Larvae - Reaction to light



Species Primary Data Secondary Data References
Alosa alosa Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Alosa alosa Previous experiments carried out on hatching larvae (from day 1 to day 3) showed that allis shad larvae photoreponse was positive at hatching. It is however, unknown as to whether this response changes with ontogenesis. […] Allis shad larvae exbited a positive photoresponse from hatching until one month old (total length = 20 mm). This behavior is not in agreement with first field observations which found larvae hidden in the substratum. Photopositive Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Alosa alosa Positive phototropism Photopositive Esteves and Andrade, 2008
Alosa fallax Photophobic Photophobic Taverny, 2000
Alosa sapidissima The incidence of feeding was higher for larvae reared in continuous light Photopositive Wiggins, 1985
Cobitis taenia After eye pigmentation, larvae became negatively phototactic. With the beginning of exogeneous feeding, phototaxis changed into a positive reaction. Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Blicca bjoerkna Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Abramis brama Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Abramis brama "At a size of 5.1 to 6.2 mm, the embryos remained passive and typical ""hanging up"" by means of sticky glands of walls and submerged objects reached its maximum in this step. From time to time, the embryos wriggled up to the surface and thereafter slowly sank in a passive way. They were indifferent to light and did not seek shade or cover" Photopositive Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
Alburnoides bipunctatus Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Alburnus alburnus Initially photophobic, then go to the surface at 6-6.5 mm Photophobic Carrell and Olivier, 2001
Alburnus alburnus Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Alburnus alburnus The larvae react to light Photopositive Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
Alburnus alburnus Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Agence de l'eau,
Aspius aspius Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Aspius aspius The photoperiod was 18 h light and 6 h dark Photopositive Kujawa, 2007
Barbus barbus Post-emerging fry are photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Barbus barbus Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Barbus barbus The behaviour of the embryos and their response to light changes agasint the preceding, i.e. hatched, developmental stage. Their response to light is negative, the mebryos gathering in the darkest places of the aquarium, if the latter was provided with a simple shelter, the embryos gathered in this space. Towards the end of this stage, the movement activity of the mebryos increases. They rise to the water surface by rapid and intensive movements and then slowly sink passively dow to the bottom of the tank where they rest motionless, lying one one side. Photopositive Penaz, 1973
Carassius auratus Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Carassius carassius Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Carassius carassius Positive phototaxis Photopositive Laurila and Holopainen, 1990
Chondrostoma nasus Newly hatched larvae are strongly photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Chondrostoma nasus Early photophobia Photopositive Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma nasus Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Chondrostoma nasus Their photophobia and thigmoplilia are most marked during this stage. The embryos tend to congregate under scarcity of shelters Photopositive Penaz, 1974
Chondrostoma toxostoma The free-embryos developed early photophobia and tended to congregate Photopositive Gozlan, 1999
Chondrostoma toxostoma Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Cyprinus carpio Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Cyprinus carpio The basins were illuminated 24 hours Photopositive Wozniewski, 1993
Gobio gobio Benthic larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Clearly displayed a positive phototaxis Photopositive Radenko and Alimov, 1991
Leuciscus cephalus Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Leuciscus cephalus Not respondind to light Photopositive Penaz, 1968
Leuciscus idus Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Leuciscus idus Larve are not photophobic Photopositive Witkowski, 1997
Leuciscus leuciscus Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Leuciscus leuciscus Slight preference for the mostly bright side of the aquarium Photopositive Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
Phoxinus phoxinus Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Phoxinus phoxinus The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Phoxinus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Phoxinus phoxinus Like the larvae of most lithophilous species, the prolarvae of the minnow have a negative reaction to light which becomes increasingly noticeable as the amount of pigment in the eyes increase [The hatched embryos are photophobic described in other studies] Photophobic Soin, 1982
Pseudorasbora parva Their reaction to light is positive Photopositive Makeyeva and Mokamed, 1982
Rhodeus sericeus Negatively phototaxic Photophobic Smith, 2004
Rhodeus sericeus Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Rutilus rutilus Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Tinca tinca Sensible to light Photopositive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Tinca tinca In the first stage - from 12 h to 3 days - larave that attained 4 mm were photophilous, non motile lying at the bottom or hanged on the aquarium wall Photopositive San Juan, 1995
Tinca tinca Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Tinca tinca Newly hatched embryos are photophilous Photopositive Penaz, 1981
Tinca tinca Newly hatched embryos are photopositive Photopositive Kubu and Kouril, 1985
Vimba vimba Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Esox lucius No photophobic reaction Photopositive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Esox lucius Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
Esox lucius One-week-old freely swimming larvae are positively phototactic and often swim very near the surface, and they may thus become severely exposed to UV-B radiation Photopositive Vehniäinen, 2007
Lota lota Survival data reveal that burbot larvae survive better under light condition compared with dark. […] a positive reaction to light by burbot larvae would be replaced by a negative phototactic at the later stage of development. Photopositive Harzevili, 2004
Micropterus salmoides During daylight, fry remain about 0.6 m from the bottom in water from 3.0 to 3.4 m deep. During the night the brood becomes more closely packed and seeks out cover in vegetated areas in water 0.6 to 0.9 m deep Photophobic Kerr and Grant, 1999
Dicentrarchus labrax It is well known that marine fish larvae are positively phototropic and that feeding is greatly facilitated by a high light intensity Photopositive Barahona-Fernandes, 1979
Dicentrarchus labrax Positively phototropic Photopositive Barnabé, 1980
Morone americana Exhibit positive phototaxis upon hatching in the laboratory Photopositive North and Houde, 2001
Morone saxatilis Light sensitive and become stressed in bright sunlight Photopositive Harrell, 1997
Morone saxatilis Exhibit positive phototaxis upon hatching in the laboratory Photopositive North and Houde, 2001
Morone saxatilis Photopositive fish larvae of walleye (Sander vitreus) and striped bass are attracted to the sides of the tanks (mirror effect) in light-rearing conditions, which negatively affects prey consumption Photopositive Jentoft, 2006
Gymnocephalus cernuus Positively phototactic, little or no pelagic stage Photopositive Ogle, 1998
Gymnocephalus cernuus Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Perca flavescens Yellow perch are strongly attracted to light before they reach 50 mm Photopositive Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Positively phototactic Photopositive Craig, 2000
Perca fluviatilis Attracted by light Photopositive Dubois, 2001
Perca fluviatilis Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
Perca fluviatilis Perch larvae are found to be photopositive Photopositive Jentoft, 2006
Sander lucioperca Phototropic Photopositive Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
Sander lucioperca Positively phototactic Photopositive Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
Sander lucioperca Although there is a short stage of positive phototropism in fry, older pike-perch generally prefer dim light Photopositive Hilge and Steffens, 1996
Sander lucioperca The hatched larvae are highly phototropic Photopositive Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
Sander vitreus Photopositive Photopositive Malison and Held, 1996b
Sander vitreus Fry are photopositive until they reach a length of 32 mm Photopositive Krise and Meade, 1986
Sander vitreus Larvae are positively phototaxic from the time of hatching through the postlarval stage Photopositive Colby, 1979
Sander vitreus Larvae and juveniles 1 to 8 weeks old (9 to 32 mm total length) were attracted to the highest light intensity (7800 lux), and juveniles older than 8 weeks (32 to 40 mm long) agrregated at the lowest intensities (2 and 4 lux) Photopositive Bulkowski and Meade, 1983
Sander vitreus Walleye are strongly attracted to light before they reach 32 mm Photopositive Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
Sander vitreus Fry are attracted to light Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
Sander vitreus Newly hatched fry are positively photactic, they will concentrate where the light intensity is the greatest Photopositive Colsesante, 1996
Sander vitreus Photopositive fish larvae of walleye (Sander vitreus) and striped bass are attracted to the sides of the tanks (mirror effect) in light-rearing conditions, which negatively affects prey consumption Photopositive Jentoft, 2006
Coregonus lavaretus Newly hatched European whitefish larvae have a positive phototactic reponse and aggregate in surface waters Photopositive Ylönen and Karjalainen, 2004
Coregonus lavaretus Having a positive phototaxis, larval coregonids migrating dowstream from the spawning grounds move to this high-productive grounds Photopositive Chernyaev, 2007
Coregonus clupeaformis React negatively to light Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha "If salt water is not reach during the first night, the fry will hide in the gravel during daylight hours: thus only nightly ""jumps"" [Once in the estuary, the behavior change, the fry become light-adapted and start to swim around during daylights in schools]" Photophobic Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The pink salmon young migrated mainly during the night Photophobic Zolotukhin, 1993
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Larvae emerging from the higher spawning grounds hide in the gravel by day, become active at bight Photopositive Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta Photonegative from day 6 to 25 after hatching, then photopositive Photopositive Groot, 1996
Oncorhynchus keta The fry move down the first night after emergence, where the migration is longer they hide during the day and move by night Photophobic Scott and Crossman, 1973
Oncorhynchus keta The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Oncorhynchus keta After hatching, the larvae with yolk sacs attached (alevins) remain in the gravel Photopositive Pauley, 1988
Oncorhynchus kisutch The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Oncorhynchus mykiss Newly hatched alevin have a very strong negative response to light [emergence coincides with a sudden shift from photonegative to a higly photopositve state] Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus mykiss The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Oncorhynchus mykiss Oncorhynchus mykiss yolk-sac alevins exhibit a strong negative photoresponse during their under gravel residency, which switches rapidly towards a positive one at the time of emergence Photopositive Jatteau and Bardonnet, 2008
Oncorhynchus nerka The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Emergence occurs exclusively at night Photophobic Kerr and Grant, 1999
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
Salmo salar During this time [when buried] the alevins are light-sensitive Photopositive Kerr and Grant, 1999
Salmo salar Swim-up from fertilization: 800 degree-days, also from 387-765 [From hatching 800 less 430] Photopositive Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
Salmo salar Phgysiologically, the impact of stimuli that keep the alevins beneath the gravel surface such as positive geotaxis and negative phototaxis are weakened upon emergence Photopositive Brännäs, 1988
Salmo trutta fario Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis Emergence from gravel nests in salmonids is largely nocturnal Photopositive Mirza, 2001
Salvelinus fontinalis The trough was covered with black plastic sheeting since salmonid fry are negatively phototactic Photophobic Hausle and Coble, 1976
Thymallus thymallus They have negative phototaxis, and search for contact with the ground and the shelter Photopositive Zaytsev, 1986
Thymallus thymallus The fry emerge from the gravel during the day, with a peak shortly after sunrise Photopositive Northcote, 1995
Thymallus thymallus The fry emerge from gravel during the dawn, day Photopositive Bardonnet and Gaudin, 1990
Thymallus thymallus The embryos show no photophobia nor a tendency towards crowding. Few days after, hatched mebryos, now much more mobile, show positive rheophilia and photophobia as well as marked tendency towards seeking shelter, under the conditions of artificial culture, they also tend to forming crowds in the corners of the hatching vessels and rearing apparatus. Photopositive Penaz, 1975
Cottus gobio Negative phototaxis help them to stay in this location whilst the yolk sac is still present Photopositive Urho, 2002
Ictalurus punctatus The prelarvae avoid bright light and are indifferent to diffuse light [The larvae are strongly negatively phototaxic and remain in a group in the darkest places or hide under stones] Photophobic Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
Silurus glanis Light caused aggressive bahavior of fish, they crowded at the bottom, near the walls, and in tank corers. The fish reared in darkness were evenly dispersed in the entire water volume and did not crowd Photopositive Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
Silurus glanis Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
Osmerus eperlanus Hatching larvae react positively to light [But strong light destroys developing eggs] Photopositive Belyanina, 1969
Osmerus eperlanus Yolk-sac larvae have been reported to be negatively phototactic Photophobic Buckley, 1989