma nasus Reared at 19-25 22.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 16-28°C 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Chondrostoma nasus Larvae were reared at 18-20°C, until 21 days posthhatching 19.0 °C Sysa, 2006
Chondrostoma nasus Reared at 25 and 28 (range ± 0.5°C) 25.0 °C Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
Chondrostoma nasus The fish were placed in 20-L recirculation tanks at 20°C 20.0 °C Ostaszewka, 2005
Chondrostoma toxostoma 16-19 17.5 °C Gozlan, 1999
Ctenopharyngodon idella 24.5 [Reared conditions] 24.5 °C Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
Ctenopharyngodon idella During the grass carp experiments, water temperature averaged 27.7°C in the outdoor facilities and about 2°C lower in the indoor tanks [Also reared in other studies at 23-25°C, 21°C, 24°C and 28.1°C, final lethal temperature of 39.7°C] 24.0 °C Opuszynski, 1985
Ctenopharyngodon idella Water temperature at the time of capture ranged from 23 to 28°C 23.0 °C Brown and Coon, 1991
Ctenopharyngodon idella Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
Ctenopharyngodon idella Fry and fingerlings in India tolerated a temperature range of 16-40°C 28.0 °C Shireman and Smith, 1983
Ctenopharyngodon idella Reared at 23-36°C 29.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Ctenopharyngodon idella The experiment was performed at a temperature of 24°C 24.0 °C Szlamiska, 1987
Cyprinus carpio 20-24 [Propagation temperature] 22.0 °C Horvath, 1992
Cyprinus carpio Non lethal temperatures from 12.5-30, below 10 and above 32.5 all the eggs died 21.25 °C Geldhauser, 1995
Cyprinus carpio 24 [Rearing conditions] 24.0 °C Cahu, 1998
Cyprinus carpio 10-21°C 15.5 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Cyprinus carpio Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
Cyprinus carpio 20-24°C 22.0 °C Woynarovich, 1962
Cyprinus carpio The temperature was raised from 20°C (initial hathcing temperature) to 23°C (during the experiment) 20.0 °C Charlon and Bergot, 1984
Cyprinus carpio The larvae were reared at two temperatures, 20°C and 26°C, these being attained at a rate of 1°C per hour, starting from ambient hatchery temperature 20.0 °C Korwin-Kossakowski, 1988
Cyprinus carpio 28-29°C for carp koi 28.5 °C Van Damme, 1989
Cyprinus carpio The trial lasted 21 days following exogeneous feeding. Rearing temperatures was raised from 19.5°C at days 0 to 24°C at day 4 and kept at that temperature thereafter 21.0 °C Carvalho, 1997
Cyprinus carpio In the larval period of development an increase in water temperature within the range of optimal temperatures (18-26°C) leads to to alagging behind a growth rate comperaed to development rate 22.0 °C Penaz, 1983
Cyprinus carpio Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 20-30°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Cyprinus carpio Reared at about 26 (25-27°C) 26.0 °C Kamler, 1990
Cyprinus carpio Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Jezierska, 2006
Cyprinus carpio Reared at 23°C 23.0 °C Osse, 1986
Cyprinus carpio Reared at 21.5-22.5°C 22.0 °C Palikova, 2004
Cyprinus carpio The water temperature was kept constant at 21 ± 1°C 21.0 °C Schlechtreim, 2004
Cyprinus carpio The experiment was performed at a temperature of 24°C 24.0 °C Szlamiska, 1987
Cyprinus carpio Water temperature was gradually raised during 24 hours, from the initial temperature of 21.0°C to the final one of 33°C 24.0 °C Wozniewski, 1993
Cyprinus carpio Both strains of carp fry were fed brine shrimp until 10 days after hatching and fed commercial diet thereafter 10.0 °C Ito, 2007
Gobio gobio 20-25 [At 28 optimal growth but problem with anoxia and pathology] 22.5 °C Chemillier, 1995
Gobio gobio 18-20 19.0 °C Kennedy and Fitzmaurice, 1972
Gobio gobio Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 26-32, but 32°C is the optimum for growth and survival 29.0 °C Radenko and Alimov, 1991
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Reared at 26-30°C 28.0 °C Santiago, 2003
Leucaspius delineatus After hatching free-embryos and larvae in the aquarium were subsjected to temperatures ranging between 15.1 and 27.5°C, with mean daily temperatures ranging between 16.9 and 26°C (mean 21.6°C). 15.1 °C Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
Leucaspius delineatus Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Bonislawska, 1999
Leuciscus cephalus 17 ± 1 17.0 °C Calta, 2000
Leuciscus cephalus 18 18.0 °C Harzevili, 2003
Leuciscus cephalus Temperature was not regulated, range from 15.4-17.8°C 16.6 °C Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus cephalus Reared at 19-25 22.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus cephalus Reared at 19-25 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Leuciscus idus 19-20 19.5 °C Harzevili, 2004
Leuciscus idus Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Wolnicki and Gorny, 1995
Leuciscus idus Reared at 20-25 22.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Leuciscus idus Optimal temperature for larval development is about 17°C. Lethal temperatures are 23.7-29.1°C for ide larvae and juveniles. 26.4 °C Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus idus Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 19-25°C or 26-31°C 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Leuciscus idus Reared at 25, 28 and 31 25.0 °C Wolnicki, 1996
Leuciscus idus Can be realized at 24-26°C 25.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Leuciscus idus Water was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C 24.0 °C Hamackova, 2007
Leuciscus leuciscus 11-14, with a mean of 12 12.5 °C Kennedy, 1969
Leuciscus leuciscus About 15 15.0 °C Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Leuciscus leuciscus Between 20 and 25 April 1977 and 1978 the fry (<48 h old) were stocked into cages [Heavy mortalities in starved fry kept at 10°C ( a typical mean river water temperature in late April and May) 20.0 °C Mills, 1982
Leuciscus leuciscus Reared at 16-25 20.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus 15-16 15.5 °C Soin, 1982
Phoxinus phoxinus Reared at 20 20.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Phoxinus phoxinus Reared at 20 20.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Phoxinus phoxinus Either at 16 or 20°C 16.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
Pimephales promelas 25-26 [About 70-80°F [A.M] and 80-90°F [P.M.]] 25.5 °C Markus, 1934
Pseudorasbora parva 23-28 25.5 °C Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Pinder, 2005
Rhodeus sericeus 20 20.0 °C Aldridge, 1999
Rutilus rutilus 16°C [Reared conditions] 16.0 °C Mooij, 1989
Rutilus rutilus 20 20.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Rutilus rutilus Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 15-20°C 17.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Rutilus rutilus Reared from 12 to 15°C, 18 and 23°C 12.0 °C Horoszewicz, 1971
Rutilus rutilus During the roach tests (16-25 June) the water temperature was 15 ± 0.3°C (mean ± SE of daily measurements, range 13.5-15.7°C, increasing during the tests) 15.0 °C Keinänen, 2000
Rutilus rutilus The water temperature was was recorded hourly and controlled at 18°C and 20°C during embryogenesis and breeding, respectively 18.0 °C Nzau Matondo, 2007
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 15 15.0 °C Breteler, 1979
Scardinius erythrophthalmus 21 ±2 21.0 °C Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
Tinca tinca Normal conditions are about 22 22.0 °C Geldhauser, 1995
Tinca tinca 22 22.0 °C Kamler, 1995
Tinca tinca 20.1-24.9 is the optimum [Survival was strongly decrease to 16 and 14°C] 22.5 °C Hamackova, 1995
Tinca tinca The lower limit of the tolerated temperature for growth is c. 18-19°C, the orpimal temperature range for length growth is 22-26°C, and probably even higher for the growth of body weight 18.5 °C Penaz, 1989
Tinca tinca Reared at about 20°C 20.0 °C Penaz, 1982
Tinca tinca Reared at 28 and 31°C 28.0 °C Wolnicki and KorwinKossakowski, 1993
Tinca tinca Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-27°C 24.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Tinca tinca Total duration of endogenous feeding period (from egg activation to the beginning of external feeding) is 10 days at a mean temperature of 20.2, that is 202 D°. Development within an egg takes 62°D, i.e. a shorter part of endogenous feeding period. During remaining 140°C larva is fixed to submerged plants 10.0 °C Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Tinca tinca Water temperature during sotcking was 22°C, then gradually increased immediatly after stocking, reaching 28°C within 48 h 22.0 °C Wolnicki,2003
Tinca tinca Water temperature was maintained at 22.5 ± 1°C 22.5 °C Celada, 2007
Tinca tinca Water temperature was maintained at 24 ± 0.5°C 24.0 °C Celada, 2008
Vimba vimba Vimba larvae were raised at a constant temperature of 25 ± 0/5°C 25.0 °C Hliwa, 2003
Vimba vimba Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
Vimba vimba Tested temperature 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31°C 19.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
Vimba vimba The average temperature was 24.0 ± 0.5°C, pH 8.6 ± 0.2, and dissolved oxygen 7.9 ± 0.3 mg.l-1. 24.0 °C Ostaszewska, 2008
Vimba vimba Water temperature was established to 23 ± 1°C and was monitered continously in 1-hour interval 23.0 °C Hamackova, 2009
Esox masquinongy 14-18 [Optimum incubation temperature of 58-65°F] 16.0 °C Wynne, 2006
Esox masquinongy Larvae were reared at 13-15°C before transfer into ponds 14.0 °C Rinchard, 2002
Esox masquinongy 20 ± 1 20.0 °C Anonymou,s 1982
Esox lucius 3 [larvae did not survive if left at 3°C], better at 10-20°C 15.0 °C Hassler, 1982
Esox lucius 12 12.0 °C Balvay, 1983
Esox lucius 26°C for maximum larval growth 26.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Esox lucius Reared at 12.5°C 12.5 °C Wurtz, 1944
Esox lucius Reared at 12°C 12.0 °C Giles, 1986
Esox lucius Reared at 12°C 12.0 °C Engström-Öst, 2005
Esox lucius During the pike tests (28 May-12 June) the water temperature was 11.2 ± 0.7°C (mean ± SE of daily measurements, range 8.6-13.6°C, increasing during the tests) 11.2 °C Keinänen, 2000
Esox lucius 12 12.0 °C Engström-öst and Lehtiniemi, 2004
Esox lucius The water temperature of the lake varied from 14.4 to 17.8°C (15.7°C on average) during the experimental period 14.4 °C Ziliukiene and Ziliukas, 2006
Lota lota Water temperature was constant during rearing No data Harzevili, 2003
Lota lota Range from 10-11°C for the apperance of erythrocytes to 13°C for the onset of active swimming, and 15-16°C for the beginning of feeding 10.5 °C Kujawa, 2002
Lota lota Five constant temperatures of 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24°C (range ± 0.5°C), all in duplicate, were employed in the experiment. The fastest larval growth, either in terms of total length or body weight, was recorded for the temperature of 21°C, whereas at 12°C the larvae grew the slowest. A final survival rate of at least 90% was observed for the burbot reared at 12 and 15°C, this figure was significantly higher than at the other water temperatures. The fish reared at 12°C had the second highest survival rate at 72%. 12.0 °C Wolnicki, 2002
Lota lota Food intake by burbot larvae begins when water temperature is above 8°C. […] larvae could tolerate up to a temperature of 20°C. The temperature of spring water was 12 ± 1°C upon release of the larvae but gradually adjusted to 16 and 20°C. […] High survival of burbot larvae at a higher temperature in the first 10 days of the experiment suggests that embryos (incubation temperature before the hatching was 4 ± 1°C) and larvae differ in their physiological tolerances. [...] It seems that the most appropriate temperature for successful burbot larvae culture is ranged between 12 and 16°C, and represents a trade-off between faster growth with higher mortalities at higher temepratures and slow growth, but higher survival at lower temperatures. 12.0 °C Harzevili, 2004
Gasterosteus aculeatus Here the embryos were kept until the yolk was completely used up. During the whole of this time the temperature remained between 18° and 19°C. Under this conditions the embryos take 6-8 days to hatch, and about 4 more days to complete absorption of yolk. 7.0 °C Swarup, 1958
Pungitius pungitius 15 15.0 °C Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002
Micropterus dolomieui Optimal growth at 25-29°C 27.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus dolomieui Reared at 20 and 25°C 20.0 °C Siefert, 1974
Micropterus dolomieui Reared at 21°C 21.0 °C Meyer, 1970
Micropterus dolomieui 17.2-19.5 observed temperature in natural conditions 18.35 °C Turner and MacCrimmon, 1970
Micropterus salmoides 20°C 20.0 °C Heidinger, 1976
Micropterus salmoides The polled mean TL50 (=temperature at which percent viable hatch is 50%) were about 32°C 32.0 °C McCormick and Wegner, 1981
Micropterus salmoides The first month of growth is optimal at 25°C to 29°C 25.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Micropterus salmoides Reared at 21°C 21.0 °C Meyer, 1970
Micropterus salmoides Reared between 22 and 25°C [In other studies, trained frt more successfully at 27°C than at 22 or 25°C] 22.0 °C Willis and Flikinger, 1981
Micropterus salmoides Reared at 20 and 23°C 20.0 °C Carlson and Siebert, 1974
Micropterus salmoides Reared at 72°F, i.e. 22.5°C 22.5 °C Tebo and McCoy, 1964
Micropterus salmoides Water temperature was maintained at 21°C 21.0 °C Roncarati, 2005
Dicentrarchus labrax 16.5 16.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
Dicentrarchus labrax For the first 20 days of larval culture the water temperature was maintained at 16-18°C. Thereafter the temperature was increased at 19°C 17.0 °C Katavic, 1989
Dicentrarchus labrax 17.7-18.9°C [Rearing conditions] 18.3 °C Barahona-Fernandes, 1977
Dicentrarchus labrax 19 [Rearing conditions] 19.0 °C Cahu, 1998
Dicentrarchus labrax From 16 to 23°C [For larval rearing] and 23°C ±2 [For post-larval rearing] 16.0 °C Hatziathanasiou, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax 16.5°C 16.5 °C Secor, 2002
Dicentrarchus labrax Reared at 19 ±1°C 19.0 °C Barahona-Fernandes, 1979
Dicentrarchus labrax 15 ± 0.5°C 15.0 °C Cerda, 1994
Dicentrarchus labrax The percentage of anomalies observed in individuals reared at high temperature (19 for incubation/ and 19°C for cultivation) was 66.44% 19.0 °C Abdel, 2004
Dicentrarchus labrax Reared at 15, 18 and 21°C 15.0 °C Johnson and Katavic, 1986
Dicentrarchus labrax The water temperature in the tank ranged from 18.7 to 19.3°C 18.7 °C Barahona-Fernandes and Girin, 1976
Dicentrarchus labrax Rearing temperature vary between 15-20, mostly at 18-19°C 17.5 °C Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana 26.9-30.3 [Temperature range corresponding to 90% of maximum growth] 28.6 °C Kellog and Gift, 1983
Morone chrysops 30-32 °C is lethal for larvae 31.0 °C Internet, 2005
Morone chrysops 17.8 17.8 °C Kohler, 1997
Morone saxatilis 26.5-30.3 [Temperature range corresponding to 90% of mawimum growth] 28.4 °C Kellog and Gift, 1983
Morone saxatilis 16-17 is around the optimal for larval development and survival 16.5 °C Sullivan, 1997
Morone saxatilis Larvae can tolerate temperatures of 12-23°C, but 18-21 is optimum |Lower limit is 12 and upper limit is 28.9°C] 17.5 °C Rue, 2001
Morone saxatilis 18°C 18.0 °C Secor, 2002
Morone saxatilis Reared at 15, 18, 21 and 24°C 15.0 °C Rogers and Westin, 1981
Morone saxatilis Rapid drops in temperature to below 12°C ar elethal to striped bass eggs and larvae 12.0 °C Rutherford and Houde, 1994
Morone saxatilis Temperatures were maintained at 18°C 18.0 °C Eldridge, 1982
Morone saxatilis The water temperature increased from 15.7 to 18.7°C during the 2-week experiment 15.7 °C Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
Morone saxatilis Rearing temperature was 17°C to 5 dph, 19°C from 6 to 10 dph and 20°C from 10 dph onwards 17.0 °C Macintosh and Duston, 2007
Gymnocephalus cernuus 25-30 optimal temperature for larval growth, larval survival is poor below 10°C [Possibly between 7.0°C to 24.8°C] 27.5 °C Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus 25-30 optimal temperature for larval growth 27.5 °C Craig, 2000
Gymnocephalus cernuus At water temperature ranging from 16.2 to 23.2°C (mean 19.4°C), the larval period lasted 20 days 16.2 °C Kovac, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Larvae were captured at Allouez Bay from 30 May to 10 July, with peak catch the week of 13 June, corresponds to a temperature of 12-17°C on the graph. Larvae were captured at whaleback from 23 May to 3 June with a peak catch the week of 30 May, which corresponds to 12-16°c on the graph 14.5 °C Brown, 1998
Perca flavescens Optimum is 20-23°C but can tolerate a range of 2.8-27.8°C for hatch to swim-up and optimum of 20-23.9 and tolerance range of 10-30 for feeding larvae 21.5 °C Heidinger and Kayes, 1986
Perca flavescens 20-23.9 is the optimum [Can tolerate 2.8-27.8] 21.95 °C Goubier, 1990
Perca flavescens In general, water temperatures varied between 10 and 22°C and it is suspected that this range prevails in the shallow waters of the natural spawning grounds. In other studies, specimens were raised under hatchery conditions around 20°C 10.0 °C Mansueti, 1964
Perca flavescens Larvae were maintained in the lab in a 2.4 m diameter tank at 15-18°C under flow-through conditions 16.5 °C Fulford, 2006
Perca flavescens Peak larval yellow perch densities generally occurred during late May or early June when surface temperatures were 12-19°C 15.5 °C Isermann and Willis, 2008
Perca fluviatilis 16-18 and increasing temperature [Tolerate 3-28] 17.0 °C Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Best survival and growth at 20 20.0 °C Wang and Eckmann, 1994
Perca fluviatilis About 20 20.0 °C Kestemont, 1996
Perca fluviatilis 17-20°C 18.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Temperatures interval 26-29.5°C are lethal under certain conditions 27.75 °C Brabrand, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Direct mortality of perch larvae occurs if the temperature drops below 10-12°C 11.0 °C Urho, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Water temperature was maintained between 19.7°C and 21.6°C (mean: 20.2°C) 19.7 °C Tamazouzt, 2000
Sander lucioperca Temperatures lower than 10°C are lethal to the larvae 10.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander lucioperca Optimum temperatures are in the range of 16-20°C. Growth is rather poor at 16-18°C and best between 26-30°C 18.0 °C Hilge and Steffens, 1996
Sander lucioperca 14-23 optimum T 18.5 °C Craig, 2000
Sander lucioperca 22-26 24.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander lucioperca 13.1 13.1 °C Fishbase, 2006
Sander lucioperca The optimal temperature for larval growth is 24-29°C, but in the Baltic sea such temperatures are seldom reached and the development occurs usually between 15-25°C. However, it was also suggested that larvae with the best coefficient favour temperatures between 12-16°C 26.5 °C Lehtonen, 1996
Sander lucioperca Reared at 14°C 14.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
Sander lucioperca The larvae were reared at constant water temperature of 20°C, until the 30th post hatching 20.0 °C Ostasweska, 2005
Sander vitreus 15-21 is the optimum 18.0 °C Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus First 9-15 then 21°C 12.0 °C Krise and Meade, 1986
Sander vitreus 14-23 optimum T 18.5 °C Craig, 2000
Sander vitreus 18-20 19.0 °C Li and Mathias, 1982
Sander vitreus 17-20°C 18.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander vitreus 23°C optimal for fingerling growth 23.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus Reared at 15, 18.5 and 22°C 15.0 °C Johnston and Mathias, 1994
Sander vitreus Feed acceptance and survival is greater at 18.4°C than at 12.8°C, and an ideal temperature range is 15.6-18.4, with 18.4°C as optimum/ 17.0 °C Summerfelt, 1996
Sander vitreus The optimum ranges for fry survival are 15-21°C 18.0 °C Koenst and Smith, 1976
Sander vitreus Temperature ranged from 19 to 25 during the experiment 19.0 °C Moodie, 1989
Coregonus lavaretus 12-18 [Most suitable for growth and survival] 15.0 °C Rösch, 1995
Coregonus lavaretus 9-12 [Better results at 13°C] 10.5 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1991
Coregonus lavaretus 10-16 13.0 °C Beltran and Champigneulle, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Starts at 10 to 15 10.0 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
Coregonus lavaretus 7-13.5 10.25 °C Davis and Todd, 1998
Coregonus lavaretus 16 16.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Aquarium heaters maintained the temperatures at 11 ± 1 and 14 ± 1°C 11.0 °C Rösch and Appelbaum, 1985
Coregonus lavaretus After hatching, when 50% of the fish has started to feed on exogeneous food, they were acclimated to 15°C 15.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
Coregonus lavaretus 10°C 10.0 °C Champigneulle, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus Water temperature was held at 12 ± 0.5°C 12.0 °C Segner, 1988
Coregonus lavaretus Reared at 10°C 10.0 °C Rojas Beltran, Champigneulle, Gillet and Le Rouilly, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus For 5 days old, preferred temperature of 14-16°C and a lethal of 28.6°C, for 15 days old, a preferred temperature of 15-17°C and a lethal one of 29.5°C 15.0 °C Jezierska, 1979
Coregonus lavaretus Water was obtained from a spring, and the temperature was 10.5 +/- 0.5°C 10.5 °C Rojas Beltran, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus The optimum temperature for growth was between 19.3 and 20.6°C depending on the calculation method and the parameters measured, the rate of net biomass gain reaching its maximum at a temperature of about 19.3°C 19.3 °C Koskela and Eskelinen, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Reared in spring water 10.5 +/- 0.5°C 10.5 °C Rojas Beltran, 1992b
Coregonus lavaretus Mean temperature in the different growth periods ranged from 4.6 to 19.8°C 4.6 °C Koskela, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus The tanks were provided with aerated tap water (12 +/-0.5°C) 12.0 °C Rösch, 1992
Coregonus lavaretus Water in in the tanks was changed continuously with pre-conditioned tap water at 12 +/- 1°C 12.0 °C Schlechtriem, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus Water temperature was measured in every aquarium once a day and remained similar in the different treatments 13.1 +/- 0.9°C 13.1 °C Ylönen and Karjalainen, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus La température de l'eau, au cours de la vie précoce des corégones, excède rarement 15°C, et la plupart des auteurs ont experimenté à une température de l'eau ressemblant à celle des lacs, c'est-à-dire 10°C 15.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
Coregonus albula 15-20 [Most suitable for growth and survival] 17.5 °C Rösch, 1995
Coregonus albula 15-20 17.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Coregonus albula 15 15.0 °C Karjalainen and Viljanen, 1992
Coregonus albula 9.5-10.5 10.0 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
Coregonus albula After hatching, when 50% of the fish has started to feed on exogeneous food, they were acclimated to 15°C 15.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
Coregonus albula Different rearing temperature: 4.5, 6.0, 8.6, 10.4, 13.5, 15.9 and 19.0°C 4.5 °C Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula Water temperatures from 15 to 20°C are recommended as the most suitable for sustained production of larval vendace. Temperatures higher than 22°C will caused increased mortality, whereas temperatures lower than 15°C, although advisable when food is limited, will retard larval growth and development 15.0 °C Luczynski, 1991
Coregonus albula Reared at 10°C 10.0 °C Jezierska, 1979
Coregonus clupeaformis 11-15 [Most suitable for growth and survival] 13.0 °C Rösch, 1995
Coregonus clupeaformis 6.0-8.0 [During the initiation of feeding], then 14-15°C [Fourth to fifth week of rearing] 7.0 °C Harris and Huslman, 2001
Coregonus clupeaformis Larvae most abundant in water of 4°C 4.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Coregonus clupeaformis 10°C 10.0 °C Witokowski and Kokurewicz, 1981
Coregonus clupeaformis Immediatly prior to egg hatching 100 eggs groupings were counted and placed in a series of 20 l aerated aquaria cooled to 12°C 12.0 °C Taylor and Freeberg, 1984
Coregonus clupeaformis Trial 1: Rearing temperatures ranged from 11.0 to 13.5°C from days 1 to 20 and from 13.5 to 14.5°C from days 20 to 50. Trial 2: rearing temperatures ranged from 7.2 to 12.2°C from days 1 to 36 and from 12.2 to 17.2°C from days 36 to 50 1.0 °C Zitzow and Millard, 1988
Coregonus clupeaformis Reared at 6.9 ± 0.6°C 6.9 °C Brown and Taylor, 1992
Hucho hucho 16-18°C optimum for growth and mortality 17.0 °C Jungwirth, 1989
Hucho hucho The maximum temperature for the alevin is 12°C 12.0 °C Prawochensky and Kolder, 1968
Hucho hucho Incubated at 15°C 15.0 °C Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 8-12°C 10.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1986
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Once hatching was complete, the temperature in the incubator was increased 0.5°C every 2 days until a target of 13.5°C was reached, and then the alevins were maintained at this temperature until 50% had the yolk sac completely covered wtih chromatophores 0.5 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Reared at 11 ±1°C 11.0 °C Macquarrie, 1979
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The mean preferred temperature of pink salmon fry was 10.3°C [The youngest sea-run fry (newly emerged) generally selected temperatures of 11.7-12.8°C in a vertical gradient, whereas older fry (up to 10 wk) were found in temperatures of 9.4-10.6°C] 12.25 °C Kwain, 1982
Oncorhynchus keta Chum salmon fry prefer tempratures of 12 to 14°C and avoid temperatures above 15°C 12.0 °C Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus keta As with the embryo, the highest alevin survival rates were recorded at an incubation temperature of 8°C, while the lowest were recorded at 2°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
Oncorhynchus keta Reared at 3°C to 12°C 3.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus keta Emergence vary between Mid-february to Mid-April for groudnwaters incubation, 60 days at 3-4°C, and for subsurface waters from 30-40 days at 2-6°C 3.5 °C Leman, 1993
Oncorhynchus keta Reared at 5-14°C 9.5 °C Murray and McPhail, 1988
Oncorhynchus kisutch Conversion of yolk to tissue was maximized at 4°C and for another at 4.7-6.5°C, their study between 4 and 8°C 5.6 °C Murray, 1990
Oncorhynchus mykiss Preferred temperature is about 13°C, the upper lethal temperature about 24°C 13.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus mykiss 4° to <13°C [optimal 7-10°C] in nursery streams, 14.7° preferred by fingerling trout 8.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss It is relevant to note that a temperature of at least 7-8°C is reported as being necessary for initial feeding of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout 7.5 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Oncorhynchus mykiss The alevins were reared in a cold dark roomat 11-12°C 11.5 °C Stasiunaite, 2003
Oncorhynchus nerka 6-10 in natural condition 8.0 °C Hendry, 1998
Oncorhynchus nerka 15 15.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Alevins can tolerate decreases of temeprature from 10 to 0°C [The upper temperature tolerance limit for egg and larvae is somewhere between 12 and 15°C] 10.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Mortality was significantly higher among eggs, fry, and fingerlings of chinhook salmon as temperatures exceeded 60°F, i.e. 15.5°C 15.5 °C Allbaugh and Manz, 1964
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Water temperature during the feeding studies averaged 6 to 12 °C 6.0 °C Heming, 1982
Salmo salar 8-10°C 9.0 °C Gunnes, 1979
Salmo salar Could tolerate temperatures up to 22°C 22.0 °C Ojanguren, 1999
Salmo salar Reared between 2 and 12°C 2.0 °C Perterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1995
Salmo salar Reared at 6.8 ± 0.3°C 6.8 °C Wallace, 1988
Salmo salar It is relevant to note that a temperature of at least 7-8°C is reported as being necessary for initial feeding of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout 7.5 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Salmo salar Swiim-up fry from eggs and alevins incubated at 10°C grew much better at all test temperatures than did those from eggs and alevins incubated at 4°C 10.0 °C Peterson and Martin-Robichaud, 1989
Salmo salar The water at peak intial feeding waried from 8°C in the river Stryneelva to 13°C in the rivers Drammenselva and Imsa. In the other rivers the temperature at peak initial feeding was 9-12°C 10.5 °C Jensen, 1991
Salmo salar Reared at 3 different temperatures: 6.3 ± 0.5, 10.3 ± 0.2 and 12.2 ± 0.2°C 6.3 °C Brännäs, 1988
Salmo salar For the heated-water groups, temperatures during egg incubation and yolk-sac resoprtion averaged 7.9 and 8.3°C, respectively, compared with 4.3 and 5.3°C in the ambient-temperature reared groups over the equivalent periods 7.9 °C Johnston and McLay, 1997
Salmo salar The mean daily temperatures of the Nivelle and spawning channel varied between 3.3°C shortly before hatching at the end of January and 12.7°C during emergence in mid-March 3.3 °C Dumas and Marty, 2006
Salmo trutta fario 7 7.0 °C Vollestad and Lillehammer, 2000
Salmo trutta fario Survival between hatching and the end of the embryonic development was >80% in the range between 6 and 12°C and decreased sharply, to < 50% at 14 and 4°C 9.0 °C Ojanguren and Brana, 2003
Salmo trutta fario Reared at 12.5 ±1.0°C 12.5 °C Ojanguren, 1996
Salmo trutta fario 13 13.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
Salmo trutta fario Temperature fluctuated between 7.6 and 8.9°C with a mean of 8.5°C 7.6 °C Hansen, 1985
Salmo trutta fario Mean water temperature in the hatchery was 8.9 ± 3.6°C during the period from hatching until the death of the last specimens 8.9 °C Randak, 2006
Salvelinus alpinus 5-8 [Optimal temperature], 12 [almost lethal temperature] 6.5 °C Guillard, 1992
Salvelinus alpinus 4-9 are most favorable for larvae to transfer to mixed feeding 6.5 °C Pavlov, 1994
Salvelinus alpinus Reared at 8-13 then 10-15°C for feeding 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus Reared at 6.8 ± 0.3°C 6.8 °C Wallace, 1988
Salvelinus alpinus The temperature was increased to 6°C at the first feeding 6.0 °C Johsson and Svavarsson, 2000
Salvelinus alpinus After swim-up, juveniles were reared at 9°C (warmed from 6°C over 1 day) 9.0 °C De March, 1995
Salvelinus alpinus Reared at 2 and 6°C, and also at 8°C 2.0 °C Aasjord and Wallace, 1987
Salvelinus alpinus The experimental temperatures chosen were 3, 6, 8 and 12°C 3.0 °C Wallace and Aasjord, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus Rearing temperature was 6.4 ± 0.1°C 6.4 °C Papst and Hopky, 1984
Salvelinus alpinus Reared at 2°C 2.0 °C Laurila, 1998
Salvelinus alpinus The mean rearing temperature over the course of the study was 4.9 (range 4.4-5.1°C) 4.75 °C Valdimarsson, 2002
Salvelinus alpinus Eggs were incubated in darkness and at 4.5°C until 100% hatching. The water temperature was then gradually raised to 8°C (0.5°C per day) until first feeding 4.5 °C Atse, 2002
Salvelinus alpinus The temperature was gradually raised to optimal rearing levels (9-10°C) 9.5 °C Lemieux, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis The groundwater temperature remained within the range 3.0-7.2°C, and during emergence within the range 4.0-6.0 5.1 °C Snucins, 1992
Salvelinus fontinalis 2.5-9.5 [Ambient natural temperature], 4.3-6.0 [Interstitial natural temperature] 6.0 °C Curry, 1991
Salvelinus fontinalis 12.7 ± 1.8 [Emergence period] 12.7 °C Bernier-Bourgault and Magnan, 2002
Salvelinus fontinalis 12.4-15.4°C optimal for fry growth [17.5°C preferred by large fingerlings, 25.3°C upper incipient lethal for yearlings] 13.9 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus fontinalis Reared at 8-13 then 10-15°C for feeding 10.5 °C Dumas, 1995
Salvelinus fontinalis After 100% hatching occurred, water temperature was gradually increased to 8°C 8.0 °C Roche-Mayzaud, 1998
Salvelinus namaycush 10.8°C preferred by fingerlings [11.7°C preferred for yearlings] 10.8 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salvelinus namaycush Reared at 4.9 ± 0.1°C 4.9 °C Gunn and Noakes, 1987
Stenodus leucichthys 1.2-10.6 5.9 °C Belyaeva, 2005
Stenodus leucichthys Two tests: 2.2-6 and 8.8-13.8 4.1 °C Bogdanova, 1978
Stenodus leucichthys From 4 to 14 4.0 °C Sturn, 1994
Thymallus thymallus 9.0-10.5°C 9.75 °C Zaytsev, 1986
Thymallus thymallus Water observed at emergence ranged from 11.6 to 14.5°C 11.6 °C Sempeski and Gaudin, 1995b
Thymallus thymallus 12-18 [Between 12-18 the larvae spend 5 to 10 days in the gravel] 15.0 °C Northcote, 1993
Thymallus thymallus Reared at 10.4°C 10.4 °C Bardonnet and Gaudin, 1990
Thymallus thymallus Over the study, water temperature ranged between 8.0°C and 14°C, and averaged 11.1°C 8.0 °C Scott, 1985
Thymallus arcticus Rearing temperature, controlled by mixing cold and warm sprinwater, was increased to 10.0 ± 1.0°C after hatching was completed 10.0 °C Kaya, 1989
Cottus gobio 10-12 11.0 °C Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
Ictalurus punctatus 27-28 27.5 °C Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Ictalurus punctatus Water temperatures of 30°C or higher can adversely affect egg development and fry survival 30.0 °C Legendre, 1997
Ictalurus punctatus For most Siluroidei species it would appear that a temperature range between 26 and 30°C is optimal for larval and early juvenile rearing 26.0 °C Hecht, 1996
Ictalurus punctatus The average temperature during the experiment was 21.6 ± 1.0°C 21.6 °C El-Saidy, 2000
Ictalurus punctatus Ranges for water temperatures during trial 1 were: 23-32°C 27.5 °C Weirich, 2001
Silurus glanis 22-26 24.0 °C Horvath, 1977
Silurus glanis 25-30 27.5 °C Wolnicki, 1998
Silurus glanis 26-28 27.0 °C Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
Silurus glanis 22-25 for the first 2-3 days, 25-28 for the other 2-3 days 23.5 °C Linhart, 2002
Silurus glanis Both systems were supplied with the same treated wter from a water-pipe network with temperature ranging from 23 to 26°C 23.0 °C Brzuska and Adamek, 1999
Osmerus eperlanus The observation of larval develoment was held at the five following regimes at constant temperature: 9.5, 10.8, 12.0, 13.8 and 18.3°C 9.5 °C Mel'nikova and Gorodilov, 2006